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R E T U R N TO RIGHTEOUSNESS A Collection of Speeches, Essays and Letters of the Anagarika Dharmapala

Edited by A N A N D A


Published by The Anagarika Dharmapala Birth Centenary Committee Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Ceylon

Printed at THE

G O V E R N M E N T PRESS 17th September ip6j

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First Print


17th September, 1965


Price Rs. 1 7 . 5 0 GOVERNMENT



"I have to be active and activity means agitation according to constitutional methods." —Anagarika Dharmapah.





Ceylon Colombo, 15th July, 1965. T H E Anagarika Dharmapala was one of the greate st men Ceylon has produced. He was a great patriot and a fearless defender of the causes he believed in. The Anagarika's services to his country were many. But the two outstanding services he rendered were to resuscitate Buddhism and Sinhalese culture in Ceylon at a time when over 300 years of foreign domination had sapped their vitality. His other outstanding con­ tribution was an unswerving loyalty to the nationalist movement and the nationalist cause. Anagarika Dharmapala worked and campaigned to further these great causes amidst many difficulties. It was a period when Buddhism and the national culture had perhaps reached their lowest ebb. Buddhist schools were almost non­ existent. Pirivena education had suffered from centuries of neglect. Buddhist temples and places of worship had fallen into disrepair whilst in many instances lands and other property endowed to them from ancient times had been taken away. In such an environment it was not surprising that the Buddhist clergy, too, declined. All this was to have adverse and debilitating effects on the national life and national culture because of the close and inextricable link between Buddhism and Sinhalese culture. Added to this was the preponde­ rance of western influence which was gradually weaning away the people from their national culture and, in the process, destroying their national identity. The great achievements of the Anagarika have to be judged in this very difficult context in which he worked.

He was forthright and fearless in his manner, independent in spirit, and a great preacher and orator. He traversed the country calling for Buddhist resurgence, Buddhist unity and a national awareness. The Anagarika was also a pioneer in the growth and spread of Buddhist education. He was one of the founders of the Maha Bodhi Society of Ceylon which was to play such a leading role in the spread of Buddhism and Buddhist education in succeeding years. The Anagarika's activities were not limited to Ceylon but to other countries as well. He attended the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago as a Buddhist delegate in 1893. His work in India, especially in his struggle to obtain Buddha Gaya for the Buddhists, was an outstanding example of his contribution to the greater Buddhist cause which transcended barriers of race or nationality. Absolute integrity of character, a great missionary zeal, and tireless effort were some of the characteristics that he brought to bear in his great task of national and spiritual regeneration. The collected works of a man of such greatness and ability would, I am sure, prove inspiring reading and the country is indebted to the editor of this compilation, for the great interest, care and devotion which has been taken in the collecting and editing of this material. This publication is, in my opinion, long overdue and I am very pleased that on this memorable occasion, the centenary celebrations of the great Anagarika Dharmapala, his works would be made available to guide and inspire us in the tasks we face.

Prime Minister.


M y Impressions of Anagarika Dharmapala By The Honourable I. M. R. A. I R I Y A G O L L E , (Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs)

" Wrra black curly locks thrown from his broad brow, his keen clear eyes fixed upon the audience, his long brown ringers emphasising the utterances of his vibrant voice, he looked the very image of a propagandist, and one trembled to know that such a figure stood at the head of the movement to consolidate all the disciples of Buddha and to spread the light o f ' Asia throughout the civilized world'. " This was a pen portrait of Anagarika Dharmapala published in a contemporary American Journal (St. Louis Observer) on the occasion of his memorable address to the Congress of World Religions, held in Chicago in the year 1893. It was nearly thirty years after this memorable event, that I had my first glimpse of the Anagarika Dharmapala at a public gathering in Colombo. Despite the passage of time—he was in his late fifties— there was very little change in bis remarkable physical features. His dynamic personality beamed forth radiant energy that per­ meated through the entire audience. His vibrant voice resonated throughout the assembly hall and inspired awe and respect in the hearts of his listeners. His silver—tongued oratory — though harsh at times — captured the imagination of both friend and foe ; for every one knew that the words poured forth from a sincere heart with a burning patriotism and religious fervour. In my early youth, I came under the spell of this great reformer, which ultimately changed the course of my subsequent career and life's ambitions. His heroic efforts at national regeneration and his tremendous zeal in the propagation of the Buddha Dhamma, inspired me to spurn the glamour of material gains and to throw in my lot with the common men and women of my motherland. His indefati­ gable character and the impeccable virtues of truth, honesty and uprightness, were beacons that guided me even in the darkest hour of despair. Scrupulous to a fault, the Anagarika never preached what he himself would not strictly observe, and hence he would never


tolerate self—deception, slothfulness and lethargy even among his closest associates. He never hesitated to call a spade a spade, even at the risk of creating enemies, and every action of his was motivated by a crystal clear conscience. The more I came under his influence, the more I began to admire his nobility of character, his tremendous enthusiasm in re-vitalising a decadent nation and his unbounded zeal in spreading the " Light of Asia " throughout the known world. In 1931 I took charge of his weekly publication the " Sinhala Bauddhaya" which he himself had founded as a powerful organ aimed at national renaissance. This organ of Buddhist opinion played a significant role in channelling Buddhist public opinion throughout Ceylon in support of the national and religious campaign of the Anagarika. By this time he had left Ceylon for Sarnath, Benares—the crowning glory of his ceaseless efforts in India—but he maintained a regular correspondence with me. He never failed to send in his regular and well known weekly contribution to the Journal entitled " Things one ought to know". During this period of close contact I received in no small measure his inspiration and guidance that subsequently spurred me to serve the cause of my motherland. Anagarika Dharmapala was a great patriot, who loved his country and the Sinhala nation. Yet his outlook was international. He was truly a world figure, a colossus that spurned the barriers of race, creed and nationality. To him the depressed class children of India or the Negro children of Haarlam, or even the dead end kids of East End slums, were as close to the heart as the children of Ceylon. His love and charity towards the weak and the helpless was unbounded. He decried and deplored the exploitation of the weak and the under-privileged by the stronger and the powerful, be it in Ceylon/ India or America. He awakened, enthused, and inspired millions of human beings in every known part of the world, in the pursuit of spiritual happiness as against sensual pleasures. His was a life of intense activity, a life of dedication in the service of humanity, a life which every son of Ceylon should try to emulate. vin


Preface by the Honourable Dudley Senanayake, Prime Minister of Ceylon .. ..


" My Impressions of Anagarika Dharmapala" by the Honourable I. M. R. A. Iriyagolle, Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs .. ..









The World's Debt to Buddha





• • The Religion of Religions • • The Religion of Wisdom

4 5 6


Message of the Buddha

• • The Richest Legacy in the Universe . . Why we should take the Buddha as our Example and Guide

35 4i 55 59


• • What is Buddhism ? . . What Buddism is not

77 79

9 • 10 . .

The Life and Teachings of Buddha What did the Lord Buddha Teach ?

83 125



The Foundation of the Empire of Truth



. . Aryadharma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha



An Introduction to Buddhism

155 185



The Fundamentals of Buddhism




III—BUDDHIST ETHICS The Ethics of Buddha



The Good Law



The Religion of the Householder




The Duty of the Bhikkhus and Laymen





Practical Instructions to Brahmacharis




Desire in Buddhism




Karma Activity and its Fruits




The Noble Eightfold Path






The Psychology of Progress or the Thirty-seven Principles of Bodhi




The Path of Psychology




The Psychology of Buddhism




The Psychology of Hearing




The Dhyana Yoga in the Religion of the Buddha..




The Super-cosmic Nature of the Dhamma




The Transcendentalism of the Buddha Dhamma



Buddhism in Relation to the Supra-Normal




Evolution and Creation




The Nidanas or the Law of Dependent Causation . .




The Philosophy of the Skandhas and the Nirvanic Doctrine


The Doctrine of Nirvana


34 X









India Two Thousand Five Hundred Years A g o





The Spread of Buddhism





The Common Language of Ancient India






The Development of Arts, Industries and Agriculture




Woman in Ancient India






Buddhism in its Relationship with Hinduism



The Kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism

349 365



The Constructive Optimism of Buddhism


•. 44 • .

The Repenting God of Horeb


The Ancient Story of Genesis as known to the Primitive Aryans of India


45 46


Evolution from the Standpoint of Buddhism



Buddhism, Science and Christianity


47 48

•. ..

An Appreciation of Christianity


Buddhism and Christianity


49 50


Christianity in Europe



East and West

5i 52

•. ..

Buddhism and Western Thought

459 463

Notes from my Diary



VII—THE C E Y L O N SCENE •. 54 • . 55 • .

History of an Ancient Civilization..


Buddhism, Past and Present


Buddhist Studies in Ceylon




A Message to the Young Men of Ceylon




A Message to the Sinhalese Buddhists







59 • 60 .


Buddhist Processions


The Fate of Sinhalese Villagers Education in Ceylon

527 529



Waste Lands Ordinance




1915 Riots and the British Officials




Distress in Ceylon




Buddhism in Ancient India




India : The Holy Land of the Buddhists



A Pilgrimage to Ancient Indian Buddhist Sites

557 563




Destruction of Buddhism in India




Why India should become Buddhist ?


Return of Buddhism to India


Buddha Gaya and its Surroundings


69 • . 70 . 7*


The History of the Maha-Bodhi Temple at Buddha Gaya


Buddha-Gaya : The Holiest Buddhist Shrine

593 615


•. •.

Holy Isipatana, Sarnath, Benares . .




Rabindranath Tagore




Only Righteousness Endures




Burma and Buddhism

77 78


India and Japan


The Parliament of Religions, Chicago

79 80

•. ..

Our Duty to the Peoples of the West



To the Buddhists of Asia





Buddhism in England





635 -.

651 655





England Needs Buddhism




Buddhist Programme of Work in England




Western Interpreters of the Doctrine of the Buddha..




Buddhist Literature in the West





Memories of an Interpreter of Buddhism to the Present-Day World

681 697




Reminiscences of my Early Life




Diary Leaves of the Buddhist Representative to the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago


Observations made during my Tour in Europe












Interned in India : Letters to British Government..




The Work of the Maha Bodhi Society


93 • .

Thirty-eight years of Service to the Holy Cause . .



Our Twenty Years' Work










Correspondence with Officials


Appeals and Circulars


Some Personal Letters



753 759







Vincent Smith's " A s o k a "



" The Place of Women in the Buddhist Church " . . ' 785






Miscellaneous Notes and Comments .. 789 I.—Origin and Universality of belief in a Creator . . 789 II.—The Buddha Dharma .. .. 790 HI.—Nirvana .. .. 796 IV.—The True Religion .. •• 796 V.—Buddhists of Ancient India . . .. 797 VI.—The Holy Land of the Buddhists .. 801 VII.—The Purification of Mind .. ..802 VIII.—Gandhara Buddhist Sculptures .. 80} IX.—Buddhist Ruins in Central Asia .. 805 X.—Jataka Stories.. .. 806 XI.—Are Buddhists Agnostics ? . . .. 807 XII.—The First Christian Missionaries in Thibet


XHT.—Was Sankaracharya a Buddhist ? XIV.—The Will to Resist


81J . . 8 1 6

XV.—The Study of Buddha's Dharma XVI.—The Great Chinese Traveller . .


XVm.—Buddhist Activities in Japan . . XIX.—Burma .. ..


.. 823 ..824

XX.—Who destroyed Buddhism in India ?


XXI.—Who were the " Bauddhas " . . ..


. . 8 1 9

XVH.—The Benares Parliament of Religions in 1900 ..

XXII.—The Seven Kinds of Riches


833 ..


XXm.—The Chief Buddhist Elder of the Ceylon Theravada School of Buddhism . . XXIV.—Buddhism in Australia XXV.—Christianity and Buddhism






X X V I . — T h e Development of Spiritual Emotions X X V H — R e v i v a l of Buddhism






















XXXI.—Destruction of Buddhist Shrines in Ancient India


XXXII.—Buddhism in China





XXXIII.—The American System of Education, pronounced the Best .. ., .. INDEX





854 857

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A specimen of the Anagarika Dharmapala's handwriting in Sinhala from a letter sent to Lewis, Conductor, Maha Bodhi Estate, Hiniduma.


INTRODUCTION i. The Commemoration of a National Hero CEYLON, with her twenty-five centuries of recorded history, is endowed with a generous quota of national heroes who are gratefully remembered by the people for the wars they fought for national independance, the movements they sponsored for the welfare of the masses, the books they wrote, the monuments they erected and the contributions they made to the individuality and richness of the national culture. The heroes of ancient times whose fame lives in legends and songs, in folk-tales and chronicles, have acquired for themselves in the minds of the people an image which has remained unaltered for centuries. So indelible is the impression thus created in their minds that even a critical student of history—not to speak of a cynic or a sceptic—runs the risk of courting popular disapproval if anything which deviates, though very slightly, from the popular image were to be said or written. This is not an attitude of mere apotheosis. To a Sinhala, Dutugemunu, Parakramabahu, Madduma Banda, Keppetipola, &c. are not deities or super-men, to be veneraterd or appeased on account of any super-natural power or ability they are believed to possess. These men are honoured and remembered for the greatness they displayed through piety, patriotism or bravery and for the sacrifices they made for their honour or their motherland. In a country, which honours her national heroes of olden days in diverse ways and pays them the highest compliment of being regarded as models worthy of emulation, one would expect a continuing aware­ ness of the need to maintain records of the thoughts, deeds and achievements of her recent heroes and to preserve for posterity their homes and belongings. One would, at least, expect to see wellwritten biographies and collections of letters and writings of such persons. Though recently several national heroes of modern times were commemorated by the erection of their statues in the capital and elsewhere, the nation is kept informed of their services and their claims to greatness only by short articles in the local press which appear usually on their death anniversaries. The result of such half­ hearted attempts to keep the memory of our national heroes alive is all too evident whenever public meetings are held in their honour. One is often disappointed to find that men, whose services to the nation had been invaluable and whose efforts had made millions happy and prosperous, are remembered by only a diminishing group of people who had been close to them or are bound by family ties. This, indeed, is not a happy state of affairs. As an old saying goes, a nation can be called a living nation only as long as it honours its dead. A nation as a whole must take a keen interest in the lives and achieve­ ments of its great men and women, for this is not merely an act of xvn

gratitude but also an investment of a priceless character. It is a nation's gratitude to its past heroes which inspires the living to dedicate their lives to the benefit and well-being of mankind. The Birth Centenary of the Anagarika Dharmapala which fell on the 17th of September, 1964 was unanimously considered to be a fitting occasion for the nation to pay its homage to one of the greatest men Ceylon had produced in recent times. As the brightest star in the galaxy of many distinguished men and women who worked incessantly under grave hardships for national regeneration and independance, the Anagarika's name has been a household word in every nook and corner of the Island and rarely did one meet even a semi-educated person who could not enumerate at least two of the services which the Anagarika had rendered to the cause of national and Buddhist revival. But how much do the people know of him and his work ? And how much is unknown to them ? For forty-seven years he had been in the fore-front of many national and Buddhist movements. He had addressed thousands of meetings. He had written thousands of letters and published hundreds of articles in various parts of the world. What records do we have of these ? Can any information be found now so that it can be preserved for the future ? These questions prompted us to propose at the first meeting of the Anagarika Dharmapala Birth Centenary Committee of the Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs that the Committee should publish the collected works of the Anagarika in one or more volumes. The proposal was unanimously approved and the work was entrusted to us. There were no illusions that the task was simple and the period which followed had seen as many moments of frustration and disappointment as moments of joy and achievement. It was quite demoralizing that even the quarters, which should have known and done better, could not produce at least a bibliography of his writings. A patient search with the assistance of a band of helpers had to be undertaken. It was not only intensive but also extensive. In Colombo and Calcutta in the East and in London and Washington D . C. in the West, archives and libraries were ransacked to find anything which bears the signature of Dharmapala Heivavitharne, H. Dharmapala, Anagarika Dharmapala or Sri Devamitta Dharmapala. Many were the discoveries which we made at these different places. We found books and articles which no one could remember. We found letters, orders and office minutes which spoke eloquently of the fearless approach of the Anagarika to the problems of the country. We came across his books which had been in the possession of renowned statesmen and scholars. We have, however, not been altogether successful. There are still a fair amount of the Anagarika's writings which had not come into our hands. We find them referred to in other places but these old journals are no longer traceable. In the early issues of the " Buddhist ", the " Maha Bodhi Journal " and the " Ceylon Nation " we have observed many articles and comments whose authorship is xvin

evident ; but we have excluded them as they had not been signed by the Anagarika. What we have published in both " Dharmapala Lipi "* and this Volume shows the Anagarika Dharmapala to be a prolific bilingual writer, with a facile style in both languages. It is a pity that not many people had preserved the personal letters he had written to them like his letter to Francis J . Payne, London, dated 3.4.25, reproduced below :—




/ )




/ , I


It seems that your vigorous activities in the arena of the Dhamma propaganda have come to a standstill. How did the collapse come ? What have you done with regard to the publication of your Buddhist Bible ? When activities cease people understand that life has left the body. While we are alive we have to do good Kamma ? What are we here for ? The answer is given in the Maha Mangala Sutta. There is nothing so evil as association with the muddleheaded, and that is what 99 per cent, of people do. Priests, theologians, political leaders lawyers, statesmen are of one mind. The people are enslaved. They have to work for the benefit of those who have created a god and elected a king. Jehovah told Samuel to warn the Hebrews not to elect a king. But he *Sinhala writings of the Anagarika Dharmapala (xiv and 348 pages) edited b} Dr. Ananda Guruge and published by the Ministry of Social Services and Cultural Affairs, 17th January, 1965. (Price Re. 1 / - ) . XIX









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physically weak. F o r 34 years I have spent my life in India in voluntary exile. T h e name of the Lord Buddha was hardly known 37 years ago by the people of India. Today all India acknowledges him as their G o d . There was no Vihara in India, no Buddh'st publication, no preaching until started by the Maha Bodhi Society There is a great harvest to be reaped if there are Buddhist workers. The number o f Untouchables waiting to be rescued from the Brahmanical despotism s 65 millions. The Brahmans don't want them. They are not allowed by the Brahmans to walk in the same road with them. Christians and Moslems wish to convert them and steps are being taken by both to have them converted. There are 70 million ;

Moslems. I f the Untouchables are converted the number o f Moslems will increase to 135 millions. Padres will be glad to have the number of Native Christians increased from 3 millions to 68 millions When the Untouchables become Moslems there will be a tough fight between Moslems and Hindus. XXI

Indian Christianity is synonymous with butchery and alcoholism.


I w sh to star;

a propaganda to carry the Dhamma to the untouchables, but I am now so very weak that the Doctors advise me to take complete rest in a German Sanitarium for 3Jmonths, otherwise I shall completely break down and be of no use to the Cause. I propose leaving Calcutta next month about the loth of May and go to Colombo, there to take steamer for Marseilles. After my arrival in Europe I shall let you know.

Would it be helpful to the cause if I visit England.

The Buddha Dhamma is too sublime for the barbarian pagans. They do not want to give up alcohol and meat. They are satisfied with the low-caste gods and the fetish priests.


It is in personal correspondence of this nature that one sees best the Anagarika in his true form—warm and genial in friendship and devastatingly critical when Buddhist and national interests are involved. The material was collected in different ways such as photostats, micro-films, typescript as well as manuscript copies and tattered and moth-eaten pages of old journals. Composing and proof-reading had been a near nightmare especially because the deadline set for the publication did not permit fair-copying and checking. We regret that there are several spelling mistakes in the text ; but we are happy that we could not find many which would interfere seriously with meaning. Our efforts in producing these two volumes of the Anagarika's writings have proved to be worth the while. It is only now that a reliable and accurate biography can be attempted. It is only now that we know authoritatively what he thought and said on many a vexed problem of the day. We also are in a better position to evaluate the services of the Anagarika and accord to him, with conviction, his rightful place among the national leaders. The least we can do to preserve the memory of a national leader to enable the country to assess and appreciate his services and to encourage the living to emulate him is to make his articles, speeches, comments and letters accessible in a convenient form. Such publi­ cations will, no doubt, be more lasting and meaningful monuments to our national heroes than statues or buildings.


The Decline and Fall of a Nation

T H E Aryans from India, who settled down in the fertile river basins of Ceylon and founded the Sinhala race around the fifth century B. C were converted to Buddhism in circa 307 B. C. by the missionaries sent there by Asoka, the great Buddhist Emperor. From that time onwards, Buddhism had, despite temporary set-backs, remained the main religion of the Sinhalas; and their life, literature and culture were influenced most strongly by the spiritual values of the Buddha's teachings. Though Hinduism came within a few centuries of the introduction of Buddhism, it was no rival. The Buddhists absorbed as much of Hinduism as of the indigenous Pre-Buddhistic practices and beliefs. As a result, a rare degree of co-existence xxin

developed between the Buddhists and Hindus in Ceylon which ultimately permitted them to participate in one another's religious ceremonies, rites and practices. One worships in the other's temple with no qualms of conscience, and one is often amazed to discover a God-negating Buddhist in the act of praying to Hindu Gods for worldly welfare or for help in adversity. Though there is definite evidence of the existence of Muslims in Ceylon in the first quarter of the eighth century A. C. , there is no information regarding the manner in which Islam affected the religious life of the people of this countryBeing traders, concerned mainly with good commercial relations with the Sinhalas, they had apparently made no inroads into the spiritual arena. 1

Roman Catholicism was introduced to the Island by the Portuguese who came there in 1505. Within a few decades of their arrival in Ceylon, priests from Portugal set about converting the people to Roman Catholic Christianity. From a study of documents relating to the period, Paul E . Pieris and M. A. H. Filzler could arrive at a series of conclusions on the purpose and the techniques of conversion adopted by them : " Conversion ceased to be a matter of faith. The conversion of kings was desirable as that of their people would follow as a matter of course . . . . Conversion became a matter of barter . . The helpful effects of force on conversion were well recognised . . . To denationalize the race was not the policy of the Missionary, but such was the tendency of the course he pursued. With baptism came a rebirth under a foreign name . . . . The Missionary unconsciously felt that the manners and customs of his co-religionists were superior to those of the heathen, though he did not express his opinion with the offenciveness of later times. He had his slogans and shibboleths, and a singularly profound knowledge of certain narrow aspects of human psychology. He was honestly delighted at any imitation, however superficial, of what he considered Christian Ways. " 2

In the words of one of these missionaries, Frey Symao, the task of conversion was of far-reaching consequences, for he said, " Let not your Highness think, that should this be by force, it will not be good. 1. A . M . A . A z e e z : The West Re-appraised, Maharagama, 1964,/). 1 1 1 . 2. Pieris and Filzler : Ceylon and Portugal, Part I, Leipzig, 1927, XXIV


Because from these first Christians who are the fathers and already oId» we do not desire anything, but only from the children and those who will come afterwards. For these children, being presently instructed in our holy faith, will teach the fathers whom they now have and their children when they shall obtain them. ' n

The Missionary activities of the Portuguese in Ceylon coincided with the hostilities of Rajasingha I against Buddhism. Between them, they weakened the Buddhist Institutions and adherents in the lowcountry. Buddhism was confined to the Kandyan hills where the Sinhalas had an independent kingdom. In 1656 the Portuguese were expelled from Ceylon by the Dutch who occupied the maritime provinces. Although they showed no signs of the enthusiasm which impelled the Portuguese to effect mass conversions in the Island, the Dutch adopted subtle means of establish­ ing the Dutch Reformed Church in Ceylon. Enjoining the Dutch who married native women to educate their children well, the GovernorGeneral and Council of India stated : " Whereby not only will the welfare of the company be promoted, but also and especially the Reformed Christian Religion will be propagated to the honour of God ; and this must be regarded as of greater importance than everything else. " 2

Joan Maetsuyker, President and Commander-in-Chief, elaborated the Dutch policy on religion further in relation to education : " With the object of propagating the Christian doctrine among the inhabitants, promoting God's glory and the salvation of the souls of the poor fold (Whereby the Company's position is at the same time assured), rooting out heathenism, and checking the consuming canker of the Mohammedan heresy. " 3

The Dutch policy of disqualifying persons, who had not been baptized, from inheriting property created a class of " Christians " who, though baptized, were neither properly instructed in Christian doctrines nor inclined to alienate themselves from their traditional 1. Ibid.,^>. 3 3 . 2. Instructions from the Governor-General and Council of India to the Governor of Ceylon, 1656-1665, Colombo, 1 9 0 8 , ^ . 6. 3. Memoir of Joan Maetsuyker, Colombo, 1927, j!>. 19. XXV

religious practices and beliefs. A fair assessment of the religious policy of the Dutch and its results in Ceylon is found in an official report of Anthony Pavilioen, a Dutch Officer in charge of the Jaffna District, on his transfer to Batavia : " I will now proceed to comment on the advantages which are derived from them (i.e. territories in Ceylon). The most important point in my opinion is that God's Holy Word is now preached in its true spirit, whereas fifty years ago the inhabitants were still heathen and after that, during the time of the Portuguese, though instructed in the Christian religion, they were only taught to honour the Popes. How far the Reformed Religion has advanced during the seven years that we have been here only God, who trieth the heart and reins, can know, because, owing to their cowardice and obsequious nature it is hard to say whether the people submit in religious matters only to please their worldly rulers, or whether the Holy Ghost is really working in their hearts, or whether they are induced by both influences. "* The Dutch were hard on the Roman Catholics. The reasons were apparently more political than religious. According to Father S. G. Perera, " The Catholics of this Island, when left to their fate by the Portuguese Missionaries, could not think of any methods of securing sacredotal ministrations except by a return to the Portuguese regime. The Portuguese missionaries likewise did not know of any way of helping the Catholics of Ceylon except by the king of Portugal and their triumphant return The Dutch persecuted the Catholics of Ceylon to assure themselves of their continued hold on the Island. " 2

The Muslims and the Catholics fled to the Kandyan hills to escape from Dutch persecution and were received by the Sinhala Buddhist kings with friendship and cordiality. Evidence for this unusual spirit of tolerence, which had always characterized the relations of Buddhists with other religions, are found even today in the flourishing pockets of Catholics and Muslims in remote Kandyan villages. In settlements of their own, undisturbed by political, commercial and religious rivalry and protected by tolerant Buddhists, the Muslims and 1 . Instruction from the Governor-General and Council in India, Sic, p. 107. 2. Father S. G . Perera, S . J . : Life of the Venerable Father Joseph Vaz, Apostle of Ceylon, Galle, 1 9 5 3 , p . 249.


Catholics worshipped their Gods in their own way and preserved the beliefs, practices and the ways of life they cherished. The king of Kandy, according to Robert Knox, " honoured and esteemed" Christianity and in his realms the Christians—both " Protestants and Baptists " buried their differences and were satisfied to call themselves " We Christians. " 1

The steps taken by the Dutch to promote Christianity were critically examined by later evangelists in Ceylon and their conclusions varied from forthright blame to unreserved praise ; for instance, Rev. Robert Mayor in 1818 blamed them for " much injury done to the cause of Christianity, " while Rev. R. S. Copleston mourned the abolition of the Dutch religious policy and wished that the British continued to apply pressure as was done by the Dutch. 2


When the Dutch capitulated to the British on 16th. February, 1796, the number of Dutch Christians began to fall and in the words of Emerson Tennent, " at the close of their ministrations, the clergy of the Church of Holland left behind a superstructure of Christianity prodigious in its outward dimensions, but so internally unsound as to be distrusted even by those who had been instrumental in its erection and so unsubstantial that it has long since disappeared almost from the memory of the natives of Ceylon. " The indecision which characterised the early religious policy of the British administration in Ceylon gave an opportunity for Christian converts without adequate instruction or faith to revert to their former religions. According to the records of the Church Missionary Society in Ceylon, the number of Buddhist temple in the Sinhala Districts had increased from between two and three hundred to twelve hundred within the first decade of the British rule. Governor North (1796-1805) was satisfied that the Toleration he had given to Buddhism had relieved its " professors from a galling and odious hypocrisy " by which he meant the practices of " baptized persons who worshipped the Buddha and the devil. " ' North's plans for a system of missionary education and a campaign of proselytization through a local clergy were not fully realised due to financial difficulties. l




1. Robert Knox : A n Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon, London, 1 6 8 1 , pp. 67 and 304. 2. Quoted in J . W. Balding : One Hundred Years in Ceylon or the Centenary Volume of the Church Missionary Society in Ceylon 1 8 1 8 - 1 9 1 8 , Madras, 1922, p. 109. 3. Ibid.,/.. 35. 4. Tennent: Christianity in Ceylon,/). 7 1 . 5. Balding : One Hundred Years in Ceylon, p. 3 3 . 6. Tennakoon Vimalananda : Buddhism in Ceylon under the Christian Powers, Colombo, 1963,/). hit. 7. Balding : Loc. cit., p. 1 1 2 quoting Rev. Benjamin Ward. 8. " The Clergy born in their country and educated in England will form a body united to the natives by former ties and affection lo us by habits of education and profession " : North in his dispatch of 26. 2. 1799.


What worried the early British administrators was the influence which Kandy wielded on the people of maritime provinces in matters connected with Buddhism. In 1 7 5 o, as a result of a long and persistent campaign by Venerable Weliwita Pindapatika Asaranasarana Saranankara, Higher Ordination had been re-established in Kandy with the assistance of a Chapter of monks from Thailand. The resultant Buddhist revival, attended also by a renaissance in learning and literary activity, spread throughout the Island. The Nayakkar kings of Kandy became the champions of the Buddhist cause. Temples were being established and renovated ; monks were recruited and trained ; educational activities were undertaken in every village ; and literature received a new impetus. In the low-country, Matara became the centre of this movement. Maitland (180 5-12)was particularly interested in reducing the influence of Kandy on the Buddhists of his territory and in setting up a committee of Buddhist monks in Matara he gave as one of the reasons, the need " to break through the powerful combination which has, hitherto from want of taking a proper view of the subject, been allowed to subsist between Modeliars and the Principal Priests, to the great detriment of the British Interests, and obvious advantage of the King of K a n d y . " But Maitland, influenced obviously by the growth of rationalism and liberal thinking in his home-land, ensured that all religious groups had the freedom to exercise their religions. A group which benefited from the removal of disabilities imposed by the Dutch were the Roman Catholics who, he claimed, " instead of being hostile are now become the strongest supporters of Government" . 1


Maidand was accused on having " adopted measures tending to suppress the native schoolmasters in the Island and to lessen the means of instructing the inhabitants in the Christian Religion. " The religious policy of his successor, Robert Brownrigg, (1812-20) was apparently influenced by these accusations for he not only interested himself in Christian educational movement but also assisted zealously the missionary societies which established their missions in Ceylon at this time to promote the Evangelical Movement. It was not purely out of devotion to his religion, as admitted by him in the Farewell Letter to the Wesleyan Missionaries dated January 30, 1820 : 3


" It is not necessary to dwell upon my sincere zeal for a wide extension of the Christian faith, as it were independent of other motives ; because it is in fact inseparably connected with my political office. " 1. Tennakoon Vimalananda : loc. cit., p. Ixii. 2. Ibid.,/>. Ixiii. 3. Ibid.,/>. Ixiii quoting his dispatch of 4.3.1809. 4. Baptist Mission in 1812 ; Wesleyan Missionary Society in 1 8 1 4 ; Church Missionary Society in 1818 ; American Mission in :8i6.


And in a letter to William Wilberforce on June 1 3 , 1 8 1 6 , he stated : " the Chief Objects of my Government have been the Religious and Moral improvement of the people and the propagation of the Gospel. " 1 With the cession of Kandyan Provinces in 1 8 1 5 , the British Crown assumed under the Kandyan Convention the prerogatives with the consequential obligations of the Kandyan monarch. One such obligation was couched in the fifth clause of the Convention as : " The religion of Boodho professed by the Chiefs and the inhabitants of these provinces is declared inviolable and its rites, ministers and places of worship are to be maintained and protected. " It is interesting to note that the Sinhala version of the Convention does not confine this guarantee to Buddhism alone ; it includes the worship of gods (Devagama—that is, the worship of Hindu deities) also. This obligation was only partially fulfilled and continuous attempts were made by the British Government to severe its connections with Buddhist affairs, in response to the persistent agitation which the Christian missionaries carried on in both Ceylon and England. These attempts were successful in 1853 when the Government provided the Buddhists with an organization to control their affairs. But this proved to be very unsatisfactory. Meanwhile, between 1819 and 1853, vast extents of temple lands were confiscated by the Government and Buddhist institutions were left in an impoverished condition. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the British efforts at denationalizing the Sinhalas and weaning them away from their religion, culture and traditions had reached the zenith and the dis­ appearance of Buddhism from Ceylon was imminent. It was the prevailing thought of the day which James d'Alwis echoed when he said in 1852 : " We hope the day may yet come when the Trio of the one Great God, will become a substitute for the Triad of Buddhism ; and when men shall' in truth and in spirit' worship Jehovah and . . . . sing praises of His name ! " . 2

3. Signs of Renaissance The last section of this Introduction gives an insight into the conditions prevalent in Ceylon during the last half millenium, so that the reaction to them by the Buddhists can be viewed from a correct perspective. What is known popularly as the " Buddhist Resurgence " is the culmination of a movement which the Buddhists had 1. Tennakoon Viisalananda : Loc. cit., p. Ixvi. 2. James d'Alwis : The Sidat Sangarawa—a Grammar of the Sinhalese Language, Colombo, 1 8 5 2 , ^ / 1 . 1 3 J - 1 5 4 . XXIX

consiously launched during these centuries as the means of restoring Buddhism to its pristine glory and of protecting the Buddhist way of life, cherised by the people for over two thousand years, from the o n ­ slaughts of alien influences, which, from both religious and political considerations, were undermining it for the avowed purpose o f creating a denationalized race with neither desire nor capacity f o r freedom from foreign domination. The threat of religious, national and cultural effacement was a challenge that had to be met. T h e tenacity with which the movement was launched reflects the gravity with which the Buddhists viewed their plight under foreign domination. What were the immediate causes of the Buddhist revival ? D r . G . C. Mendis felt that the celebration of the jubilees by Christian missions in the eighteen-sixties gave an impetus to it, while Father S. G. Perera saw in the rise of the Sinhala middle class the main cause for the Buddhist revival. The Buddhist revival was not o f such late origin. If the "Jubilee Memorials of the Wesleyan Mission South Ceylon 1814-1864 " published in Colombo in 1864 is to be relied upon, the Buddhist opposition to Christian activities commenced long before the Buddhist monks " were convinced that it was the intention of the missionaries to destroy Buddhism and place Chris­ tianity in its stead." (p. 286). One of the earliest acts of overt opposition was the publication of parodies on Christian tracts as early as 1826 {p. 286). The Buddhist revival was already felt by the Christian missionaries when they were celebrating their golden jubilees in the 'sixties. 1


The century following the restoration of Higher Ordination in 1750 had seen a widespread spiritual re-awakening among the Buddhists. During this period, the study of Buddhism, classical oriental languages and literature and the history and culture of the Island received an impetus and it was an era of unprecedented literary activity. Poets were prolific in the production of narrative and lyrical poems extolling the ancient glory of the nation and the greatness of the Buddhist culture. A deep sense of patriotism and nationalism grew in the country. The challenge of the foreign political power as well as that of the growing influence of the missionary societies prompted the Buddhists to action. In 1839, Venerable Valane Sri Siddhartha Thera founded the Paramadhammacetiya Pirivena wherein were educated a number of scholars who in time became the leaders of the Buddhist revival movement. With the revival of learning, literary controversies in which a large number of scholars participated from all parts of the Island became the order of the day. They gave an impetus to the study of ancient literature and provided opportunities for the Sinhala 1. G . C. Mendis : Ceylon under the British,/!. 107. 2. Father S. G . Perera : A History of Ceylon H,p. 195. XXX

language to develop into a pliable means of communicating modern thought. The subjects of controversy soon extended to the religious field. The period around 1861 had been an uneasy one for the Christian missionaries ; their records state : " During the eighteen months that followed mission work throughout the entire low country underwent a severe sifting process which brought to light an amount of heathenism and hypocrisy among those who called themselves, and were regarded as Christians, which was hardly credible. A Buddhist revival took place during which public lectures were given for the avowed purpose of overthrowing Christianity and leading the converts back to their original faith. The result was that hundreds of those, whose names had stood on the congregational lists of the various missionary societies forsook all connections with the Christian Church." 1

Rev. D . J . Higgens evolved a test to be signed by the converts to the effect that they accepted Christianity to be the only true religion and that Buddhism was false. Out of a 1,000 converts, only 342 were prepared to sign it and of them, too, many were paid enployees of the Mission. 2

The Buddhist-Christian controversies which started in 1863 marked an advanced stage of the Buddhist revival. Bhikkhus and laymen led by Ven. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Nayake Thera and Ven. Migettuwatte (or Mohottiwatte) Gunananda Thera were now ready to take the battle to the enemy's camp. What they meant to the Christians and their impact on Christianity as a whole can be gauged from the frank account of the Baddegama controversy given by Rev. Parsons who actually participated in it ; he said : " I was slow to believe it would become such a serious matter until urged by our people to prepare for a fierce contest. The result fully justified their anxieties, for never before in Ceylon was there such a marshalling of the enemy against Christianity. The one aim of the fifty priests and their two thousand followers, who assembled here on February 8, was not to defend Buddhism but to overthrow Christianity. Encouraged by translations from Bishop Colenso's writings, they considered the utter defeat of Christianity easy and certain. Knowing the people we had to encounter we felt that our victory would be more truimphant and complete by attacking Buddhism while we defended Christianity. It was, not, however, till we were somewhat advanced in the controversy that we could fairly estimate the difficulties of our position and day by day we had to commend ourselves in prayer to God and confide in Him for wisdom and direction at every step." 3

1. Balding : One Hundred Years in Ceylon,^. 1 3 5 . 2. Ibid.,/)/). 1 3 5 - 1 3 6 . 3. Quoted in Ibid.,/). 120. XXXI

2 A—

The controversy at Panadura in 1873 had a most unexpected result in that it drew the attention of Colonel H. S. Olcott and the Theosophists to the Buddhist conditions in Ceylon. With the arrival o f Colonel Olcott in 1880, the Buddhists found an efficient leader w h o was capable of translating their religious and national aspirations t o action through a well-conceived plan and programme. Supported strongly by Ven. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Nayake Thera, he organized an Island-wide movement for a system of Buddhist schools. Half a century of Christian-dominated English education had convinced the Buddhists that, if any headway could be made in winning for the Buddhists their rightful place in society, it was achievable only through a well-knit system of Buddhist Schools. It was abundantly clear to them that their children had to be given an education which was comparable in content and standard to that given in missionary schools and which in emphasis, was attuned to the religious and national needs of the people. According to Christian sources : " Vernacular schools as well as English and Boarding schools have multiplied rapidly, some of them taught by European teachers and itinerant preachers penetrate to the remote village copying Christian phraseology and Christian missionary methods. Sunday schools, Young Men's Buddhist Associations, Tract distribution, carol singers during the Sinhalese New Year (sic ! ) , parodies o f Christian hymns, Buddhist cards for Buddha's Birthday, newspapers, a Buddhist " Daily Light " and ' Imitation of Buddha ', a ' Funeral Discourse ', pictures of events in the life of the Buddha, a Buddhist flag have all been brought into being. ' n

The response to this movement had been most encouraging right from the beginning. Volunteers came in from all directions and among them were men like Anagarika Dharmapala and Valisinghe Harischandra who combined the religious revival with agitation for national freedom. The reactions of the contemporary Christians give us an idea of the movement as a whole. It was Rev. J . A. Ewing who said in his " Resplendent Isle " :


" We rejoice in all this opposition, for it rouses the people from apathy and indifference. It has led also to the spread of primary school teaching among children—a duty utterly neglected by the Buddhist monks in respect of the boys, and, of course, nearly always of the girls. Christianity has everything to gain ultimately by the change. "

And K . J . Saunders in his " Modern Buddhism in Ceylon " said : " Already we have to thank God for signs that Buddhists are awakening from the long sleep of centuries, a new enthusiasm for 1 . Ibid., pp. 21-22.


national life, and revival of the old yearning for the coming one, both due, we believe, to the quickening touch of Christianity." The Roman Catholic attitude was more realistic. The Ceylon Catholic Messenger of May 20, 1881 commented on the work of Colonel Olcott as follows : " The Theosophists cannot in any case be worse than the Sectarian Missionaries, and if Colonel Olcott can induce the Buddhists to establish schools of their own, as he is trying to do, he will be doing us a service ; because if the Buddhists would have their own denominational schools, as we have ours, they would put a stop to the dishonesty now practised by the Sectarian Missionaries of obtaining Government money for proselytising purposes under the pretext of grants-in-aid for education. Though it is in the education of our own people that we are chiefly interested, yet it is neither our wish nor our interest as Catholics that education should not be universal. The Right Rev. Bishop R. S. Copleston felt that it was an " externa] and artificial" revival brought about by the diffusion of education among monks and by the restoration of ancient shrines. The net result of the revival movement may be judged from three statements by Christian Missionaries : " 1903—This year the Buddhists became very active in opposing Christian work and establishing opposition schools. 'Christianity cannot be said to be in a thriving condition here ; converts are few and the best of them seem to be glad to get away to other parts' " " 1905—The Buddhists are now building schools of a far more substantial nature, which were thronged with children and in charge of efficient teachers. " " 1909—The Buddhist opposition to Christian work is severe and intense and our means to combat it are limited. " 2



The Emergence of a Leader " Times of general calamity and confusion have ever been productive of the greatest minds. The purest ore is produced from the hottest furnace, and the brightest thunderbolt is elicited from the darkest storm "—Caleb Colton.

In 1864, an year after the famous Baddegama Controversy, when the Buddhists with renewed interest and energy were organizing themselves to preserve their religious heritage, a child was born on the 1. Quoted in H . S. Olcott : Old Diary Leaves, Second Series, Madras, 1954* p. 196. 2. R. S. Copleston : Buddhism—Primitive and Present in Magadha and in Ceylon, London, 1892, pp. 466-467. 3. Balding : Loc. cit.pp. 125 and I J 8 .


17th. of September to a wealthy and influential Buddhist family in Colombo. The parents, though Buddhists renowned for their piety and generosity, named their son Don David in conformity with the fashion in vogue. Don David was sent to the best schools available in Ceylon at the time. Intelligent and conscientious, he pursued his studies with diligence, in spite of several incidents where his reluctance to forsake Buddhist principles brought him in conflict with school authorities. Apart from the influence his mother, Mrs. Mallika Hewavitharne, exerted on him in the fashioning of his attitude to the Buddhist way of life, he, as a child, came under the benign influence of two of the greatest Buddhist savants of the day—Venerable Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Nayake Thera and Migettuwatte Sri Gunananda Thera whose role in Buddhist-Christian controversies he later described in the following words : " Mohottiwatte Gunananda supplied the oratory ; and the Venerable Sumangala furnished him with the scholarly material and references. " (p. 685). He developed an attachment to Buddhist monks : in one of his auto-biographical articles he said : " In contrast to my wine-drinking, meat-eating and pleasureloving missionary teachers, the Bhikkhus were meek and abstemious. I loved their company and would sit quietly in a corner and listen to their wise discourse, even when it was far above my head " (p. 684). As a boy of sixteen, he met Colonel Olcott and Madame Blavatsky in 1880 and began to take an interest in Theosophy as expounded b y them. He was drawn so forcibly to a life of religious dedication that within a year he resolved to be an Anagarika (homeless)—a celebate seeker after truth. He left school in 1883 and in 1884 he was taken to Adyar by Madame Blavatsky in spite of the protests of his father, grand-father, Ven. Sumangala and Colonel Olcott. On his return from India, he, with permission from his parents, took up residence in the Headquarters of the Theosophical Society in Colombo. When Colonel Olcott and C. W. Leadbeater arrived in Ceylon in 1886 to collect funds for the Buddhist Educational Fund, he was working as a Junior Clerk in the Department of Education. A n opportunity for service presented itself to the young leader who has already prepared himself for the great task which lay ahead of him b y acquiring a sound knowledge of Sinhala and English along with their literature and an extraordinary mastery of the Pali language and the Buddhist scriptures, by abandoning the householder's life in favour of that of a Brahmacarin and by developing a unique sense of patriotism which found overt expression in his change of name to Dharmapala and the adoption of the simple dress of a Buddhist devotee. Colonel Olcott's mission was about to be abandoned for no Ceylonese w a s XXXIV

prepared to accompany him in the proposed tour of collection. Dharmapala obtained three months' leave and joined Colonel Olcott and Leadbeater in their campaign for Buddhist schools. This was the beginning of the unique career of the Anagarika Dharmapala. While touring remote villages he received information of his success at the General Clerical Service Examination—an extraordinary distinction for a Sinhala boy in 1886. He referred to it later saying " I did not wait for a minute to reply saying that I was going to work for my religion and asking to accept my resignation from Government service . . . . With delight I left. "{p. 703) His tour of Ceylon was an eye-opener. He saw for the first time the grim realities of the life, which the villagers, uncared and ill-provided, lived in remote areas without roads and houses, schools or hospitals. He was convinced that the greatness of a nation depended not on the prosperity and comfort of a few urban families but on the happiness and contentment of the masses who formed the nation's backbone. He realised the need for freedom so that the people could guide their destinies without being down-trodden and subdued by Colonial masters who were neither equipped nor inclined to appreciate the national heritage and the latent potentiality for greater and mightier achievements. He dreamed of the day when Ceylon would be independent, the religion of the people restored to its pristine glory, the simple unaffected ways of Sinhala culture re­ cognized and upheld and the people made enlightened participants in the scientific and technological achievements of modern times. With this end in view he began a life of incessant activity. In a letter to a high-ranking British official he said, " I have to be active and activity means agitation according to constitutional methods. " (p. 7J 3)

5. The Life and Work of Dharmapala Few national leaders of Ceylon had left behind such a wealth of autobiographical information as the Anagarika Dharmapala (vide Chapters 86-94). A well-prepared chronology of his life was published in the Mahabodhi Journal Vol. X X X V (January, 1927) and it is reproduced here with additions to bring it up to the time of his death :— January 1886 Left Government Service to work in the interest and welfare of the Buddhist Theosophical Society wherein he was engaged as General Secretary of the Buddhist Section, Manager of the Sandaresa (paper) and the Buddhist Press, Manager of Buddhist Schools and Assistant Secretary of the Buddhist Defence Committee from March 1886 to December, 1890. XXXV

2nd. January, 1891 Visited Isipatana now called Sarnath, Benares and Buddhagaya. Seeing the deserted condition of the Holy Temple at Buddhagaya, he made a vow before the Bodhi Tree that he would surrender his life to rescue the Holy Place from neglect. March, 1891 Left Buddhagaya for Rangoon via Calcutta. At the latter place he was welcomed by the late Babu Neel Comul Mookerjee, who showed hospitality. March, 1891 Arrived in Rangoon and had no place to stay and passed the night in the room occupied by a Sinhalese goldsmith. Suddenly met a Burmese who took him to the garden house of his sister where the Anagarika stayed for two weeks expecting to meet the late Moung Hpo Mhyin. Met him and he welcomed him in whose house the Anagarika stayed for a month, and started for Colombo. May, 1891 Started the Maha Bodhi Society on the 31st. of that month under the name of Buddhagaya Maha Bodhi Society, which for brevity's sake became known as the Maha Bodhi Society. July, 1891 Got four Ramanna Nikaya Bhikkhus to go to Buddhagaya. He escorted them to Calcutta by steamer Rosetta and thence to Gaya by train. Three of the four Bhikkhus were Chandajoti, Sudassana and Sumangala. October, 1891 Gave his first English lecture at the Calcutta Albert Hall on the kinship between Buddhism and Hinduism. Stayed in the house of the late Babu Neel Comul Mookerjee who became his Dayaka for the next twenty years. Secured the friendship of Mr. Norendronath Sen, Editor, Indian Mirror. Until his death he remained a friend of the Buddhists. January, 1892 Established the Maha Bodhi Journal. A demy quarto size journal of 8 pp. It was welcomed by many, and led to the invitation to attend the Chicago Parliament of Religions. XXXVI

October, 1892 Visited Akyab with Col. Olcott and the formation of the Akyab Maha Bodhi Society. Arakan Buddhists were the first to give help to the work of the Maha Bodhi Society whose aid gave the Society a hired house in Calcutta, 2 Greek Row, where the work was carried on until May, 1904, and then closed for a time. June, 1893 Visited Rangoon. July, 1893 Left India for London and America via Ceylon to attend the Congress of Religions. August, 1893 Arrived in London, was the guest of Sir Edwin Arnold and Mrs. Besant. Accompanied her to New York. September, 1893 Delivered Address at the Parliament of Religions on behalf of Southern Buddhism. Met with a cordial reception. 17th. October, 1893 Met Mrs. Mary Foster on board the s.s. Oceanic in the harbour at Honolulu. November, 1893 Arrived in Japan and was received by Secretary of the Ido Busseki Kof*ckai. Received beautiful Japanese Image from the congregation of the Tentokuji Temple, Shiba, Tokio headed by the last Revd. Asahi. January, 1894 Visited Shanghai. Delivered lecture at the Temple which was translated by Revd. Edkins and Dr. Franke. February, 1894 Visited Bangkok and was the guest of Prince Rajsaki and a branch of the Maha Bodhi Society was formed with the help of Prince Vivit and other Princes. XXXVII

April, 1894 Arrived at Colombo and received promises of help from Wealthy Buddhists for the purchase of the Maha Bodhi village. September, 1894 Started the Buddhagaya Fund and received generous help from Buddhists. December, 1894 The first organized pilgrimage by Ceylon Buddhists to Buddha­ gaya and other places. The ladies of the party wore the Sari for the first time. At Madras they went on shore and visited Col. Olcott at Adyar. February, 1895 The Japanese Buddha Image was placed in the shrine at Buddhagaya, but the Mahant's servants had it forcibly removed and thrown out into the open. February, 1895 Instituted case against the Mahant's men for disturbance of worship. The case was widely known as the great Buddhagaya Case. The Burmese rest-house was placed at the disposal of the Maha Bodhi Society and the Japanese Image was placed therein where it remained until 1910 when it was removed to Cu'.cutta in accordance with the order of the High Court of Calcutta, and the Burmese resthouse became the property of the Mahant. The Government helped the Mahant to secure the resthouse, which ever since has remained in the hand of the Mahant, who has closed it for the Buddhists. May, 1896 First Vaisakha Celebration held in Calcutta. July, 1896 Second visit to America to preach Buddhism. October, 1901 Visit of the Lt. Governor Woodburn to Buddhagaya when repre­ sentations were made by the Maha Bodhi Society to have a Dharmasala built. The Lt. Governor sanctioned the acquisition of land the money for which was provided by the Maha Bodhi Society of Mandalay and Colombo. But for the accommodation provided for the Buddhist pilgrims in this resthouse today there would be XXXVIII

no place for the Buddhists to rest at Buddhagaya. The Temple remains under the dual control of the Government and Mahant. What is needed is the presence of Bhikkhus at Buddhagaya. There is freedom of worship in the Temple. The Bhikkhus can stay at the resthouse which is known as the Maha Bodhi Dharmasala. January, 1901 Purchased land at Isipatana (Sarnath) Benares. April, 1902 Third visit to Japan. October, 1902 Third visit to America.

Landed in San Francisco.

1903 Tour all over the United States visiting Industrial Schools. January, 1904 Started Industrial School Fund at San Francisco, Mrs. Mary Foster contributing Rs. 10,000. January, 1904 Arrived in London. Visited the Industrial Schools in London, Liverpool, Holland, Denmark and Italy. April, 1904 Arrived in Colombo. July, 1904 Started Industrial School at Sarnath, Benares. October, 1904 Left Benares for Colombo. On the way went to Adyar to see Col. Olcott, with whom he had an altercation because Col. Olcott insulted the feelings of the Buddhists by showing disrespect to the Tooth Relic, a copy of which he had placed under a shelf. Col. Olcott showed bad temper and broke off friendship with him after a period of twenty years. The Anagarika was initiated by him in January, 1884 into the Theosophical Society. XXXIX

March, 1906 Began campaign against the Theosophical Society as the local Theosophical Society's being under Buddhist it was suggested that there should be harmony with Theosophy and Buddhism, and wanted the name Theosophy to be eliminated. Certain mem­ bers wished to retain the name, and the campaign was therefore started. May, 1906 Established the Sinhala Bauddhaya and Maha Bodhi Press. October, 1906 Started the Hiniduma school. 1906 Erection of school building at Rajagiriya on the land purchased from the donation received from Mrs. Mary Foster of Honolulu. May, 1907 Burmese Resthouse Case instituted by the Hindu Mahant at Buddhagaya for the removal of the Japanese Image from the Burmese Resthouse. The case was dragged for a long time, but eventually decided in favour of the Mahant on the report of the Government Custodian, and the Buddhists had to remove the Image and also the resident Bhikkhu who was living there since 1896 in February, 1910. July, 1908 House in Calcutta, Baniapooker Lane, purchased from donation received from Mrs. Mary Foster of Holonlulu. 1912 Started National Revival and toured all over Ceylon. 1913 Left for Japan and Honolulu. Met Mrs. Foster at Honolulu in June 1913 and from her received a' splendid donation t& establish a Free Hospital. 1914 Dedicated the house and ground at Darley Lane which was given to him by his father for the use of the Buddhists under the name of Mallika Santhagara.

1914 Opening of the Foster Robinson Free Hospital. 1915 Removed the Maha Bodhi College to the Mallika Santhagara. May, 1915 Ceylon Riots. Many Buddhists shot and he was interned in Calcutta from June 1915 to 1920. July, 1913 Purchased property in 4, College Square to build a Vihara. July, 1916 Received communication from the Government of India and they are prepared to present a Relic of the Lord Buddha to the Maha Bodhi Society if the latter would build a Vihara in Calcutta. July, 1918 Work started at College Square, No, 4, to erect a Vihara. November, 1920 The Vihara completed and it was ceremoniously opened by the Governor of Bengal, Lord Ronaldshay. A grand procession started from the Government House bringing the Relic to the Vihara. November, 1922 Laying of the foundation stone to build a vihara by the Governor of the United Provinces, Sir Harcourt Butler, at Sarnath, Benares. July, 1922 Restarted the " Sinhala Bauddhaya" which was suspended by order of Ceylon Government in 1915 during the Riot period. July, 1923 Founding of the Mary Foster Permanent Fund with a capital of 1,50,000 dollars. XLI

September, 1925 Started for America on a visit to Mrs. Mary Foster who was then staying in San Francisco. Met her and was cordially received, and she promised to give a monthly donation of £61 for the London Buddhist Mission. December, 1925 Lecture at the Town Hall, New York, organized by Mr. Kira, a Sinhalese Buddhist. January, 1926 Arrived in London to establish the British Buddhist Mission. July, 1926 Permanent headquarters established at the Foster House, Ealing, London W. 5. The house was purchased from the money from the firm of H. Don Carolis who are the Trustees of his father's estate and the personal gift from Mrs. Foster. The sum of £2,600 was paid to purchase the house and ground. December, 1926 Arrived in Ceylon to raise a Fund for the British Buddhist Mission. 1927 Returned to India and proceeded with the building of Mulagandhakuti Vihara, Sarnath.* 1930 Completed Mulagandhakuti Vihara.

Visited Ceylon for the last time and created the Anagarika Dharmapala Trust. 13th July, 1931 Ordained as a Bhikkhu with the name Sri Devamitta Dhammapala. 16th January, 1933 Received Higher Ordination. *Up to this point, the Anagarika Dharmapala had himself outlined the mainevents of his life. XLII

29th April, 1933 Died at Sarnath, Benares. His last words were : " Let me be reborn . . . . I would like to be born again twenty-five times to spread Lord Buddha's Dhamma. " 6. Contemporary Assessments T H E impact which the young leader, with his convincing and eloquent speeches on the greatness of Ceylon's national and religious heritage, made on the people can be gauged from the numerous columns which had been devoted to him and his activities in the daily press between 1890 and 1915. Wherever he went large crowds assembled and listened to him with rapt attention. His merciless attacks on the alien ways of life which the Sinhalas had adopted in slavish imitation of the foreign rulers often produced lightning reactions. Many people in Ceylon found in him a fearless and frank exponent of opinions and thoughts which they did not have the courage to express themselves. His movement, therefore, gathered strength and the Anagarika Dharmapala became the most powerful and influential champion of the national and the religious struggle for independence and liberty. The impression which the Anagarika made on the people of the many foreign lands he worked in was equally fascinating. The Editor of the "Buddhist" (Dec. 1, 1893) once reported : " O u r Buddhist representative at the Chicago Congress has exceeded the highest expectations of his best friends and created quite a furore in Chicago as well as the other towns where he appeared by his eloquence, enthusiasm and genuine Buddhism. " The " Buddhist " published extracts of the press notices which the Anagarika received in U. S. A. These give us an idea of the hypnotic influence he had over the crowds he addressed and the frank criticism with which he astounded his listeners :— " T o Mr. Strauss our Buddhist brother of New York we owe two sets of cuttings from various American papers, full extracts from which it is impossible to give. We can merely mention the names of the papers which contain his delivered address ; and quote one or two of the leading remarks he made. The following papers deal with his public utterances :— Chicago Herald (9.28.93) ; San Francisco Call (9.16.93) which gives Dharmapala's sermon on Buddha in the Christian Unity Church ; New York Post (9.8.93) gives his photograph ; Inter Ocean of Chicago (9.15.93) Mr. H. Toki's "Buddhism in J a p a n " says " we believe that finally the views of the Southern and Northern churches of Buddhism will come together without any contest. This is the reason why the Mahabodhi Society was organised in Calcutta. " San. Francisco Call (10.6.93) ; Chronicles, San Francisco (10.9.93) containing Dharmapala's sermon in the Unitarian Church " The church was specially decorated for the occasion. Long before 3.30 every seat in the XLirt

church was occupied and at last chairs were placed in the aisles extending from pulpit to the very doors, which were thronged with people, Mr. Dharmapala was introduced by the Rev. L . Sprague . . . . At the close of his address Mr. Dharmapala answered a number of questions asked by the audience. His replies were pointed, and elicited much applause. " This paper contains a likeness of Dharmapala on the pulpit. Star Richmond (9.20.93) A Buddhist's Rebuke Before one of the sections of the great Religious Parliament, just closed, Dharmapala is reported to have said when the question " How can the Methods of Christian Missionaries be Improved ? " came up for discussion : " You must send men full of usefulness. They must not g o as the missionaries of modern days go, but they must have a spirit of self-sacrifice, a spirit of charity, a spirit of tolerance, as well as the spirit of holiness and meekness which characterized Jesus Christ. Your great slaughter houses here in Chicago are a shame and curse to civilization. We don't want in Ceylon, in Burmah, in China, or in Japan any of such a Christianity as they stand for. We want the teachings of the meek and lowly Jesus, not because we do not in our own faith have them now, but because we want more of them. " And then we are told that the gentle Buddhist quietly and without the least passion arraigned the missionaries, as he had seen them, for what he termed their intolerance and selfishness. " I warn you that if you want to establish Christianity in the East, " he said, " it can only be done on the principles of Christ's love and meekness. Let the missionaries study all the religions ; let them be a type of meekness and lowliness, and they will find a welcome in all lands. " And who is willing to deny the force of Dharmapala's assertion ? Tribune, Oakland (10.9.93) New York Morning Advertiser {October 1, 93). " Two weeks ago at the religious congress in Chicago, the question arose as to how many people in the vast assemblage, numbering thousands, had ever read the life of Buddha. Five hands were timidly raised, four of those were women. Then Dharmapala, the Buddhist from Calcutta asked how many had read the Koran. Four hands were raised. " And you call yourself a nation—and a great nation, and only four or five have ever read of the faith which four hundred and seventy-five millions of people follow. How dare you judge us ? " The question brought forth cheers and sensational applause. It was a case of an easily impressed and excitable audience and XLTV

a magnetic man. But Dharmapala " builded better than he knew. " In the words were hidden more fire and argument and discussion than any one dreamed of at the time. The question became a kind of war cry and Dharmapala was quoted and abused, praised and discussed over the length and breadth of the country. The people who had never read Buddha discussed whether they dared or dared not judge his followers. And if so, why so ? " Bloomington, Illinois, (9.24.93) " Arrayed in robes of spotless white, which seemed all the whiter by reason of his swarthy countenance and wealth of jet black hair, with arm and index finger extended, and every muscle of his body quivering with excitement, Dharmapala, the Buddhist scholar from Calcutta, stood upon the edge of the platform in the religious congress at Chicago. The Buddhist had been introduced, after an address of remarkable liberality by the Rev. Dr. E . L . Bexford of Boston. ' You complain that you do not make converts among us,' he continued, 'you preach a God of love, but in your actions you are selfish. Y o u make of an ignorant or an unsophisticated man a perfect hypocrite. You have used the story of a lifecrushing, bloody juggernaut to secure the means to save alleged heathens. 'Juggernaut has been popularized by Christian missionaries, and yet a commission composed of eminent Englishmen has declared that the Christian idea of juggernaut is a myth, and that death and blood are repulsive to our people. This Christian story has been exploded. It has gone into oblivion. ' And so the Orientalist went on, scoring his hearers and defending his own creed. (New York Herald (15.9.93) same as Bloomington paper by telegraph.) Interocean (9.12.93) and (9.19.93) devotes two columns to Dharmapala's lecture on the World's Debt to Buddha. Register, Sprinfield (9.17.93) Republican header, Lacrosse (9.13.93) Times, Leavenworth, Kansas (9.16.93) commenting on ' How dare you judge us ' of Dharmapala admits " There is a lamentable ignorance of other religions among Christians, a knowledge of them would increase their charity, would make them better Christians. " Tribune, Chicago (9.18.93) " In the pastor's chair of the Third Unitarian Church at Monroe Street sat Mr. Dharmapala of Ceylon. At his right hand sat the Rev. Mary A . SafFord, and XLV

Rev. Elimore Gorden, the co-pastors of the Unitarian Church at Sioux City, la. The pastor of the church the Rev. J . Villa Blake sat among the congregation. " New York Church Messenger {Oct. 4, 93) attacks " one of the Buddhist participants in the Parliament of religions who took the Christians to task for receiving pay for the rendering of spiritual services. " Pittsburg Gazette (18.7.93) Standard, Bridgeport (9.22.93) praised Dharmapala's outspokenness. Republican, Williamsport,{ -yitto £kJU~±






a brief account of his family background, educadon, employment, foreign tours and the lawsuits against Mahant on Buddha Gaya. It says : " Dharmapala next quarrelled with Col. Olcott and severed his connection with the Theosophical Society. He started a newspaper called 'Sinhala Bauddhaya' in connection with the Mahabodhi Society of which Sri Sumangala, High Priest, is the President. This Society of which Mr. Dharmapala is General Secretary is a dangerous Society—always anxious to stir up racial or religious animosity. " Though the purpose of this dossier is not stated anywhere, it is a clear indication that the British administration had decided to exercise vigilance over his activities. When, on the 20th of September, 1 9 1 1 , the Anagarika Dharmapala wrote a strong article urging the Sinhalas to aspire for self-Government (" The country of the Sinhalese should be governed by Sinhalese " ) , it was put up to the Governor by the Colonial Secretary—with the minute : " Mr. Dharmapala is an extremist, but negligible I think." But this attitude had changed when another article in Sinhala Bauddhaya, criticizing the English people, was submitted to the Colonial Secretary. The Attorney General was asked to prosecute the Anagarika Dharmapala. But the Attorney General replied : " This seems to me the language of religious fanaticism and not of sedition. I do not think it would be a judicious case for a prosecution." The Governor was apparently not pleased with this reply for he raised a query : " Is the A. G. aware of who Anagarika Dharmapala is and his antecedents. He is stirring up sedition under the veil of religion ? " The result of this investigation was that the newspaper was issued a warning that it would " be struck off the l i s t " and the Governor ordered the Attorney General to " note some particulars about this dangerous agitation. " A strict vigilance had come into operation and the movements of the Anagarika were reported by the Inspector General of Police to the Governor through the Colonial Secretary and translations of his articles in the Sinhala Bauddhaya were regularly submitted to the Governor. Some of these extracts of the Anagarika Dharmapala's articles were scrutinized and passed on to the Attorney General. On May 1, 1912, the Attorney General reported : " I confess that I thought we had to deal with an ignorant local fanatic, but I see from the papers which His Excellency has ordered to be submitted to me that this man is a calculating and conceited f VIT

poseur. The last extract submitted brings him within the criminal law if it is thought worth while to prosecute him. Whether it is worth while to do so, depends upon the extent of his influence.... When he returns it might be well to have him watched, and his utterances and writings recorded. If it were shown that his seditious utterances were calculated and systematic, i.e., that he was deliberately sowing disaffection, and if a series of charges were presented together, the result would I think be more effective to a prosecution on a single utterance. " While the Colonial Secretary's office continued to collect evidence against the Anagarika Dharmapala, it received substantial assistance from Mr. A . Reginald Fernando, the Editor of Lakmina, a Sinhala Newspaper. He sent extracts of the Anagarika Dharmapala's writings to the Colonial Secretary and urged that action be taken against him. On October 17, 1912, he says : " As far as I am concerned I propose to vigorously oppose Mr. Dharmapala's campaign against Government." On January 23, 1913, he wrote again to the Colonial Secretary : " You will excuse my pointing out that the article taken as a whole is seditious and I have got the authority of a well-known lawyer for making this statement 1 shall not be surprised to hear one morning that Mr. Dharmapala is in the vicinity of Colombo with an army of Sinhalese Buddhists. " The Colonial Secretary merely acknowledged the receipt of this letter and did not take any action. Undaunted Mr. Fernando wrote again on June 2, 1914, enclosing an article from the Sinhala Bauddhaya of May 30, 1914 : He says : " It is not through newspaper rivalry or pettymindedness that I take courage to approach you once more in regard to this matter, but for the sake of justice, decency and purity. This paper, which is owned by the Hon'ble Mr. L . W. A. de Soyza and Mr. E . L. F . de Soyza, has exposed Mr. Dharmapala from its very start and I am glad to say, Mr. Dharmapala is not today the hero he used to be." The Government decided to take action against the Printer and ihe Publisher of Sinhala Bauddhaya. As a result, Mr. D. R. Goone-

sekera was convicted and imprisonment.

sentenced to

three months' rigorous

While the criminal proceedings were pending, the Anagarika Dharmapala, who was about to leave India for U. K . baffled the British Administration by courting prosecution. On the 27th of June, 1914, he wrote to the Inspector-General of Police : " I have received information from Ceylon that the Police authorities are going to arrest me when I land in Colombo . . . . All this work shall have to be postponed if the report is true that I am to be arrested when I arrive in Colombo. If you want me please wire at my expense" The I. G. P. forwarded this letter to the Colonial Secretary saying : " From the attached copy of letter . . . . it does not appear that Dharmapala has any idea of the possibility of his being convicted. He courts prosecution, knowing apparently that he will not be convicted. Every possible line of securing evidence sufficient for conviction has been tested without success. It would be fatal for Dharmapala to be acquitted" After the conviction of Mr. Goonesekera and the failure of the appeal, Anagarika Dharmapala addressed the Attorney General on August 2 1 , 1 9 1 4 , and stated : " Before I start (for U. K . ) I am anxious to receive an assurance from you whether you contemplate taking criminal proceedings against me on my arrival in Ceylon." He gave his permanent address and, in the final paragraph, expressed the following sentiments : " True that I criticize in my articles the officials; but my loyalty to the British Throne is as solid as a rock and I have invariably expressed sentiments of loyalty to the King. But I love my religion, and Sinhalese Race, and my happiness depends on their welfare.'' The Attorney-General proposed not to reply this letter. When the Reports of the I. G. P. and the Attorney-General were submitted to the Colonial Secretary, he forwarded them to the Governor on September 7, 1914, with the minute : LIX

" But in any case the sentence to which Dharmapala would be liable would be far too short to be of any service. We had better leave things alone and merely keep him out of the Island while the Order in Council is in force." The Governor did not conceal his disappointment when he returned the papers saying: " I have read this with much regret but cannot but adopt conclu­ sions . . . . All we can do is to see whether evidence is forthcoming hereafter and the I. G. P. should look to this ". Accordingly, the I. G . P. was told on September 18, 1914: " His Excellency however desires that your vigilance should be in no way relaxed with a view to obtaining, if possible, further evidence against Dharmapala hereafter." The British Administration was awaiting an opportunity to discipline the Anagarika Dharmapala and in the outbreak of Buddhist-Muslim Riots of 1915 they found their chance. At the request of the Ceylon Government, the Anagarika's residence in Calcutta was searched by the Government of Bengal Police and several papers were seized and sent to Ceylon for examination. In a report from the Govern­ ment of Bengal to the Colonial Secretary of Ceylon the following information was given : " T h e Ceylon Government held that Dharmapala was quite the reverse of innocent as regards politics and that his preachings and writings in Ceylon were anti-British; and further that he was the instigator of a scheme for sending young Sinhalese to Japan for technical education in the belief that the students would return with anti-British views . . . . It would appear that the German Indian Party contemplate working through the Japanese and that the Party relies on Dharmapala to play an important part in the scheme." On these data it was suggested that action against the Anagarika Dharmapala be considered. The Colonial Secretary was asked ' whether the Government of Ceylon would prefer to have this man under their own control." His recommendation to the Governor was typical of the British Colonial Civil Service : LX

" I think it would be much better not to have him in Ceylon where through his brother he would at once get into touch with all the disloyal elements. We could probably get him put away for a couple of years for sedition but I think that the advertise­ ment of a trial would do harm disproportionate to the good. Reply that we had rather they kept him. " The Governor's order of 29th. July, 1916, was a laconic "much rather". On the 28th of June, 1916, the Anagarika Dharmapala was ordered, on pain of imprisonment, not to leave Calcutta by sea or by land as long as the order was in force. He appealed to the Secretary of State for Colonies in a moving letter where he recounted his service to the regeneration of Buddhism and said : " I am now fifty years old and when I was young the British officials did not suspect me, and now in my old age that I should be interned and suspected and watched is rather shocking." He concludes this appeal on a pathetic note : " Continuous political oppression on me has aged me much, and I am now almost an invalid, and my death will be hastened by the official tortures to which I am subjected." Sir P. Ramanathan, too, intervened on his behalf when he forwarded a letter of the Anagarika's mother, Mrs. Mallika Hewavitharne, to the Governor, with the comments: " I have known him from the days of his youth. He is an ascetic but caustic also, not sparing even his own countrymen and priests. They have refused for the last twenty years to hear him and his influence counts for nothing in Ceylon.... Mr. Dharma­ pala's return to Ceylon appears to have been objected to by the Police Department, who do not appear to know that in Ceylon he has been and is a negligible factor." But the British officers in Ceylon thought otherwise and paid no heed to letters he sent on the hardships he suffered, (See the original of his letter of 8th. May, 1 9 1 7 on pages L X I I - I V ) . LXI









030*5 ©(jDaxadcj'.


When in October 1917 the Government of Bengal was prepared to cancel the order of internment, the Ceylon Government wanted as a condition an undertaking from the Anagarika Dharmapala that he would not visit Ceylon. From 1919 onwards several appeals had been made to the British Government of Ceylon to allow Dharmapala to return to Ceylon. On March 1 1 , 1919, Mr. Armand de Souza met the Colonial Secretary on his behalf. But the Colonial Secretary's recommendation was as follows : " Dharmapala is as absolutely irresponsible as you will see from this letter here which breaks off into abuse just when he is endeavour­ ing to make a good impression. I doubt whether he could really do much harm . . . but he is much like with (sic!) Mrs. Besant and Indian sedition generally and he might stir up some trouble among the young hot-heads here which it would be best to avoid I do not advise allowing him to return." The Governor's order on this minute reveals the British attitude to the Anagarika Dharmapala further : " I have read sufficient of these papers to decide that under no pretext whatever will I permit this man to return to Ceylon while it lies in my power. After the Order in Council ceases to be operative he will return at his peril." Similarly when Dr. C. A . Hewavitarne made representations on behalf of the Anagarika, the Governor's reply was: " ( 1 ) Inform him that his brother can return at his own risk after the Order in Council ceases to be in force, but not before, (2) Inform I. G. P. confidentially." After much agitation he was given permission in December, 1919, to return to Ceylon. He came to Ceylon in 1920 but for a few days. He came again on the 15 th of April, 1921, and on this occasion addressed, twenty meetings. Police kept detailed records of his movements, and his meetings in the following manner : " At a Meeting held at Sathagara Hall, Darley Road, Maradana, at 3.30 p.m. on Sunday the n t h instant, A N A G A R I K A D H A R M A P A L A delivered a lecture on Buddhism. LXV

There was a large gathering which consisted mainly of the working classes. D H A R M A P A L A said that for calling the European man " P A R A SUDDHA " he was confined in Calcutta for six long years as a prisoner, and was daily watched by three Constables. When Ceylon was taken over by the British Government there was a definite promise given to the Buddhists that their religious rights would be respected. (He did not say anything beyond these remarks, on this point). He said that the . . . . do not eat anything touched or prepared by the Sinhalese or any other people, except their own. The Sinhalese on the contrary buy everything from the . . . . , eat things prepared by the " . . . " and associate with them. As long as " . . . " do not care to buy or eat anything touched by the Sinhalese and others there is no reason why the Sinhalese should go to them to buy their things. Do not buy anything from a . . . . . . . He said that his name was David originally, but after reading the Bible he gave up that name, the reason being that, according to the Bible David was a murderer who caused Uriah's death, and took his wife as his mistress. The Sinhalese Buddhists should give up all Christian names and adopt Buddhist names. D H A R M A P A L A said he has returned to the Island with the intention of re-starting the defunct " SINHALA B A U D H A Y A ". He was asked by D. B . J A Y A T I L L A K A and Dr. W. A. DE SILVA not to do so but he is determined to start it. Every Sinhalese ought to buy a copy of the paper when published. A BUDDHIST PRIEST, whose name could not be ascertained, made a complaint to D H A R M A P A L A to the effect that arrange­ ments are being made to build a Roman Catholic Church at Kalapaluwawa just opposite a Buddhist Temple. DHARMA­ P A L A requested the priest to oppose the building of the church, LXVI

and to inform the authorities that if the church is built against the wishes of the Buddhists there would be T R O U B L E . (Sinhalese word used—" K O L A H A L A " ) . The priest said that Mr. Fraser, Government Agent, would be coming to inspect the place on the morning of the 16th instand requested D H A R M A P A L A to be present also. He said he would do so. 2. A N A G A R I K A D H A R M A P A L A delivered a lecture yesterday, 13th June, 1922, at 5 p.m. at Santhagara Hall on Buddhism. There were about 100 people present, the majority of whom were workmen. He spoke of Buddhism in India prior to 800 years ago. He said that the whole of India then was a Buddhist country. The Arabs came to India and destroyed Buddhism. The ruins of the destroyed temples could be seen even at the present day, and urged the people to go and see them. . . . He further said that a trick is being played on the Sinhalese by using the word " Ceylonese " generally for the " Sinhalese ". He studiously avoided mentioning as to who is playing this trick. He said he cares very little for the trousered man. The trousered man is an incorrigible fool who wastes his money in imitating foreigners. He will leave them all alone. But he is interested in the welfare of the people (you—referring to the workmen) as there is nobody to advise them. They have no leader. The Meeting terminated at 6.45 p.m. The Meeting was attended to by Inspector Peries and myself.

3. A N A G A R I K A D H A R M A P A L A delivered a lecture on Buddhism at 5 p.m. on the 16th instant at Santhagara Hall. LXVII

The gathering consisted of workmen of whom there were about 300 people, a few clerks and students of Ananda College and about 10 Buddhist Priests. D H A R M A P A L A in the course of his speech whilst running down Christianity made use of the following words : — . . . . I want the whole of the present Government to be a Buddhist Government. I want the Governor to be a Buddhist. I want the Colonial Secretary and all other high officials to be Buddhists.

D H A R M A P A L A said that he is preparing a pamphlet against Christianity. I will show these Christians . . . what their religion is. . I have come this time to do something. I am going to start again the " B A U D H A Y A " (newspaper). I want all of you to help me. Do not be afraid. Forget not that we are the lion race. . . . The Meeting at Santhagara Hall terminated at 6.45 p.m. D H A R M A P A L A delivered another lecture at Ananda College. The lecture began at 7 p.m. and terminated at 9 p.m. This lecture was almost the same as the one delivered previously." On June 17, 1922, the Inspector General of Police reported : " It would be safer to get rid of him at once. He is out for doing harm and not good. There is no reason why he should be permitted to deliver addresses in this strain. The longer he is allowed in the Colony the more dangerous he will become. He is sowing discontent and trouble will arise. The easiest method of dealing with Dharmapala is to notice him to quit. " The recommendation, however, was not accepted by the Governor who in a secret communication directed : " I should prefer to let matters further develop. His conduct will possibly later on bring him in conflict with Civil Law when steps must be taken. "


Police had apparently changed their opinion of the Anagarika Dharmapala when it reported, " He is a man of no account now. He has no influence, associates or followers in the Island " and the I. G. P. added : "Prior to 1915 Dharmapala was a mob-leader and a man to be closely watched. " But when he returned on September 6, 1924, the vigilance of the Police continued unabated and a comprehensive statement, in tabulated form, of his addresses had been prepared for submission to the Colonial Secretary. (See Speci­ men page of this Report on page L X X ) . On the 19th. of June, 192 5, Anagarika Dharmapala left for Marseilles en route to U. K . and U. S. A., and the Chief Secretary's file on him closes with the letter (already mentioned on page L I I I and reproduced on pages L I - L I I ) addressed by the Officer Administering the Government of Ceylon on the 21st of June to the Secretary of State for Colonies enclosing a full dossier on him which, far from being complimentary, states that it was advisable that Dharmapala should be very carefully and cloely watched while he was on the continent for the following reason : " It may possibly be that he is making this trip with the object of getting into touch with M. N. Roy, a notorious Indian Bolshevik and publisher of revolutionary papers in Berlin, " Today we are sufficiently far removed from the scene of conflict between the British Empire-builders and the patriotic national leaders to assess justly the services rendered to the nation by the Anaga­ rika Dharmapala.

At a time when the events of the past can be seen

from a clearer perspective, a glimpse of the sordid pettiness which characterised the foreign masters' attitude towards native agitators and campaigners makes our admiration grow for those who toiled through odds to achieve their aims and ideals. It is from such a point of view that one finds in the dusty pages of C. S. O. files invaluable information to understand the Anagarika Dharmapala—the man and national hero. LXIX



SiahiJ c ;c j»addhi 3ia Of iiuTadina.

By whom reported*

Word3 uaed as reported.

arid nature aft audience

- i ^ o l s 3 T t i d , t h a t the Sinhalese are a l;*zy and cowardly to*. ,ti*o/ l a c i in i n i t i a t i v e and allow the trade of tho c3-n*.r/ to cc int« hands of foreigners. Tho country i e Cfft'.irg poor and tho sinhile** « u U do not 3 0 0 tUls.

Inap.C.V. uocneratnw


piuddhist t e n t C 1

vedn 3»

ft: X

fab '. i in Pettish Today i t not so.

Suwln j ^ * c tax' •tivisw'ira cf.


W t t 3

Dharmap'ila- opened hi a lecture with an attach ^ thu : » He advised tao p. 484). He urged the young men of Ceylon to agitate for freedom. " We must work systematically," he said, " having before us the goal of self-government and Home Rule under British protection for Ceylon. We must agitate constitutionally with ceaseless vigour" {p. 5 1 1 ) . In 1916 he hoped that Ceylon would get within forty years a status similar to New Zealand (p. 720) and his ideal was a commonwealth of nations. In 1915 when the holocaust of the First World War was raging in Europe he repeatedly urged : " A co-operative commonwealth working for the welfare of the many and for the happiness of the many is the kind of institution that civilized humanity needs" (p. 458). The mere slogan that Ceylon should be free was not adequate to wake the people from their century-long slumber. The campaign for independence had to be multi-pronged. The Anagarika's ana­ lysis of the many forces behind British imperialism enabled him to isolate the ones which had to be immediately subdued. He was not a mere rabble-rouser though the British called him a " mobleader ". His moves were calculated and well-planned. He did not want to destroy an edifice merely because he disliked the builder. He would rather inherit it and, as its owner, embellish it in a manner he thought fit. The Anagarika's attitude to the British had changed from time to time. In 1892 he felt that the British domination was " the best of foreign rule " which Ceylon had gone through f^>. 524) ; in 1909 he called them " the most enlightened, the most philanthropic, the most cultured of all European races" (p. 530). But by 1926he had come to the conclusion : " The British are an arrogant race, very selfish " (p. 666). He was aware of the strength and magni­ tude of the British Empire(j>. 714 and p. 724). He found fault with them for " making every effort to undermine our noble religion." He further said : " The British are giving us opium, ganja, whisky and other alcoholic poisons and are introducing every kind of abo­ minable vice that is helping to undermine the vitality of our people" (p. 764).


But he was, at the same time, conscious of what the British had done for Asia for he says, " England gives everything to Asia—her arts, sciences and Christianity. We have the Dhamma which they have not—and our duty is to give Dhammadana to them "(p. 7 7 5 ) . He knew that a vigorous campaign was essential if the British were to be got rid of. But it had to be so planned that the benefits of Western Civilization which they brought to Ceylon such as education, science and technology were retained while only what he termed the " Western abominations " were eradicated. The Anagarika's methods differed according to the group he was trying to win over. To the intellectual he had intellectual arguments. For instances, he would say : " The British have built roads, extended railways and generally introduced the blessings of their materialistic civilization into the land : and with this inception of the modern era the Aryan Sinhalese had lost his true identity and become a hybrid. Practices which were an abomination to the ancient noble Sinhalese have today become tolerated " (p. 4 9 4 ) . He blamed the British for all the evils which had befallen the peasantry : " After a hundred years of British rule the Sinhalese as a consolidated race is on the decline. Crime is increasing year by year, the ignorance of the people is appalling, without local indus­ tries the peasant proprietor is on the verge of starvation, cattle are dying for want of fodder, for the pasture lands and village forests have been ruthlessly taken away from him and made crown property, and sold to the European to plant rubber and tea. The Government is forcing the poor villager to drink intoxicants by opening village liquor shops by the thousand, in opposition to the united voice of the whole people. It was the British Government for the first time for the sake of filthy lucre opened liquor shops in the year of Christ 1801 in Ceylon ! Since then with muddle-headed indifference the Government has continued to give liquor to the illiterate villagers and today the prisons are full of criminals (p. 508). He repeatedly asked: "Within the last years the most enlightened, the most philanthropic, the most cultured of all European races have been associating with the Aryan Sinhalese of Ceylon, and what do we see today as fruits of the tree planted by them ? " And the Anaga­ rika invariably answered : " Drunkenness, poverty, increase of crime and increase of insanity " (p. 530). He castigated the British for their economic policy : " Well, we have the roads and the railways for which the people have paid and are paying and shall pay for ever and ever. Have we schools for the young, factories where we make our own cloth, and other requisites that we are in need of ? Where are our dockyards, our arsenals, our gas works, our electric workshops, our agricultural colleges, out scientific laboratories, & c . ? The British Planters have about 900,000 T.XXTTI

acres of tea and rubber plantations, and the money that they get is taken away to England. Rice, the staple food of the Sinhalese, is imported from India, also our curry stuffs. Pins, Needles, Ink, Stationery, Glassware, Crockery, Hardware, Wearing Apparel, Shoes, Hats, Machinery, Cutlery, Clothes, Umbrellas, Bentwood Furniture, & c , are all imported from abroad." (p. 535). He drew their attention to the suffering masses : " We who live in palatial mansions, " he said, " can have no idea of the terrible suffering of the poor villagers." (p. 527). On another occasion he stated : " In Ceylon people are dying of parangi, fever, anchylostomiasis, malaria by the hundred thousand annually ; the school children attending village schools are under­ fed, ill-clad and in the town of Colombo thousands of poor children are living like vagrants without any kind of control over them." (A 517). The fault for all these, he argued, lay in the hands of the British adminis trators whom he bitterly disliked. Calling them " White Brahmans ", the Anagarika criticized them for their " intolerable arrogance and lack of compassion. He further said that the British adminis­ trators, intent on making money left " behind their moral conscious­ ness in their Island home." (p. 666). To others he had other arguments. He was convinced that the agitation for national freedom is an involuntary by-product of national pride. He urged the Sinhalas to read their history and take pride in their culture : " The study of history I consider is of the utmost importance for the development of the patriotic consciousness." . 506). He kept on reminding them : " The Sinhalese are a people with noble traditions with a noble literature, with a noble religion" (p. 541) " The history of evolution can point to no other race today that has withstood the ravages of time and kept its individuality for so long a time as the Sinhalese people" (p. 484). " No nation in the world has had a more brilliant history than ourselves." (p. 506). It is this individuality of the nation which he was anxious to preserve. He was shocked at the sight of young Sinhala men and women who adopted the Western way of life. In his writings in the local Sinhala press he ridiculed them and in his speeches he attacked them most mercilessly. His aim was to convince them that the aimless life of luxury which they led by aping the European planter or adminis­ trator was a thing to be ashamed of. He began with the dress. He said " Persecuted by the Portuguese and robbed by the Dutch the Sinhalese have lost the vitality which makes man a man. Look at the twenty different forms of dress adopted by the Sinhalese which greets the stranger's eye in Ceylon. Why, it is absolutely impossible for him to distinguish a Sinhalese from a Goanese ; for in name and dress he is no more than a Eurasian." (p. 640). LXXIV

In the Sinhala articles he resorted to sarcasm and ridicule. A new hat which the Sinhala women adopted in imitation of European fashions was compared by him to a basket which a vegetable vendor carried on her head,* and " the Lanka Watti Hat " was the subject of a cartoon in the " Ceylon Nation " (Reproduced on page L X X V )


* See * Dharmapala Lip." p. 1 7 . LXXV

He advocated the Indian saree to women and the cloth and banian for men. In no field of reform had the Anagarika had such quick results as in giving the womanhood of Ceylon a dress more in keeping with her natural grace. The European fashions among Sinhala women vanished almost overnight. The other sign of national inferiority complex, he attacked, was the use of foreign names. Very early in his career, the Anagarika realised that the argument " What's in a name ?" had no place in a movement for national resurgence. He urged that the Aryan Sinhalas should go by Aryan names : " A patriot's blood boils with indignation at the sight of the present anglicised Sinhalese who loves neither his country nor nation. Fancy the descendants of Vijaya having names like Pereras, Silvas, Almedas, Diases, Liveras, Dons, Donas, Sarams, Ruberos, Botejos, Rodrigos, et hoc genus omne\ Why, a European would hardly believe that the owner of such a name is a Sinhalese."(p. 639). He scoffed at the anglicized Sinhalas for their meaningless and slavish adoption of alien customs and habits. He poked fun at them at meetings and, whenever he met them privately, he never failed togive them a piece of his mind, even when they were his closest relatives or friends. It is here that the Anagarika Dharmapala quarrelled with the missionaries. A thorough student of Christianity, with an unusually high degree of familiarity with Christian scriptures, the Anagarika was a sincere admirer of the ethical doctrines of Christ. (See Chapter 47.) He had often in his articles referred to his appreciation of the lofty teachings in the Sermon on the Mount (p. 695). He, of course, rejected the idea of God and creation and he had repeatedly given his arguments in support of his standpoint, (pp. 33, 78, 79, 160, 180, 192, 257, 268, 303-4, 420, 438). He was equally critical of the attitude of the Christian Church to science and progress (pp. 421, 716). He felt that Christianity had failed in Europe and his argu­ ments were as follows :—" Christianity has been a complete failure in Europe. During the middle ages the Papal domination kept the people in Ignorance. Darkness prevailed in Europe for nearly 18 centuries. With the birth of Modern Science theology received a blow, and materialistic theories gained ground. With the progress of scientific thought there came into being discoverers and inventors of new laws and deadly weapons. The contradictory teachings of Jehovah and Jesus were taught in schools and colleges along with physical science. Between theology and science there can be no reconciliation, no compromise. Theology is opposed to modern science. The former teaches a special creation, the latter an evolution. Science teaches the gradual evolution of man from lower types. Theology teaches that Jehovah created man from the dust of the ground. But for modern science Europe today would have remained LXXVI

stagnant as she had been for 19 centuries. Science helped to dis­ cover the laws of hygiene, sanitation, electricity. In ethics Europe made no progress." {p. 45 z). He was also convinced that it was bound to fail in Asia for other reasons, {pp. 400, 406). In spite of his own doubts regarding the effectiveness of the role which Christianity played in Europe or Asia, the Anagarika did not attempt either to convert Christians to Buddhism or to destroy the Christian Church in Ceylon. His attitude to Christianity is an important index to his way of thinking on the entire religious problem. He said : " Christianity is looked upon as the religion of the ruling power by the converts who look upon themselves as orphans willing to receive the crumbs that fall from the master's table. A native Church managed by the natives them­ selves with no white supervision and supported by the contributions of the converts themselves would help to make them more independent and individualistic. Then will come the inspiration for self-sacrificing work ; but so long as that is not done Christianity will be an exotic foreigner to the soil." {p. 407). In short, the Anagarika's concern had been that Christianity, as expounded by the missionaries, bolstered up imperialistic rulers and was a threat to national independence. He was not against the Christian religion or the church. He only wanted the control over the church to be national, i.e., a national church managed by the natives of Ceylon. This attitude to Christianity is not surprising because the Anagarika always held lofty views on religious tolerance. He once said, " Religion is a thing of the heart, and it is beyond the power of man to go into the heart of other people. To oppress a human being for his inner conviction is diabolical." {p. 271). He nurtured within him the " exalted hopes for the brotherhood of man and for a Utopian period, not too far distant, when Christian and Jew, Mahommedan, Brahman and Buddhist would associate with joyous understanding, purged of the prejudices and hateful passions that an intensity of religious belief invariably inspires in the narrow-minded and ignorant of any race, nation or creed." {p. 690). The Anagarika's bete noire was the foreign missionary. With the planter and the bureaucrat, he was regarded to be the spearhead of the movement which weaned the people from their religious and cultural heritage, {p. 464). It was the combination of these forces which made the Anagarika vituperative in his attacks. He said : " The Sinhalese people have submitted with silence for the simple reason that they have not had the weapons to fight against the intrusion of the scheming missionary who, backed by his official compatriot, never scrupled to abuse his trust by an exhibition of officialdom in making converts of boys and ignorant men to religion which for 19 centuries has done more harm than good to the world." {p. 525). The aim of the missionaries, he said, was to make the Buddhist, *' Christians or indifferent Buddhists " (p. 7 7 3 ) . The product of


missionary education worried him immensely. This is what he had to say of him in 1892 : " As for the so-called educated Sinhalese, the product of missionary civilization, he is a useless entity and does nothing for the welfare of the Sinhalese race. Ignorant of the momentous questions of the day beyond reading a local newspaper, he is unfit to give an opinion on any important question. If he goes to England it is to extravagantly spend the money his father had left him, and he returns home with ideas of the 19th century Western sensualist. 1'here is hardly one among the university educated Sinhalese who has done any material good for his countrymen. All idea of altruism is blunt in him and his greatest bliss consists in attending a Queen's House Ball, or a Governor's Levee. Social and political reformers, are not to be found among the so-called educated Sinhalese, and as long as this state of affairs continues we cannot expect any progress in the people. The ruling Briton knows that there is no educated public opinion among the Sinhalese people. He, therefore, treats the people with contempt." (p. 525). The denationalization to which the converts were subjected, the manner in which they adopted western names, dress and customs and the attitude they developed towards the Colonial powers led the Ana­ garika to conclude that the foreign missionary was " the advance agent of the European trader and whisky dealer, "(p. 718) a n d " the political agent of Christian Governments and the commercial agent of capita­ lists and traders " (p. 25). He had concluded that the activities of the missionaries could not succeed in Asia because they were teaching people not what they wanted but dogmas of a religion in which the people were not generally interested. He felt that the millions of rupees spent by Europeans and Americans for the propagation of Christianity were in vain. He wanted the West to spend this money to spread the knowledge of science and technology in the East, to save the millions of Asians from famine, pestilence and ignorance and to elevate the standard of living of the masses of Asia, who were stricken with poverty and want. This type of international co-operation, he repeatedly urged was superior to the teaching of Christian dogmas and biblical legends which were already being questioned in the light of scientific development. Holding the view that Christianity was " a system utterly unsuited to the genrie spirit of the Aryan race " (p. 442)., the Anagarika Dharma­ pala urged the British to adopt an intelligent religious policy. His appeal to the British Government in 1908 is an able summary of the ideals he stood for : " But it is in the power of the British Government, which now rules the land with absolute sway, to protect the Sinhalese race from further losing its ancient religio.i by following the ennobling instructions laid down by the Tathagita. Let the Buddhists be given a form of local self-government according to the ancient traditionSj based on the beneficent teachings of their Saviour. By nature the Sinhalese Buddhists, ' are polite, kind to their children, and fond of


learning.' Let the noble British nation, so eager to do good, prevent the sale of opium, arrack, and other intoxicating drugs to the Buddhists. Let industrial and technical schools be started in populous towns and villages. Let the methods adopted in the ancient days by the good kings of old, like Gamini, Buddhadasa, Parakrama Bahu, and other rulers, be repeated. Let the Mahawansa be a guide, and let the learned elderly Maha Theros (high priests) of the different parts of the island be asked to advise the Government as to the best means to be adopted for promoting the material and moral welfare of the Sinhalese Buddhists. That both the British and the Buddhists may thus thrive side by side in Ceylon is the sincere wish and prayer of the Anagarika Dharmapala. " (p, 496). And his appeal to the people themselves was as eloquent as it was "wise : " Our own leaders who have been educated under British influence in England are indifferent to the welfare of the Sinhalese. Our wealthy landowners, plumbago dealers, rubber and coconut planters, though comparatively few, yet may do substantial service, if they would unite and work harmoniously to elevate the rising genera­ tion. Christians and Buddhists should unite and work for the eleva­ tion of the Sinhalese people. Religion should in no way hinder our patriotic activities, and it had not prevented Sun Yat Sen, the son of a Chinese Christian, from working for the elevation of the Chinese people. Q&.510). As significant as his agitation for national independence and religious freedom was his attitude to aliens who were gradually establishing themselves in the Island as planter, traders and labourers. As early as 1906, he urged in a letter to the Colonial Secretary that legislation similar to the Alien Prevention Act of England was urgently needed. He argued : " Aliens are taking away the wealth of the country and the sons of the soil where are they to go ? The immigrants who come here have other places to go to, the Sinhalese has no place to go to. It is just that the sons of the soil should suffer while the alien enjoys ? England so powerful has an Alien Prevention Bill to prevent paupers coming to her shores, and the ignorant helpless Sinhalese villager is made a victim by the alien sharper who robs his ancestral land. " ( A 528). Again in a memorandum to the Secretary of State for Colonies he said in 1915 : " T h e Sinhalese of Ceylon should be protected from aliens who make money and leave the Island for good. " (p. 5 41) In 1922, he had observed the beginnings of the Indo-Ceylon problem and sounded a warning note, which, unfortunately, was not heeded. In the local press, he carried on a vigorous campaign against the alien, whom he called a " national foe ". He wrote verses in the " Sinhala Bauddhaya " on the manner in which the Sinhalese were exploited by aliens and published along with them a cartoon which showed a helpless Sinhala in the grip of alien traders, money-lenders and land grabbers.* (Reproduced on next page) * See " Dharmapala Lipi" p. 21. LXXIX

It was the Anagarika's firm conviction that the problems of Ceylon could only be solved by the sons of the soil. " We require men o f education with brains," he said, " to lead the people and to defend their interests from the western free-booters who come here to ruin our people by giving them alcohol." {p. 512). Again he said, " What we need in Ceylon is a body of men, who, with enthusiasm, will go forward to awaken the sleeping people of Ceylon who are now having a moribund life." He wanted these leaders trained. He urged the young men of Ceylon " t o study politics, philosophy, history and industrial economics, and to go the root causes of our national decay." {p. 517). He was naturally concerned with the educational policy which could produce such leaders. " We should see that every child born of Sinhalese mothers and fathers receives a liberal education," he urged. He was shocked by the conditions of the village schools which he described as follows : " Vernacular Schools of the Island are so many 'black holes' where the brains of the Sinhalese children are scooped out and when they leave the school only one in ten thousand has the vitality to survive the moral disintegration." (A4o8)He castigated the Government for the apathy it showed in the field of education. He argued that the expenditure on the higher education of the children of four millions of Ceylonese was less than the salary paid to the Governor, {p. 532). In 1912 the per capita expenditure on education per annum was Rs. 5.44 in Government schools and Rs. 3.52 in Assisted Schools {p. 508). He was most dissatisfied with the facilities for higher education. He told the young men of Ceylon : " The education that we get in our local scholastic institutions does not make us men, but ill-paid clerks, and to get a higher education, as it is impossible in Ceylon, I should ask you to migrate to Madras, Calcutta, Benares, Bombay, Lahore, Aligarh or Rangoon. Men who pass examinations in either of the Indian Universities are employed as Judges of the High Court with a monthly salary of Rs. 4,000, and the cost of education is three times lower than what you have to pay in Ceylon. What we get in Ceylon is a bastard education without a solid foundation and the quicker you abandon the local schools and go to India the better for you if you wish to be men."(/. 517-518). He drew the attention of the people over and over again to the dep­ lorable conditions in education. In 1912 he said, " In Ceylon the


schools are very inferior, the educational vote for the whole people who number 3,494,317 is Rs. 1,442,464, which when proportionately divided, you will be astonished, comes to about half anna per month per head. There is no university, no technical college, no industrial school, no weaving school, no art school, and the boys who are poor can't afford to pay the exorbitant rate of Rs. 15 per month as school-fee which is charged at the Government School. The Chris­ tian missionaries have opened a few high schools but admission to these sectarian schools means that the Buddhist pupil loses his faith in the Lord Buddha and laughs at the Aryan customs and comes out as a thoroughbred Eurasian. This is most deplorable." (p. 765). As a solution he urged young men of Bengal to open schools in Ceylon, (p. 766). He was also conscious of the need for education of girls as a necessary step to produce in Ceylon" a race of true Buddhists " (p. 798). America and Japan were the models he had in mind ; no person before or after the Anagarika has been such a voci­ ferous and persistent supporter of scientific and technological education. His conviction that the future of Ceylon depended on industrial education prompted him to get his father to institute a system of scholarships to train young men in crafts and industries in Japan. The Anagarika Dharmapala was fully conscious of the grave need for economic development. Addressing the young men of Ceylon, he said : " We are ignorant of the first principles which regulate the production, distribution and exchange of wsilth. We consume ; but we do not produce fresh wealth. Our ancestral wealth we squander in luxuries, and we do not find fresh fhlds to iacrease our wealth by industries. For nearly seventy generations the Sinhalese have been experts in the science of construction of tanks to hold water for irrigating fields, and yet we get aliens to do our work!" (p, 514). Hi urged them further : " We must learn to stand on our legs and not depend on the alien. We must revive our industries, give work to our countrymen first before we feed the distant Austrian and Belgian who supply us with his manufactures. We allow our own cow to die of starvation in our own fhld and we are feeding the cow in distant Switzerland and Denmark whose milk and butter we use. Behold the Asiatic trader who sells us rice and currystuff and maldive fish. Cut off from the whole world we live in this land like the Andaman islanders, and we are not enterprising enough to visit


other lands and pastures new. Those who go to England for pleasure and do nothing for the progress of our people are drones. We must unite and work in harmony to increase the wealth of out people. We are custodians of our posterity. We have to look to the future to protect the interests of the coming generations of Sinhalese." (A i i ) . 5

In this field, again, he was not a mere theoretician. He practised what he preached and the institutions, he set up, blazed the trail for the growth and development of cottage industries. The creation of a national awareness of the political, religious> social, educational and economic problems of the country is the most remarkable achievement of the Anagarika Dharmapala. This, to us, is of greater significance than the bold and tenacious struggle he carried on in India to re-establish Buddhism in the sub-continent and to restore its sacred sites, such as Buddha Gaya and Isipatana, to the Buddhists. Far greater than the glory which the Anagarika won for Ceylon by is zealous missionary activities in Europe and America and far greater than the cordiality and friendship he earned for Ceylon in various countries in the world is the historical significance of his struggle for national independence, through the promotion of Buddhism, the development of education, the formulation of a policy on aliens and on the economic progress of the nation. Consciously or other­ wise, we of modern Ceylon have been guided by his views on some of the major problems of the day, and that indicates the tremendous impact which he had on the people of this country. Thirty-two years after his death, we hark back to bis clarion call: " Arise, awake, unite and join the Army of Holiness and Peace and defeat the hosts of evil." (p.66o).


Acknowledgements I am deeply indebted to : the Prime Minister, Honourable Dudley Senanayake, M. P., for the Preface he has kindly written for this Volume,


the Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs, Honourable I . M . R. A. Iriyagolle, M. P., for the paper on "My Impressions of Anagarika Dharmapala", the Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Mr. M. J . Perera, for all the assistance and advice in the preparation of the material, the Government Archivist, Mr. Amaravamsa Devaraja, for the keen interest personally taken in the project and the prompt and efficient attention given to my numerous requests for copies and references, the Directors of Cultural Affairs, Messrs. Palita Weeraman, Nissanka Wijeratne and S. B . Senanayake for the co-operation extended to me at all times, Messrs. Basil Gray and Douglas Bharrat of the British Museum, London, for the kind assistance given to me in searching for docu­ ments in the Library and for the photostat copies of a number of substantial documents which were provided free of charge, Mr. Cecil Hobbes of the Library of Congress, Washington D . C , U. S. A. for assistance rendered in tracing several books and documents, Mr. Martin C. Carrol J r . , Director, U. S. I. S., Colombo, who kindly obtained for me, free of charge, photostat copies of the documents in the Library of Congress, Shri Devapriya Valisinghe, General Secretary, Mahabodhi Society of India, for the publications and the typewritten copies of rare articles from earlier issues of the Mahabodhi Journal, the Administrative Secretary of the Mahabodhi Society of Ceylon (Major H. R. Seneviratne) and the Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon Branch) (Mr. K . M. W. Kuruppu) and their Library staff whose co-operation was required in copying manyjirticles, the Daily and Weekly newspapers in English and Sinhala which published our appeal for information and documents, Mr. K . G. Amaradasa, General Secretary, Sri Lanka Sahitya Mandalaya who 'copied' from old journals and books, sixteen photographs and enabled them to be reproduced in this publication and who read the 'proofs' of the entire Volume,


the Government Printer, Mr. Bernard de Silva, for the invaluable co-operation extended to me at all stages of the preparation of this Volume and to his staff for their ready assistance and, to all my other helpers, among whom special mention must be made of Sujata, my wife, Messrs. C. P. Hewagama, Bhagchandra Jain, Danasiri Ratnaweera and Miss Srima Jayasinghe, who worked long hours in preparing the Index.

ANANDA GURUGE, Editor. Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Sirimathipaya ", Colombo 3, Ceylon.

ifth- September, 196J

Anagarika Dharmapala at the Bodhi Tree at Buddha Gaya in 1891 with the Japanese Buddhist monk, Rev. Kozen Gunaratana.

Anagarika Dharmapala when he attended the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago as a Buddhist delegate in 1893.

Anagarika Dharmapala when he attended the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago in 1893.


Dharmapala as a Buddhist delegate o f R e l i g i o n s at C h i c a g o in

to the W o r l d 1893.


W O R L D P A R L I A M E N T OF R E L I G I O N S A T C H I C A G O I N S E S S I O N , Anagarika Dharmapala is the white figure seated at the desk on the left. The turhanncd figure on the right is Swami Vivekananda w h o , too, became a celebrated world figure at these sessions.

Anagarika Dharmapala at the age of forty.

Anagarika Dharmapala in Y o g i c posture at the age of forty.

Anagarika Dharmapala at the age of forty.

Anagarika Dharmapala at

Anagarika Dharmapala becomes a Buddhist Monk as Ven. Dcvamitta Dhammapala,

Y e n . Devamitta Dhammapala immediately after the second ordination.

Y e n . Dcvamitta Dhammapala being taken to the inaugural ceremony of Mulagandhakuti Vihara Sarnath.

Funeral ceremony of Ven. Devamitta Dhammapala at Sarnath.

Funeral pyre of Ven. Devamitta Dhammapala Thera at Sarnath.

A t the Vidyodaya Pirivena when Ven. Devamitta Dhammapala's ashes were brought to Ceylon.

In Praise of Buddhism 1.

T h e World's Debt to Buddha.


Message of the Buddha.


T h e Religion of Religions.


The Religion of Wisdom.


T h e Richest Legacy in the Universe.


W h y w e should take the Buddha as our Example and Guide.


B 4147

1. The World's Debt to Buddha This paper was read to a crowded session of the Parliament of Religions, Chicago, on the lith September, 1893, and so great was the impression created by it that he received congratulations from every quarter. The following is a pen-picture of his personality as recorded in St. Louis Observer, Sept. zi, 1893 " With his black curly locks thrown from his broad brow, his keen clear eyes fixed upon the audience, bis long brown fingers emphasising the utterances of his vibrant voice, he looked the very image of a propagandist, and one trembled to know that such a figure stood at the head of the movement to consolidate all the disciples of Buddha and to spread the ' Light of Asia ' throughout the civilised world." ANCIENT India, twenty-five centuries ago, was the scene of a religious revolution, the greatest the world has ever seen. Indian society at this time had two large and distinguished religious foundation —the Sramanas and the Brahmanas. Famous teachers arose and with their disciples went among the people preaching and converting them to their respective views. The air was full of a coming spiritual struggle, hundreds of the most scholarly young men of noble families (Kulaputta) leaving their homes in quest of truth, ascetics under­ going the severest mortifications to discover a panacea for the evils of suffering, young dialecticians wandering from place to place engaged in disputations, some advocating scepticism as the best weapon to fight against the realistic doctrines of the day, some a life of pessimism as the nearest way to get rid of existence, some denying a future life. It was a time of deep and many-sided intellectual movements, which extended from the circles of Brahmanical thinkers far into the people at large. The sacrificial priest was powerful then as he is now. He was the mediator between god and man. ^Monotheism of the most crude type, from fetishism and animism and anthropomorphic deism to transcendental dualism, was rampant. So was materialism, from sexual epicureanism to transcendental nihilism. In the words of Dr. Oldenberg, " when dialectic scepticism began to attack moral ideas, when a painful longing for deliverance from the burden of being was met by the first signs of moral decay, Buddha appeared."


" . . . . The Saviour of the World, Prince Siddhartha styled on earth, In Earth and Heavens and Hells incomparable, All honoured, Wisest, Best, most Pitiful The Teacher of Nirvana and the Law." —Sir Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia. The Dawn of a N e w Era Oriental scholars, who had begun their researches in the domain of Indian literature, in the beginning of this century, were put to great perplexity of thought at the discovery made of the existence of a religion called after Buddha, in the Indian philosophical books. Sir William Jones, H. H. Wilson, and Colebrooke were embarrassed in being unable to identify him. Dr. Marshman, in 1 8 2 4 , said that Buddha was the Egyptian Apis, and Sir William Jones solved the problem by saying that he was no other than the Scandinavian Woden. But in June, 1837, the whole of the obscure history of India and Buddhism was made clear by the deciphering of the rock-cut edicts of Asoka the Great, in Girnar and Kapur-dagiri, by that lamented archaeologist, James Prinsep ; by the translation of the Pali Ceylon History into English, by Tumour ; by the discovery of Buddhist Mss. in the temples of Nepal, Ceylon, and other Buddhist countries. In 1 8 4 4 , the "first rational, scientific and comprehensive account of the Buddhist religion" was published by the eminent scholar Eugene Burnouf. The key to the hidden archives of this great religion was presented to the people of Europe by this great scholar, and the inquiry since begun is being carried on by the most thoughtful men of the day. Infinite is the wisdom of Buddha ; boundless is the love of Buddha to all that fives, say the Buddhist scriptures. Buddha is called the Mahakarunika, which means the " All Merciful Lord who has compassion on all that lives." To the human mind Buddha's wisdom and mercy is incomprehensible. The foremost and greatest of his disciples, the blessed Sariputta, even he has acknowledged that he could not gauge the Buddha's wisdom and mercy. Professor Huxley, in his recent memorable lecture on " Evolution and Ethics ", delivered at Oxford, speaking of Buddha says, " Gautama got rid of even that shade of a shadow of permanent existence by a meta­ physical four de force of great interest to the student of philosophy, seeing that it supplies the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's wellknown idealist argument. It is a remarkable indication of the subtlety of Indian speculation that Gautama should have seen deeper than the greatest of modern idealists." The tendency of enlightened thought of the day all the world over is not towards theology, but philosophy and psychology. The bark of theological dualism is drifting into danger. The fundamental principles of evolution and monism are being accepted by the thoughtful. 4

History is repeating itself. Twenty-five centuries ago India witnessed an intellectual and religious revolution which culminated in the overthrow of monotheism, priestly selfishness, and the establishment of a synthetic religion, a system of light and thought which was appropriately called Dhamma—Philosophical Religion. All that was good was collected from every source and embodied therein, and all that was bad discarded. The grand personality who promulgated the Synthetic Religion is known as Buddha. For forty-five years He lived a life of absolute purity and taught a system of life and thought, practical, simple, yet philosophical which, makes man active, intelligent, comoassionate and unselfish—to realize the fruits of holiness in this life on this earth. The dream of the visionary, the hope of the theologian, was brought in to objective, reality. Speculation in the domain of false philosophy and theology ceased, and active altruism reigned supreme. Five hundred and forty-three years before the birth of Christ, the great being was born in the Royal Lumbini Garden, near the city of Kapilavastu. His mother was Maya, the queen of Raja Suddhodana of the Solar Race of India. The story of his conception and birth, and the details of his life up to the twenty-ninth year of his age, his great renunciation, his ascetic life, his enlightenment under the great Bo Tree at Buddha Gaya in Middle India, are embodied in that incomparable epic, "The Light of A s i a " by Sir Edwin Arnold. I recommend that beautiful poem to all who appreciate a life of holiness and purity. Six centuries before Jesus of Nazareth walked over the plains of Galilee preaching a life of holiness and purity, the Tathagata Buddha, the enlightened Messiah of the World, with his retinue of Arhats, or holy men, traversed the whole peninsula of India with the message of peace and holiness to the sin-burdened world. Heart-stirring were the words he spoke to the first five disciples at the Deer Park, the Hermitage of saints at Benares. His First Message " Open ye your ears, O Bhikkhus, deliverance from death is found, I teach you, I preach the Law. If ye walk according to my teaching, ye shall be partakers in a short time of that for which sons of noble families leave their homes and go to homelessness—the highest end of religious effort: ye shall even in this present life apprehend the truth itself and see it face to face." And then the exalted Buddha spoke thus : " There are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, which the truth seekers ought not to follow : the one a life of sensualism which is low, ignoble, vulgar, unworthy and unprofitable ; the other the pessimistic life of extreme asceticism, which is painful, unworthy and unprofitable. There is a Middle Path, discovered by the Tatha­ gata, the Messiah—a path which opens the eyes and bestows 5

understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full engligbtenment, to eternal peace. This Middle Path, which the Tafbapata has discovered, is the noble Eight-fold Path, Pipht Knowledge—the perception of the Law of Cause and Effect, Right Th'nking, Eight Speech, Right Action, Right Profession, Right Fxertion, Right Mindfulness, Right Contemplation. This is the Middle Path which the Tafhagata has discovered, and it is the path which opens the eves, bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to perfect enlightenment, to eternal peace." Continuing his discourse, he said : "Birth is attended with pain, old age is painful, disease is painful, death is painful, association with the unpleasant is painful, separation from the pleasant is painful, the non-satisfaction of one's desires is painful, in short, the coming into existence is painful. This is the Noble Truth of suffering. Verily it is that clinging to life which causes the renewal of existence, accompanied by several delights, seeking satisfaction now here, now there—that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving for a continuity of individual existences, or the craving for annihilation. This is the Noble Truth of the origin of suffering. And the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering consists in the destruction of passions, the destruction of all desires, the laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, the harbouring no longer of this thirst. And the Noble Truth which points the way is the Noble Eightfold Path." This is the foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness, and from that centre at Benares, this message of peace and love was sent abroad to all humanity : " Go ye, O Bhikkhus, and wander forth for the gain of the many, in compassion for the world, for the good, for the gain, for the welfare of gods and men. Proclaim, O Bhikkhus, the doctrine glorious. Preach ye a life of holiness perfect and pure. Go then through every country, convert those not converted. Go therefore, each one travelling alone filled with compassion. Go, rescue and receive. Proclaim that a blessed Buddha has appeared in the world, and that he is preaching the Law of Holiness." The essence of the vast teachings of the Buddha is : The entire obliteration of all that is evil, The perfect consummation of all that is good and pure. The complete purification of the mind. The wisdom of the ages embodied in the three Pitakas—the Sutta, Vinaya, Abhidhamma, comprising 84,000 discourses, were all delivered by Buddha during his ministry of forty-five years. T o give an elaborate account of this great system within an hour is not in the power of man.


Buddha, in a discourse called the " Brahmajala sutta sixty-two different religious views held by the sectarians.


After having categorically explained these different systems Buddha continues : Brethren, these believers hold doctrines respecting the past or respecting the future, and meditating on previous events or on those which are in futurity, declare a variety of opinions respecting the past and future in sixty-two modes. " These doctrines are fully understood by the Tathagata Buddha, he knows the causes of their bsing held and the experiences upon which they are founded, he also knows other things far more excellent than these ; but that knowledge has not been derived from sensual impressions. He with knowledge, not derived from the impressions on the senses, is fully acquainted with that by which both the inpressions and their causes becoms extinct, and distinctly preceiving the production, the cessation, the advantages, the evils, and the extinctions of the sensations, he is perfectly free having no attach­ ments. Brethren, these doctrines of Buddha are profound, difficult to be perceived, hard to be comprehended, tranquillizing, excellent, not attainable by reason, subtle and worthy of being known by the wise. These the Tathagata (Buddha) has ascertained by his own wisdom and publicly makes them known. But the teachings of the other believers are founded on ignorance, their want of perception, their personal experience, and on the fluctuating emotions of those who are under the influence of their passions. " Brethren, all these modes of teaching respecting the past or the future originate in the sensations experienced by repeated impressions made on the six organs of sensitiveness, on account of these sensations desire is produced, in consequence of desire and attachment to the desired objects, on account of this attachment, reproduction in an existent state, in consequence of this reproduction of existence, birth ; in consequence of birth are produced disease, death, sarrow, weeping, pain, grief and discontent. " A systematic study of Buddha's doctrine has not yet been made by Western scholars, hence the conflicting opinions expressed by them at various times. The notion once held by the scholars that it is a system of materialism has been exploded. The positivists of France found it a Positivism ; Buchner and his school of materialists thought it was a materialistic system ; agnostics found in Buddha an agnostic, and Dr. Rhys Davids, the eminent Pali scholar, used to call him the agnostic philosoper of India ; some scholars have found and expressed monotheism therein ; Arthur Lillie, another student of Buddhism, thinks it a theistic system ; pessimists identify it with Schoepenhauer's pessimism, the late Mr. Buckle identified 7

it with pantheism of Fichte ; some have found in it a monism ; and the latest dictum of Prof. Huxley is that it is an idealism supplying the wanting half of Bishop Berkely's well-known idealist argument. In the religion of Buddha is found a comprehensive system of ethics, and a transcendental metaphysics embracing a sublime psychology. To the simpleminded it offers a code of morality, to the earnest student a system of pure thought. But the basic doctrine is the self-purification of man. Spiritual progress is impossible for him who does not lead a life of purity and compassion. The rays of the sunlight of truth enter the mind of him who is fearless to examine truth, who is free from prejudice, who is not tied by the sensual passions and who has reasoning faculties to think. One has to be an atheist in the sense employed by Max Muller : " There is an atheism which is unto death, there is another which is the very life-blood of all truth and faith. It is the power of giving up what, in our best, our most honest moments, we know to be no longer true ; it is the readiness to replace the less perfect, however dear, however sacred it may have been to us, by the more perfect, however much it may be detested, as yet by the world. It is the true self surrender, the true self sacrifice, the truest trust in truth, truest faith. Without that atheism, no new religion, no reform, no reformation, no resuscitation would ever have been possible ; without that atheism, no new life is possible for any one of us. " The strongest emphasis has been put by Buddha on the supreme importance of having an unprejudiced mind before we start on the road of investigation of truth. Prejudice, passion, fear of expres­ sion of one's convictions and ignorance are the four biases that have to be sacrificed at the threshold. To be born as a human being is a glorious privilege. Man's dignity consists in his capability to reason and think and to live up to the highest ideal of pure life, of calm thought, of ^wisdom without extraneous intervention. In the Samannaphala Sutta, Buddha says that man can enjoy in this life a glorious existence, a life of undivided freedom, or fearlessness and compassionateness. This dignified ideal of manhood may be attained by the humblest, and this con­ summation raises him above wealth and royalty. " He that is com­ passionate and observes the law is my disciple ", says Buddha. Human brotherhood This forms the fundamental teaching of Buddha ; universal love and sympathy with all mankind and with animal life. Every one is enjoined to love all beings as a mother loves her only child and takes care of it, even at the risk of her life. The realization of the idea of brotherhood is obtained when the first stage of holiness is reached ;


the idea of separateness is destroyed and the oneness of life is recognized. There is no pessimism in the teaching of Buddha, for he strictly enjoins on his holy disciples not even to suggest to others that life is not worth living. On the contrary, the usefulness of life is emphasized for the sake of doing good to self and to humanity. Religion characteristic of Humanity From the first worshipping savage to the highest type of humanity, man naturally yearns after something higher, and it is for this reason that Buddha inculcated the necessity of self-reliance and independent thought. To guide humanity in the right path a Tathagata (Messiah) appears from time to time. The theism of Buddhism Speaking of deity in the sense of a Supreme Creator, Buddha says that there is no such being. Accepting the doctrine of evolution as the only true one, with its corollary, the law of cause and effect, he condemns the idea of creator and strictly forbids inquiry into it as being useless. But a supreme god of the Brahmans and minor gods are accepted ; but they are subject to the law of cause and effect. Evolution as Taught by Buddha The teachings of Buddha on this great subject are clear and expansive. We are asked to look upon the cosmos " as a continuous process unfolding itself in regular order in obedience to natural laws. We see in it all, not a warring chaos restrained by the constant interference from without of a wise and beneficent external power, but a vast aggregate of original elements, perpetually working out their own fresh redistribution in accordance with their own inherent energies. He regards the cosmos as an almost in finite collection of material atoms animated by an infinite sum total of energy "—which is called Akasa. We do not postulate that man's evolution began from the protoplasmic stage ; but we are asked not to speculate on the origin of life, on the origin of the law of cause and effect etc. So far as this great law is concerned we say that it controls the phenomena of human life as well as those of external nature. The whole knowable universe forms one undivided whole, a " monon " (see Haeckel: Evolution of Men, Vol II, page 4 5 5 ) . Importance of a serious study of all systems of Religion Buddha promulgated his system of Philosophy after having studied all religions ; and in the Brahmajala Sutta sixty-two creeds are discussed. In the Kalama Sutta, Buddha says : " Do not believe in what ye have heard ; do not believe in traditions, because they have


been handed down for many generations ; do not believe in anything because it is rumoured and spoken of by many ; do not believe merely because the written statement of some old sage is produced ; do not believe in conjectures ; do not believe in that as truth to which you have become attached by habit ; do not believe merely on the authority of your teachers and elders ; after observation and analysis, when it agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and gain of one and all, then accept it and live up to it " (Anguttara Nikaya). Moral Teachings of Buddha To the ordinary householder whose highest happiness consists in being wealthy here and going to heaven hereafter, Buddha inculcated a simple code of morality. The student of Buddha's religion abstains from destroying life, he lays aside the club and the weapon, he is modest and full of pity, he is compassionate and kind to all creatures that have life. He abstains from theft, and he passes his life in honesty and purity of heart. He lives a life of chastity and purity. He abstains from falsehood and injures not his fellow-men by deceit. Putting away slander he abstains from calumny. He is a peacemaker, a speaker of words that make for peace. Whatever word is humane, pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart—such are the words he speaks. He abstains from harsh language. He abstains from foolish talk. He abstains from intoxicants and stupefying drugs. The Higher Morality The advanced student of the religion of Buddha when he has faith in him thinks : " full of hindrances is household life, a path defiled by passion : free as the air is the life of him who has renounced all wordly things. How difficult it is for the man who dwells at home to live the higher fife in all its fullness, in all its purity, in all its perfection ! Let me then cut of my hair and beard, let me clothe myself in orange-coloured robes, and let me go forth from a household life into the homeless state. " Then, before long, forsaking his portion of wealth, forsaking his circle of relatives, he cuts off his hair and beard, he clothes himself in the orange coloured robes and he goes into the homeless state. Then he passes a fife self-restrained according to the rules of the order of the Blessed One ; uprightness is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those things he should avoid, he encompasses himself with holiness in word and deed, he sustains his life by means that are quite pure : good is his conduct, guarded the door of his senses, mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether happy." The L o w and Lying Arts The student of pure religion abstains from earning a livelihood by the practice of low and lying arts, viz., ^ divination, interpretation of a


dreams, palmistry, astrology, crystal-gazing, prophesying, charms of all sorts. Universal pity Buddha says : " Just as a mighty trumpeter makes himself heard in all the four directions without difficulty ; even so of all things that have life, there is not one that the student passes by or leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set free, and deep-felt pity, sympathy, and equanimity. He lets his mind pervade the whole world with thoughts of Love." The Realization of the Unseen T o realise the unseen is the goal of the student of Buddha's teachings, and such a one has to lead an absolutely pure life. Buddha says : " Let him fulfil all righteousness, let him be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs from within, let him not drive back the ecstacy of contemplation, let him look through things, let him be much alone, fulfil all righteousness for the sake of the living and for the sake of the beloved ones that are dead and gone. Psychic Experiments Thought transference, thought reading, clair-audience, clairvoyance, projection of the sub-conscious self, and all the higher branches of psychical science that just now engage the thoughtful attention of the psychical researches, are within the reach of him who fulfills all righteousness, who is devoted to solitude and contemplation. The Common Appanage of all good Men Charity, observance of moral rules, purifying the mind, making others participate in the good work that one is doing, co-operating with others in doing good, nursing the sick, giving gifts to the deserving ones, hearing all that is good and beautiful, making others learn the rules of morality, accepting the law of cause and effect. Prohibited Employments Slave dealing, sale of weapons of warfare, sale of poisons, sale of intoxicants, sale of flesh—these are the lowest of all low professions. Five kinds of wealth Faith, pure life, receptivity of the mind to all that is'good and beautiful, liberality, wisdom—those who possessed these five kinds of wealth in their past incarnations are influenced by the teaching of Buddha. 11

Universalism of Buddha's teachings Buddha says : " He who is faithful and leads the life of a house­ holder and possesses the following four (Dhammas) virtues : truth, justice, firmness, and liberality—such a one does not grieve when passing away, pray ask other teachers and philosophers far and wide whether there is found anything greater than truth, self-restraint, liberality, and forbearance."

The Pupil and Teacher The pupil should minister to his teacher. He should rise up in his presence, wait upon him, listen to all that he says with respectful attention, perform the duties necessary for his personal comfoxt, and carefully attend to his instruction. The teacher should show affection to his pupil, he trains him in virtue and good manners, carefully instructs him, imparts unto him a knowledge of the science and wisdom of the ancients, speaks well of him to friends and relations and guards him from danger.

The Honourable Man The honourable man ministers to his friends and relatives by presenting gifts, by courteous language, by promoting them as his equals and by sharing with them his prosperity. They should watch over him when he has negligently exposed himself and guard his property when he is careless, assist him in difficulties, stand by him and help to provide for his family.

The Master and Servant The master should minister to the wants of his servants and dependents. He assigns them labour suitable to their strength, provides for their comfortable support ; he attends to them in sickness, causes them to partake of any extraordinary delicacy he may obtain and makes them occasional presents. And the servants should manifest their attachment to the master. They rise before him in the morning and retire later to rest, they do not purloin his property ; do their work cheerfully and actively, and are respectful in their behaviour towards him. Religious teachers and laymen The religious teachers should manifest their kind feelings towards them ; they should dissuade them for vice, excite them to virtuous 12

acts ; being desirous of promoting the welfare of all, they should instruct them in the things they had not previously earned ; confirm them in the truths they had received and point out Ito them the way to heaven. The laymen should minister to the teachers by respectful attention manifested in their words, actions and thoughts ; and by supplying them their temporal wants and by allowing them constant access to themselves. " In this world, generosity, mildness of speech, public spirit and courteous behaviour are worthy of respect in all circ*mstances and will be valuable in all places." If these be not possessed, the mother will receive neither honour nor support from the son, neither will the father receive respect or honour. The Mission of the Buddha Buddha says : " K n o w that from time to time a Tathagata is born into the world, fully enlightened, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy with knowledge of the world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, a teacher of Gods and men, a blessed Buddha. He by himself thoroughly understands and sees, as it were face to face, this universe, the world below with all its spirits, and the worlds above and all creatures, all religious teachers, gods and men, and he then makes his knowledge known to others, the Truth doth he proclaim both in its letter and its spirit, lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation ; the higher life doth he proclaim, in all its purity and in all its perfectness." The Attributes of Buddha (1) He is absolutely free from all passions, commits no evil, even in secrecy, and is the embodiment of perfection ; he is above doing anything wrong. (2) Without a teacher by self-introspection he has reached the state of supreme enlightenment. (3) By means of his divine eye he looks back to the remotest past and future, knows the way of emancipation, is accomplished in the three great branches of divine knowledge and has gained perfect wisdom. He is in possession of all psychic powers, is always willing to listen, full of energy, wisdom and dhyana. (4) He has realised eternal peace of Nirvana and walks in the perfect Path of Virtue.

(5) He knows the three states of existences. (6) He is incomparable in purity and holiness. (7) He is teacher of gods and men. (8) He exhorts gods and men at the proper time according to their individual temperaments. (9) He is the supremely enlightened teacher and embodiment of all the virtues he preaches.



The two characteristics of the Buddha are wisdom and compassion.

Buddha's Disciples Buddha says : " He who is not generous, who is fond of sensuality, who is distressed at heart, who is of uneven mind, who is not reflective, who is not of calm mind, who is discontented at heart, who has no control over his senses—such a disciple is far from me though he is in body near me."

The compassionateness shown by Buddhist missionaries Actuated by the spirit of compassion, the disciples of Buddha have ever been in the forefront of missionary propaganda. The whole of Asia was brought under the influence of the Buddha's law. Never was the religion propagated by force, not a drop of blood has ever been spilt in the name of Buddha. The shrines of Sakyamuni are stainless. The following story is interesting as it shows the nature of the Buddhist missionaries. Punna, the Bhikkhu, before he was sent in his mission to preach to the people of Sunaparanta was warned by Buddha in the following manner :— " The people of Sunaparanta are exceedingly violent. revile, what will you do ?"

If they

" I will make no reply." " And if they strike you ?" " I will not strike in return." " And if they try to kill you ?" " Death is no evil in itself, many even desire it, to escape from the vanities of life ; but I shall take no step either to hasten or to delay the time of my departure."


The ultimate goal of man The ultimate goal of the perfected man is eternal peace. To show humanity the path on which to realise this state of eternal peace, Buddha promulgated the Noble Eightfold Path. The Nirvana of Buddha is beyond the conception of the ordinary mind. Only the perfected man realizes it. It transcends all human thought. Caught in the vortex of evolution man undergoes changes and is constandy subject to birth and death. The happiness in the highest heaven comes some day to an end. This change, Buddha declared is sorrow­ ful. And until you realize Nirvana you are subject to birth and death. Eternal changefulness in evolution becomes eternal rest. The constantly dissipating energy is concentrated in Nirvanic life. There is no more birth, no more death. It is eternal peace. On earth the purified, perfected man enjoys Nirvana and after the dissolution of the physical body there is no birth in an objective world. The gods see him not, nor does man.

The attainment of Salvation It is by the perfection of self through charity, purity, self-sacrifice, self-knowledge, dauntless energy, patience, truth, resolution, love, and equanimity, that the goal is realised. The final consummation is Nirvana. The glorious freedom of self—the last words of Buddha-^-Be ye lamps unto yourselves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake yourself to no - external refuge. Hold fast to the Truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the truth. Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. Learn ye then, O Bhikkhus, that knowledge have I attained and have declared unto you, and walk ye in it, practice and increase, in order that this path of holiness may last and long endure, for the blessing of many people, to the relief of the world, to the welfare, the blessing, the joy of gods and men. O Bhikkhus, everything that cometh into being is changeth. Strive on unceasingly for the consummation of the highest ideal."

The spread of the Religion of Humanity Two thousand one hundred years ago the whole of Asia came under the influences of the sceptre of one emperor and he was truly called Asoka, the delight of the gods. His glory was to spread the teachings of the Buddha throughout the world by the force of love, and indeed nobody could say that he had failed. His only son and daughter were made apostles of the gentle creed, and, clad in the orangecoloured robes, they went to Ceylon, converted the king and established Buddhism there. For the first time in the history of 15

civilization the brotherhood of Humanity is recognised, different nations accept one living truth, virtue is enthroned. It was a proud achievement, unprecedented in history since the dawn of civilization. Pure religion recognizing no Deity finds welcome everywhere. There is a grandeur inherent in it, for it does not want to appeal to the selfishness of man. When the human mind reaches a higher state of development, the conception of a Deity becomes less grand. Nearly three hundred millions of people of the great empire of Asoka embrace a system of pure ethics ; a social polity is for the first time enunciated. The king sees much that is sinful in the destruction of animals, and therefore " one must not kill any living animal". He declares that at the time when the edict is engraved " three animals only are killed for the royal table, two peafowls and a gazelle. Even these three animals will not be killed in future. " Everywhere in his empire, and in the neighbouring kingdoms such as Greece, etc., the king has provided medicines of two sorts, medicine for men and medicine for animals. Wherever useful plants, either for men or for animals were wanting, they have been imported and planted. And along public roads wells have been dug for the use of animals and men. " It is good and proper to render dutiful service to one's father and mother, to friends, to acquaintances and relations ; it is good and proper to bestow alms on religious teachers and students of religion, to respect the life of living beings, to avoid prodigality and violent language. " " Thanks to the instructions of the religion spread by the king, there exist today a respect for living creatures, a tenderness towards them, a regard for relations and for teachers, a dutiful obedience to father and mother and obeisance to aged men, such as have not existed for centuries. The teaching of religion is the most meritorious of acts and there is no practice of religion without virtue." " The practice of virtue is difficult, and those who practice virtue perform what is difficult. Thus in the past there were no ministers of religion, but I have created ministers of religion. They mix with all sects. They bring comfort to him who is in fetters." " T h e king ardently desires that all sects may live in all places. All of them equally purpose the subjection of the senses and the purification of the soul; but man is fickle in his attachments. Those who do not bestow ample gifts may yet possess a control over the senses, purity of soul and gratitude and fidelity in their affections, and this is commendable." " In past times the kings went out for pastimes. These are my pastimes—visits and gifts to teachers, visits to aged men, the distribution of money, visits to the people of the empire, etc." " There is no gift comparable with the gift of religion."


" The king honours all sects, he propitiates them by alms. But the beloved of the gods attaches less importance to such gifts and honours than to the endeavour to promote their essential moral virtues. It is true the prevalence of essential virtues differs in different sects. But there is a common basis and that is gentleness and modera­ tion in language. Thus one should not exalt one's own sect and decry the others ; one should not deprecate them without cause but should render them on every occasion the honour which they deserve. Striving thus, one promotes the welfare of his own sect while serving the others. Whoever from attachment to his own sect, and with a view to promote it, exalts it and decries others, only deals rude blows to his own sect." " Hence concord alone is meritorious, so that all bear and love to bear the beliefs of each other. All people, whatever their faith may be, should say that the beloved of the gods attaches less importance to gifts and external observances than to the desire to promote essential moral doctrines and mutual respects for all sects. The result of this is the promotion of my own faith and its advancement in the light of religion." " The beloved of the gods ardently desires security for all creatures, respect for life, peace and kindliness in behaviour. This is what the beloved of the gods considers as the conquest of religion . . . . I have felt an intense joy—such is the happiness which the conquests of religion procure. It is with this object that this religious inscription has been engraved, in order that our sons and grandsons may not think that a new conquest is necessary ; that they may not think that conquest by the sword deserves the name of conquest ; that they may see in it nothing but destruction and violence ; that they may consider nothing as true conquest as the conquest of religion." In the Eighth Edict the great Emperor says: " I have also appointed ministers of religion in order that they may exert themselves among all sects, monks as well as wordly men. I have also had in view the interest of the clergy, of Brahmans, of religious mendicants, of religious Nirganthas and of various sects among whom my officers work. The ministers exert themselves, each in his corporation, and the ministers of religion work generally among all sects. In this way acts of religion are promoted in the world as well as the practice of religion, viz.. mercy and charity, truth and purity, kindness and goodness. The progress of religion among men is secured in two ways, by positive rules and by religious sentiments. Of these two methods that of positive rules is of poor value, it is the inspiration in the heart which best prevails. It is solely by a change in the senti­ ments of the heart that religion makes a real advance in inspiring a respect for life, and in the anxiety not to kill living beings." Who shall say that the religion of this humane emperor has not endured,


and within the two thousand years which have succeeded, mankind has discovered no nobler religion than to promote in this earth " mercy and charity, truth and purity, kindness and goodness." To what degree has each religion helped the historic evolution of the Race ? When Buddhism nourished in India, the arts, sciences and civilization reached their zenith, as witnessed in the edicts and monuments of Asoka's reign. Hospitals were firstfounded for man and beast. Missionaries were sent to all parts of the world. Literature was encouraged. Wherever Buddhism has gone, the nations have imbibed its spirit, and the people have become gentler and milder. The slaughter of animals and drunkenness ceased, and wars were almost abolished.

What the Buddhist Literature has wrought for mankind With the advent of Buddhism into Ceylon, and other Buddhist countries, literature nourished, and wherever it went it helped the development of arts and letters. The monasteries became the seats of learning, and the monks in obedience to their Master's will disseminated knowledge among the people.

Religion and the Family The Domestic Education of Children, The Marriage Bond—The Sigalovada Sutta lays down the relations of the members of the household to one another. Parents should : ( i ) Restrain their children from vice ; (2) Train them in virtue ; (3) Have them taught arts and sciences ; (4) Provide them with suitable wives and husbands ; (5) Endow them with an inheritance. Children should : ( 1 ) Support their parents ; (2) Perform the proper family duties ; (3) Guard their property ; (4) Make themselves worthy to be heirs ; (5) Honour their memory ; The gift of the whole world with all its wealth would be no adequate return, to parents for all that they have done. The Husband should : (1) Treat his wife with respect; (2) Treat his wife with kindness •, (3) B e faithful to hei ; (4) Cause her to be honoured by others ; (5) Give her suitable ornaments and clothes. The Wife should : (1) Order her household aright ; (2) Be hospitable to kinsmen and friends ; (3) Be chaste ; (4) Be a thrifty house-keeper ; (5) Show diligence and skill.


Buddhist Brotherhood Buddha was the first to establish the brotherhood without distinction of caste and race. Twenty-four centuries ago he declared, " A s the great streams, O disciples, however many they may be, the Ganges, Yamuna, Achiravati, Sarabhu, when they reach the great ocean, lose their old name and their old descent, and bear only one name—the great ocean, so also do the Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras, lose their distinctions when they join the brotherhood." The outcaste as well as the prince was admitted to this order. Virtue was the passport, not wealth and rank.

Buddha's Exalted Tolerance "" Bhikkhus, if others speak against me, or speak against my doctrine, or speak against the order, that is no reason why you should be angry, discontented or displeased with them. . . . If you, in consequence thereof, become angry and dissatisfied, you bring yourself into danger . . . . If you become angry and dissatisfied, will you be able to judge whether they speak correctly or incorrectly ? ' We shall not, O Lord, be able. . . . If others speak against me you should repudiate the falsehood as being a falsehood, saying, these things are not so, they are not true, these things are not existing amongst us, they are not in us." " Bhikkhus, if others speak in praise of me, speak in praise of my doctrine, or speak in praise of the order, that is no reason why you should be pleased, gratified, or elated in mind . . . . If you in consequence thereof, be pleased, gratified, or elated in mind, you bring yourselves thereby into danger. The truth should be received by you as being the truth, knowing that these things exist, that they are true, that they exist among you and are seen in you . . . ."

Buddhism and Modern Science Sir Edwin Arnold says : " I have often said, and I shall say again and again, that between Buddhism and modern Science there exists a close intellectual bond. When Tyndall tells us of sounds we cannot hear, and Norman Lockyer of colours we cannot see, when Sir William Thompson and Prof. Sylvester push mathematical investigation to regions almost beyond the calculus, and others, still bolder, imagine and try to grapple a space of four dimensions, what is all these except the Buddhist Maya ? And when Darwin shows us life passing onward and upward through a series of con­ stantly improving forms towards the Better and the Best, each individual starting in new existence with the records of bygone good


and evil stamped deep and ineffaceably from the old ones, what is this again but Buddhist Doctrine of Karma and Dharma ? " Finally, if we gather up all the results of modern research, and look away from the best literature to the largest discovery in physics and the latest word in biology, what is the conclusion—the high and joyous conclusion—forced upon the mind, if not that which renders true Buddhism so glad and so hopeful ?

Can the knowledge of the Religion be Scientific ? Buddhism is a scientific religion, in as much as it earnestly enjoins that nothing whatever be accepted on faith. Buddha has said that nothing should be believed merely because it is said. Buddhism is tantamount to a knowledge of other sciences. Religion in its Relation to Morals The highest morality is inculcated in the system of Buddha since it permits freedom of thought and opinion, sets its face against persecution and cruelty, and recognises the rights of animals. Drink, opium, and all that tend to destroy the composure of the mind are discountenanced.

Different schemes for the Restoration of Fallen Man It is the duty of the Bhikkhus and of the religious men (Upasakas) not only to be an example of holy life, but continually to exhort their weaker brethren by pointing out the pernicious effects of an evil life, and the gloriousness of a virtuous life, and urge them to a life of purity. The fallen should on no account be neglected ; they are to be treated with sympathy.

Religion and Social Problems The basic doctrine of Buddhism is to relieve human suffering. A life of sensual pleasure is condemned, and the conflicts of labour and capital and other problems which confront Europe are not to be met with in Buddhistic countries. In the Vasala Sutta he who does not look after the poor is called a vasala or low-born man. In the Sigalovada Sutta, Buddha enjoins on men to devote one-fourth of their wealth in the cause of the relief of the needy. In the Mahadhamma Samadana Sutta, Buddha says the poverty of a man is no excuse for his neglect of religion. A s the dropsy patient must take bitter medicine, so the poor, notwithstanding their poverty, must lead the religious life which is hard.


Religion and Temperance Buddha said : " Man already drunk with ignorance should not add thereto by the inhibition of alcoholic drinks." One of the vows taken by the Buddhist monks and laity runs thus : " I take the v o w to abstain from intoxicating drinks because they hinder progress and virtue." Dhammika Sutta says : " The householder that delights in the Law should not indulge in intoxicating drinks, should not cause others to drink, and should not sanction the acts of those who drink, knowing that it results in insanity. The ignorant commit sins in consequence of drunkenness and also make others drink. You should avoid this. It is the cause of demerit, insanity and ignorance—though it be pleasing to the ignorant." The dangers of modern life originate chiefly from drink and brutality, and in Buddhist countries the law of Karma, based upon the teaching of Buddhism, prohibits the manufacture, sale and use of liquor, and prevents the slaughter of animals for food.

Benefits conferred on Women by Buddhism The same rights are given to woman as to man. Not the least difference is shown, and perfect equality has been proclaimed. " Woman ", Buddha says in the Chulavedalla Sutta and in the Mahavagga, " may attain the highest path of holiness, Arahatship which is open to man." The inscriptions of Asoka and the histories of Ceylon, Burma and other Buddhist countries prove this.

Love of Country and Observance of Law In the Mahaparinibbana Sutta Buddha enjoined love for one's country. " So long as a people meet together in concord and rise in concord and carry out their undertakings in concord, so long as they enact nothing not already established, abrogate nothing that has been already enacted, and act in accordance with the ancient institutions as established in former days, so long as they esteem and honour and revere the elders, so long as no women or girls are detained among them by force or abduction, so long as they honour and revere the shrines in town and country, so long will they be expected not to decline, but to prosper." The Fraternity of People As Buddhism acknowledges no caste system, and admits the perfect equality of all men, it proclaims the universal brotherhood. But peoples should agree in the acceptance of the universal virtues.


Buddhism advocates universal peace amongst nations, and deplore war and bloodshed. The rights of smaller tribes and nations for a separate existence should be protected from aggressive warfare. In the Anguttara Nikaya, l i k a iNipata, Brahmanavagga, Buddha advocates arbitration instead of war. Buddhism strongly condemns war on the ground of the great losses it brings on humanity. It says that devastation, famine and other such evils have been brought on by war. Works Treating on Buddhism :— T H E Idea of Rebirth, by F. Arundale ; The Wheel of the Law, by Alabaster ; The Light of Asia, by Sir Edwin Arnold ; Religions of India, by A. Barth ; Imitation of Buddha, by Earnest M. Bowden ; Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, by S. Beal ; Buddhism in China, by S. Beal ; Buddhist Records of the Western World, by S. Beal, 2 vols, ; Life of Hiouen Thsang, by S. Beal ; Dhammapada, by S. Beal; Sutta Nipata, by Sir M. Coomaraswamy ; Sarva Darsana Sangraha, by Cowell ; Pali Dictionary, by R. C. Childers ; History of Ancient Civilization of India, by Romesh Ch. Dutta ; Indian Empire by Sir W. W. Hunter ; Buddhist Birth Stories, Buddhism, Hibbert Lectures, by Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids ; Buddhism by Dr. E i t e l ; Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism, by Dr. Eitel ; Legend of Gautama, by Bishop Bigandet, 2 vols. ; The Unknown God, by Loring Brace ; Chinese Buddhism, Religions in China, by Dr. Ch. Edkins; Philosophy of the Upanishads, by Gough; Oriental Religions, by S. Johnson, 2 vols. ; Mannual of Hindu Pantheism, by Col. Jacob ; Vicissitudes of Aryan Civilization, by M. M. Kunte ; His Life and Works, by Korosi ; Sacred Books of the East, vols. VIII., X . , X L , X I I I , X V I I . , X I X . , X X . , X X L , X X I I . , X X X V . , by Max Muller ; Buddhist Catechism, by H. S. Olcott ; Golden Rules of Buddhism, by H. S. Olcott ; Theosophy, Religion and Occult Science, by H. S. Olcott ; Buddha, His Life, Law and Order, by Dr. Hermann Oldenberg ; Udana Varga, Life of Buddha, by W. W. Rockhill; Tibetan Tales, by Ralston ; Buddhaghosha's Parables, by Captain Rogers ; Manual of Buddhism, Eastern Monachism, by R. Spence Hardy ; Buddhist Catechism, by Subhadra Bhikshu ; Buddhism in China, by Schlagintweit ; Ceylon Mahavansa, by Wijesinha.


2. Message of the Buddha* I T was only a hundred years ago that Europe for the first time learnt of the existence of a religion which is named after the promulgator thereof, whose teachings were in direct opposition to the other wellknown religions in that it denied a creator and a ghost soul that inhabi­ ted the body of the human being, which prompted the theologians and metaphysical thinkers of Europe to dub it as an atheism. Among the European philosophers Schopenhauer alone was able to assimilate some of its doctrines. Schopenhauer was known as the philosopher of pessimism, and as he had shown his admiration of the teachings of the Great Teacher of India, Buddhism was henceforth christened a pessimistic religion. Schopenhauer could not at that early period obtain any of the original texts in Pali, but his great name was enough to make people in Europe conclude that a religion which denied a creator, a soul and taught that all existence was misery was a pessi­ mistic nihilism. The result of it was that Buddhism was taboo in Europe. Fortunately for the cause of Truth, theologians of Europe found a new enemy in modern science, and fortunately for Buddhism it hailed the discoveries of scientists and the arguments of materialistic philosophers of Germany, England and France of the early nineteenth century. The researches of Darwin which culminated in promul­ gation of his biological ideas gave a shock to the creator idea which was religiously accepted by the Christians of Europe and America. Herbert Spencer, Huxley, Tyndall, Mill and others repudiated the Semitic Deity of Horeb, and Dr. Draper and Dr. White both of the United States by their philosophical essays showed that the civilization of Europe was retarded for 19 centuries by the theologians of Europe The ' Conflict between Religion and Science' and the ' Warfare between Science and Theology' are two admirable works which should be in the library of every lover of humanity and truth. A new era has dawned with the discovery of radium by Mme. Curie and the enunciation of the new theory of Relativity by Einstein. Paleontology, Astronomy, Geology, the discovery of fossils in various parts of the earth showing an antiquity of many million years thereby falsifying the Mosaic account of the Semitic cosmogony and the unscientific mythical account of the Euphratic god creating man out of Mesopotamian mud, and the the woman out of the rib of the mudman. * Address deUvered at The Town Hall, New York, in 1925. 23-

In India the Brahmanical hierarchy has created a huge pantheon numbering about 330 million of deities at whose head stand the princi­ pal gods Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Krishna, Ganapati and the avataras who are recognized as incarnations of the gods Vishnu and Siva. T o the Saivites, Siva is the principal god, to the Vaishnavas, the chief God is Vishnu, and the Saktas worship the goddess Durga and her manifestations. The minor gods are Ganapati who has the head of an elephant, Kartika, the wargod who is a celibate, both are sons of Durga. The Catholics pray to Mary as the mother of God which offended the Arabian prophet and led him to condemn the idea. In China two domestic religions influence the masses. The two prophets worshipped by the Chinese are Confucius and Laotsze. Both repudiated the creator idea, the former tried to establish a kingdom of righteousness on earth according to the ancient laws of China, while the latter attempted to discover an elixir of life which will give immor­ tality on earth. The ethics of Confucius are based on mundane laws whereas the ethics of Laotsze were based on asceticism. There was no middle doctrine showing the golden mean for the welfare of the people of China, and that was supplied by the Indian Buddhist Bhikkhus

and after two thousand years the world has come to realise the wonderful deeds he had done for the prosperity of the people over whcm he ruled. The rock cut edicts of the King " Beloved of the gods " speak to-day to the whole world what a king's duties are. With the extinction of the Kshatriya kings in India, state support was withdrawn which was given to the maintenance of scholarly Bhikkhus and their pupils. Aliens and low caste kings showed no sympathy with the yellow-robed Bhikkhus, and when they found no support they had to leave the country. Buddhism is like a tender plant that requires nursing. When the ruling king turns bad the Bhikkhus follow the exhortation of the Blessed One ; they leave his kingdom. For a thousand years the law of righteousness has remained dormant. May the time soon come when the law of Piety will reign in the heart of the people and the princes of India.




T H E Blessed One began His mission of Love and Wisdom with the announcement of the gift of Immorality to those who were willing to listen to the Noble Doctrine of Eternal Freedom from Sin and Sorrow ; from Hatred and Lust and from Ignorance. The Blessed One wished that all living beings should enjoy the bliss of peace, and happiness. For seven weeks after the realization of the Wisdom under the Bodhi Tree at Uruvela near the river Neranjara, the Blessed One sat at seven places in the enjoyment of vimutti sukha the happiness o f emancipation. He psychologically thought out the complex ramifi­ cations of the twenty-four laws based on 24 causes. The whole universe was brought under one great Law. Every phenomenon has a cause (ye dhamma hetu pabhava) and this Cause the Tathagata has explained. The kaleidoscopic operations of the 24 laws the Tathagata 176

witnessed, and it is said that when the whole scene became manifest to the mind's eye of the Blessed One, that there went forth from His glorified body the six colored rays of blue, yellow, red, white, crimson and a blending of the five in one ray which coalesced with the ether waves travelling to the remotest limits of the Universe. The consummation of His desires, the peace of absolute Nirvana He realized, and now comes the Tempter, Mara, the chief God of the pleasureable heavens, and solicits the Blessed One to enjoy the bliss of Peace in solitude, alone, without any kind of active display. Live in Peace, why make the effort, said Mara. The Blessed One answered "" Evil One, Friend of Death, thy prayer shall not be answered. The rest and the peace within which thou want that I should enjoy alone shall not be mine till I see the whole world become partakers thereof. Not until the company of Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, Upasakas and Upasikas (monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen) is formed, and properly equipped in my Doctrine, and able to subdue the heresies and able to proclaim the Noble Doctrine, shall the Tathagata live in enjoyment of Nirvanic repose. Away with thee Evil One." " The Doctrine is hard to understand thought", the Blessed One. Men given to pleasurable enjoyments and living amidst luxury will they receive it ? " Just then the cry was heard from the heavens " Lord the world is ready to receive the Doctrine, preach Lord and save the world." The God of Love, the Brahma Sahampati, the Lord of all gods, thus spake, and appeared before the Blessed One. Buddhism does not believe in persecuting people for the sake of religion. The Buddha saw by His divine eye that there are three kinds of human beings, the fully blossomed, ready to bloom, and the buds that may bloom later. Men's minds are compared to the lotus flower in the three grades, viz., the fully bloomed, the flower above water ready to blossom, and the flower unopened yet under water. The boy in the lower class is not equal to the student in the middle form, and the senior student in the higher form is superior to both. It would be foolish to except that the boy of the lower form could at once develop into the senior boy. Time is required to grow. This doctrine is emphasised in the Dharma of the Tathagata. The human being was not created a clay idol and galvanised by the fiat of a blood thirsty demon-god. He is the product of his own karma. Man and animal, have no known beginning. There is no beginning in the cosmology of Buddhism. The beginning can't be found, because there is no known beginning. It is eternity behind, and eternity beyond. There is nothing permanent and nothing can be annihilated. Only the law of change endures. Countless billions of solar systems exist, the whole universe is spiritually bound by the law of cause and effect. Until the last dying moment here is hope for the better in the case of man. There must not be any show of impatience to compel him to do anything against his will. Kindly, lovingly, persuade him to 177

be good, if he is going in the path of self-destruction, which also means that he is bringing unhappiness on others. N o man can doevil for himself alone. He who does good to himself helps others. Besides the Blessed One saw that each individual has his own upanissaya karma, and to force him to do a thing when he has not the potentiality to grasp it, would be going against the law of karma. You can't make the thistle to produce figs. The mango tree will only produce mango, not cocoanuts. The Blessed One enunciated the laws of Heredity, the germinating power of the Seed, the operating cause, and the Law of Nature, (kamma, bija, utu, dhamma). Buddhism knows no persecution, o r oppression on religious or psychological grounds. There is all eternity before you, therefore why fear of annihilation ? The com­ passion of the Buddhas is due to their Wisdom, and they wish to save those who are ready to hear the good. So long as there is eternity before there will be a line of Buddhas in continuity preparing Huma­ nity for the acceptance of the Dhamma of the future Buddhas. T h e world will never be devoid of Holy Men. The Blessed One wished to make the Aryan home happy. wished to make the wife a goddess and the husband a god.


The Blessed One wished to make the city beautiful, with its gardens, parks, tanks, forests, the alms hall, the public bath, the resting hall, the hospital, the townhall, the retreat for the religious, the lying—in home, the beautiful arama with its park, pavilion, tank, night station, day station, cloister, hot bath, dining hall, service hall, garden o f flowers, garden of fruits, and with this end in view He trained the Bhikkhus to become the teachers of the old and the young. The perfections of virtue He taught to the house-holder. He m u s t learn to give charity, however little, daily. He should train himself in the science of giving. Even a grain of rice the house-holder m u s t learn to give. Morality is a necessity ; it is the foundation of domestic happiness. No man who is a thief, will be admitted into respectable society. Man is a social, evolving, psychical being ; he can't live without company. He must have his relations to make him happy. The man without friends, relations, wife and children would not b e able to endure life. Gods do not come down daily to keep company with man, and man must therefore learn to behave morally a n d socially for the happiness of others. There are certain religions that teach the existence of only one g o d . That god must be very unhappy. A god without company is a prisoner. The prophet who presented that kind of god to the w o r l d did not consult the god's happiness, except his own. He perhaps wished to be the despot and he duped the people to believe in one g o d . The poor god must be pitied. He has only to be satisfied with t h e 178

little blood that is given to him, that he requires in the shape of meat. An all—powerful G o d is gressive Evolution repudiates it.

and to see that the prophet gets all more women, more liquor, more a psychological monstrosity. Pro­ Barbaric paganism accepts it.

The people of ancient India did not fear the gods. Gods and men were not inimical to each other. They were interdependent. A blood-thirsty fiend in the form of a jealous god had no existence in the Aryan pantheon. The Supreme Law of Truth and Righteousness was above the gods ; and no one dared to disobey the Great Law. The prophets who proclaimed the doctrine of a despotic god had no idea of the great Eternal Law of Cause and Effect. In the Ethics of the Happy Home which the Blessed One enunciated there was no place for a despotic god who goeth against immutable laws. The gospel of self—help is the profound doctrine which the Buddha proclaimed. T o do the will of a Creator means to conform to the foolishness of a pagan prophet who proclaimed the idea. There is no place in the Law of Righteousness for the equally despicable dogma of Fatalism. The foolish idea that man has been preordained to go through suffering, destroys the power of rational activity which is the birthright of the individual with a consciousness. The mind has no other work to do, but to generate Sankharas, and when it is associated with wisdom begotten of science, there is no place for the fatalistic idea of predestination. A despotic creator and a dogma asserting that man is fated to go through a predestined course rob man of his power to individualised activity in harmony with the Law of Cause and Effect. Equally despicable is the dogma that man had no past and has no future, and that at death of the physical body, existence ceases. These were the beliefs of the Animists of ancient India. To believe in the Semitic dogma that man was made out of the dust of the ground connotes that he had no past and that life began at a certain period, and that there is no more life after the death of the physical body. Such a doctrine is only fit for the Bedouin of the waterless desert. Dr. Flinders Petrie in his most interesting work called the Dawn of Civilization, gives a picture of an ancient Egyptian piece of sculpture, where the god Khnumu is shown modelling man upon a potter's table. The ancient Egyptian idea of God making man from clay was incorporated in the later Semitic religions which had their foundation in the extreme west coast of Asia. The greatness of man consists in his indomitable will to do good, and the power to realize Truth by his own self-sacrificing efforts. Rob man of this great virtue and he degenerates into a savage with the instincts of the tiger and the hyena. 179

Certain countries are by nature unsuited for agriculture, and in. countries where people are engaged in rice cultivation, nature helps them to acquire wisdom by the experience of the daily efforts they are making to prepare the soil to sow the seed. The agriculturist has to observe, when the season arrives for sowing, meteorological changes in the atmosphere. He observes the gradual changes that are taking place when the seed of the rice begins to germinate. He values the efforts he makes to get a good harvest ; he values the labour of the oxen without whose help he could not plough the field. In agricultural countries where rice is the staple food of man, it is remarkable that the idea of a Creator never found acceptance. It is the Bedouin and the wandering savage and the pirate who prays to a deity to protect him from danger while he is plundering and murdering others. The Happy Home of the Aryan was not converted into a butcher's slaughter house. He did not contaminate the life-giving earth with the blood of innocent and helpless victims whom he ruthlessly slaughtered to satisfy his lust. And he did not invoke an infuriated god as his authority to spill innocent blood. The Aryan began his day's work with the slogan " ahimsa paramo dharmah ". Mercy is the supreme law. And the God that the Aryan worshipped had the four attributes of Love, Compassion, Delight and Equal-mindedness. And the God was called Brahma. The Earth was not cursed by the Aryan gods. They blessed it. The idea of a god cursing the earth is too revolting to contemplate. It is the consummation of the Gospel of Curse. The Ethics of the Happy Home inculcated certain duties on the family. The chief of the family was called the Ariya and he was honoured with the appellation of deva, and the obedient wife was called Devi. The aryan householder had to listen to the G o o d Law, and he had to also to think rationally from doing (papa kammam na karoti) certain things that led him towards hell; he had to dissociate with (apaya mukhani na sevati)— The contaminating acts are killing, stealing, committing adultery, enjoying sense pleasures ignobly, and lying speech. The good Aryan must not be guided by his prejudices ; anger, fear and ignorance he must avoid. The immoralities that lead a man to hell are intoxication, wandering from place to place at unusal hours ; attending bacchnalian orgies ; association with evil companions and addiction to indolent habits. The happiness of the householder is lost if he is given to drinking intoxicating liquor. The Blessed One enumerated the following evils resulting from drunkenness. 180

Immediate loss of wealth ; getting entangled in quarrels, and provoking them ; prepares the body for new diseases ; loss of repu­ tation ; loses the sense of shame ; deteriorates the thinking faculty and helps to arrest the mental growth. In the next life he suffers from insanity. The ethic of the Happy Home enjoins on the householder certain duties which are compulsory. He has to take care of his parents ; his sons and wife ; he has to attend to his friends and ministers, and to his servants and craftsmen, and to the holy ascetics (samanas) and holy Brahmanas. He sees to his sons' education in arts, sciences (silpa, Karmanta, vidya and karma), and he has to look after the wants of the teacher who teaches his sons. He must be true of his friend, and take care of him when he is in danger, must not abandon him when he is in want, and even he should be prepared to sacrifice his own life for the true friend. He has to divide his income into four parts, and spend one portion for his own comforts, two portions he has to set apart for his hvelihood, and one portion he must lay aside as a provident fund. From the portion that he spends for his own use he should daily give a tenth portion for charity. The Aryan householder if he is to live happily never should show slothfulness at any time. The indolent man loses what he has in his possession, and is never able to gain new wealth. Indolence is the path to hell, and the wise man should think that activity is immortality (appamado amatapadam). Four things the Aryan householder should cultivate viz., charity (dana) sweet speech (priya vacana) equal treatment to all (samanaatmata) and social service (arthachariya). For fotty five years the Blessed One exhorted daily the Upasakas and the Upasikas of Aryavarta. The representative Husband and Wife of the Aryan Home are like the two Wheels of the Chariot, They must be alike in the nobility of their conduct, in their Wisdom and in their attachment to each other. Nakulapita and Nakulamata are the best examples of the Aryan husband and Aryan wife.


APPENDIX No. 154 G O V E R N M E N T OF INDIA D E P A R T M E N T OF E D U C A T I O N (Archy). Simla, the 30th June, 1916. FROM T H E H O N ' B L E SIR E . D. M A C L A G A N , K.C.I.E., C.S.I., Secretary to the Government of India. TO T H E S E C R E T A R Y O F T H E G O V E R N M E N T OF B E N G A L , General Department. Sir, I am directed to state for the information of the Governor in Council that several Buddhist Relics have recently been found in various stupas at Taxila in the Rawal-pindi District of the Punjab dating from about the beginning of the Christian era. The Government of India are advised that though it cannot be affirmed that they were relics of the Buddha himself, they were undoubtedly regarded with veneration two thousand years ago. 2. In addition to the above there is a well authenticated relic of the Buddha consisting of a small piece of bone contained in a rock crystal" casket which was discovered in 1892 at Battiprolu in the Kristna Distric of the Madras Presidency. This relic is now in the Government Central Museum, Madras, An account of its discovery appears on pages 1 1 - 1 2 of volume X V of the new Imperial series of Reports of the Archaeological Survey of India and a translation of the inscription engraved on the relic box is given in a list of Brahmi inscriptions prepared by Professor Luders vide pages 158 to 159 of volume X of the Epigraphia Indica. The date of these inscriptions which are in the early Brahmi script is the second century B.C. 3. I am to say that the Government of India will be prepared to present three of the relics including the Bhattiprolu relic to the Maha Bodhi Society, (4-A, College Square, Calcutta) and one to the Bengal Buddhist Association, (5 Lalit Mohan Das Lane, Kapalitoral, Calcutta), provided that both Societies can guarantee that the relics will be enshrined in worthy Viharas and adequately safe-guarded and provided that the shrines are constructed before the relics are distri­ buted. 182

4- I am to request that, with the permission of the Governor in Council, that the Societies may be informed accordingly. I am also to ask that it may be suggested to the Maha Bodhi Society that they should enshrine the three relics at Calcutta, Sarnath and Taxila, respectively. I have & c , (Sd.) E . D. MACLAGAN,

Secretary to the Govt, of India. No.


GOVERNMENT OF BENGAL GENERAL DEPARTMENT Miscellaneous Branch, Calcutta, the 31st July, 1 9 1 6 . FROM C. W. G U R N E R , Esq., I.C.S., Under-Secretary to the Government of Bengal. TO T H E S E C R E T A R Y T O T H E MAHA BODHI SOCIETY, 4 A , College Square, Calcutta. Sir, I am directed to forward a copy of the marginally noted letter from the Government of India, Department of Education and to inquire whether the Maha Bodhi Society is desirous of accepting the relics on the conditions laid down. If so, I am to request that you will report at an early date what arrangements the Society proposes to make for enshrining and safeguarding them in a suitable manner at Calcutta, Sarnath and Taxila. I have & c , (Sd.) C. W.


Under-Secy. to the Govt, of India.


13. An Introduction to Buddhism W E are here assembled to celebrate the thrice sacred festival of the Birth, Buddhahood and Parinirvana of the Tathagata, who was born on the full moon day of May 2531 years ago in the city of the Royal Sakyas, Kapilavastu. His mother was the immaculate Queen Maya and His father was the Raja Suddhodana of the solar dynasty of Ikshvaku. A thousand years before His birth there was a prophecy that a Buddha shall be born to save the world and when the time came the future Buddha, who was then in the Tusita Heaven as the god Svetaketu, was approached by the gods who announced that the time had come for Him to be born to save the world. Leaving the divine pleasures the Bodhisatva took birth as a human being. Our Lord Himself in the scriptures has taught us the nature of the exalted condition of the Buddhahood. To become a Buddha the aspirant has to practise for four asankheyya and a hundred thousand Kalpas the ten great perfections called Paramitas. Coundess millions of Kalpas ago when Buddha Dipankara had appeared to save the world, our Buddha was born in a Brahman family of immense wealth. Reflecting on the vanity of pleasures he, having given in charity everything that he had received from his parents the accumulated inheritance of seven generations, left home and taking the garb of the ascetic, went to a Himalayan retreat and practised the Dhyanas and Samapattis. Having attained the five transcendentally phenomenal powers he was in a position to work wonders. One day having heard that the Buddha Dipankara was visiting the city of Rammanagar where he happened to be, he was greatly delighted and decided to see the Buddha. Having seen Him the future Buddha resolved to attain to the supremely glorious height of Buddha-hood to save living beings. The Buddha Dipankara looking into future declared that this great ascetic after many millions of ages shall become a Buddha and be known as Gautama, and that his mother will be 185

known as Maya, his father as the Raja Suddhodhana, that as a Prince he would be married to the Princess Yasodhara, that he shall have a son and that he shall renounce all to save the world. That day the great ascetic, who was known as Sumedha Tapasa could have attained Nirvana ; but his great compassion overcame the desire to pass silently away to enjoy the supreme bliss of Nirvana. T h e ' Patisambhida' ascentuates the absolute compassion of a Buddha, who seeing the manifold miseries of the suffering world plunges into the ocean of Samsara and exerts life after life, practising absolute charity, observing the highest virtues of a perfect life, renouncing all sensual pleasures, acquiring wisdom, exerting strenuously, never uttering a falsehood, ever forgiving and patient, developing a determined will, showing absolute love and equal-mindedness to all. The 550 Jatakas give biographical accounts of his previous births, each showing an individual paramita which he had practised for the sake of attaining the Anuttara Sammasambodhi state, Whatever the Bodhisat accomplished, and the name is applied to one who aspires to attain Buddhahood, it was with unswerving will of saving the world. N o being that has appeared on this earth, except a Buddha, has made such absolute sacrifices for the salvation of the world. Hence the great love that one begets in his heart after he has read the ' nine portions' of the Buddhist scriptures. In as much as the Brahman astrologers had foretold that the Prince, who was named Siddhartha, would one day, if he did not become a great world conqueror—a Chakravarti,—become a Buddha, the K i n g ordered that three palaces, one for each Indian season, should be built for his residence. In the sixteenth year, the Prince was married to his own cousin the Princess Yasodhara, known for her exceeding beauty as Bimba Devi. Amidst the luxuries that royalty could command the Prince lived a life of exceeding sweetness till his twentyninth year. Beyond his pleasure gardens and the experience o f his own palatial surroundings, the Prince Siddhartha knew nothing of the world. The day the Princess Yasodhara was to give birth to a child, the Prince Siddhartha attended by his Royal charioteer drove to see the decorated city. It is said that the gods knowing that the day of the Great Renunciation had come, created four scenes to make the Prince reflect on the miseries of human existence and the escape therefrom. The sight of an old man, a diseased man and a dead man which the Prince had seen for the first time made him question his charioteer, who, explained to him that man was born fated to grow old, get ill and die. The fourth scene he had witnessed was pleasant to look at, it was the dignified figure of a yellow robed monk walking majestically. Having reflected on the blessings that attend the life of absolute renunciation the Prince resolved to leave the palace that very day. Returning home on the way the Prince met Royal messengers who had been sent by the King to announce the birth of a son to the Princess Yasodhara. On hearing the message


the Prince uttered ' Rahula'—a tie, which was subsequently used as a name to the infant Prince. That night, 2502 years ago, the Prince made the greatest Renunciation, unparalleled in the history of the world. A young wife, a baby just born, father, kingdom, comforts, all these the Prince renounced for the sake of all living beings. The Renunciation that the Prince made for the sake of the suffernig world is accentuated by the larger Renunciation that was made by him when he first made the resolution to give up Nirvana, countless ages ago, under the Buddha Dipankara. For our sake the Bodhisat gave up Nirvana and died many million times, and eventually came down from heaven to save all beings—animal, human and divine. Renunciation and an active life of absolute compassion and Nirvanic wisdom are the essential characteristics of the Buddha's life. Leaving Kapilavastu and the Sakya territory, walking on foot, the Prince ascetic came to the city o f Rajagriha to beg for food. His majestic mien, his more than divine countenance, attracted the attention of the citizens, and Royal messengers went to King Bimbisara and announced the arrival of the unknown personage. Having obtained food the ascetic Prince went to the Pandava Rock in the outskirts of the city, and there sat to eat the food. The King with his ministers came and inquired of him who he was. The Prince ascetic then announced himself as a Sakya Prince of the race o f ' Adityabandhu ' and said that having seen the vanity of human pleasures he had become an ascetic to obtain the highest peace. The King who was five years younger than the the Prince thereupon asked him to accept half of his Kingdom ; but Bodhisat declined. From Rajagriha he went to the Brahmanical teachers Alarakalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, who had attained to the two Lokas. The Prince was not satisfied with their conceptions of happiness. Where perceptions and sensations were in operation there could be no permanent bliss ; and he found that after the expiration of 84,000 Kalpas of existence in the Nevasanna nasanna realm the individual being has to be reborn again on this earth. The conception of an absolute Nirvana was as yet undiscovered, and religious aspirants, cutting off their domestic ties took to the homeless—Anagarika Brahmachari—life. Having failed to obtain the highest peace of Nirvana according to the philosophic methods of the Aranyakas, the Sakya hermit practised the most terrific forms of physical asceticism for six years with five Brahman Bhikkhus, who were his associates. Penance and fasting were carried to their extreme limits, and the Prince became so emaciated that life was despaired of even by the celestial witnesses who were watching him. One day he fell down in a state of unconsciousness and when he woke up he experienced such pain that he abandoned the torturous life. Neither the exciting sensation of a fife of pleasure, nor the contemplative life of semi-perceptive bliss of solitude, nor the painful


tortures leading to unconsciousness gave peace to the analytical mind of the Sakya Prince. Then he looked back to the infant life he had spent in the palace and found that it was appropriate, in as much as it was neither ascetic nor sensual. It is interesting to the student of child psycology to note the basis of the great discovery, which resulted in the promulgation of the Universal Religion, was laid by the Sakya Prince on the child experience which he had as an infant. Can an infant live without food ? Can he bear the exciting sensations of a pleasure loving youth ? Food taken in moderate quantity was necessary to live, and a sober consciousness was necessary to experience the bliss of peace. Dwelling on such thoughts the Bodhisat abandoned the life of mortifying asceticism ; and when he began to take food in moderate quantity, the five companions became dissatisfied and left him. The Bodhisat thereupon came to the sylvan solitude and lived the life of the middle path, not far off the silvery stream of Neranjara, the modern Lilajan. The Sakyan Hermit on the full moon day of Vasak was sitting under the shade of the Ajapala Nigrodha tree when the attendant maid of the village chief Sujata, seeing the majestic figure of the Sakyan Hermit, and taking him to be the tree god, hastened home and told Sujata, who had made a v o w to present a bowl of milk rice to the tree god on that full moon day which she had prepared. Sujata with the bowl of milk rice came to the tree and offered the food to the Hermit. He received it, gave her his blessings, and when she had gone, arose and went into the river, to bathe his body, ate the food and having rested in the afternoon went to the hallowed spot where stood the Bodhi tree. Facing the East the Bodhisat sat under the tree with a resolute will never to get up from the admantine seat till he had become the Omniscient Buddha. In the middle watch of the full moon night the Blessed One received Divine Insight, and at dawn He became the Omniscient Buddha. Ten thousand worlds were bathed in a flood of radiating light, the earth trembled, nature rejoiced, the lame walked, the blind received sight, the dumb spake. This glorious event occurred 2496 years ago. From that moment the powers of darkness felt that a new power had arisen to save all beings. The Lord Buddha spent seven weeks at and nearby the Bodhi tree enjoying the bliss of Nirvanic Emancipation. Buddha-Gaya is on this account sacred to thousand millions of Buddhists. In the seventh week while sitting under the shade of the Ajapala tree, the Brahma Sahampati beseeched the Lord to preach the Dhamma and The Blessed One saw by his Divine Eye that people were ready to receive the Truth of the Nirvana Dharma. Thence H e proceeded on to Isipatana in Benares to meet the five Brahman Bhikkhus who were prepared to receive the Eye of Truth. O n the fullmoon day of Asalha 2496 years ago He preached to them the Doctrine of the Middle Path, which avoiding the extremes of painful


asceticism and sensualism, enunciated the Four Noble Truths and and Noble Eightfold Path. The extreme asceticism of the Yogis and the hedonistic pleasures of Vama Marga or Kama Yoga the Lord -condemned as ignoble, un-Aryan and profitless. For forty-five years the Lord taught the Doctrine which may be summed up in four lines : " Sabba papassa akaranam, Kusalassa upasampada, Sachitta pariy odapanam, Etam Buddhanasasanam."— Avoid all evil, Cultivate the good and the true, Purify your heart, This is the Teaching of the Buddhas." The Noble Eightfold Path has in it the essentials of scientific analysis, exalted and benevolent aspirations, truthful and gentle speech avoiding slander and falsehood, righteous actions avoiding the destruction of life, stealing and taking intoxicants, righteous livelihood avoiding all sinful professions, righteous exertion, a continuous determined struggle to avoid all that is evil and to develop all that is good, purifying the heart by destroying the errors of egoism by a process of continuous watchfulness operating in the four planes of objective and subjective metabolism ; right concentration ending in saintliness and in the realization of Nirvana. These Eight Princi­ ples of Absolute Truth have been classified under other categories called the 37 Bodhi Pakkhiya Dhamma. The Tathagata appeared at a time when India was in the zenith of prosperity and progress. It was then the centre of the spiritualistic world. Speculations on the whence, whither and what am I formed the basis of different philosophical schools. Animal sacrifice and priestly ritualism were rampant. Heaven was to be obtained by propitiating the gods. Caste was a subject then under discussion. It was not then fully established. Opinion was divided. The priests asserted that it was the ' Creator's work ' and therefore it should be upheld. The selfishness of the originators of the caste system was condemned by the Buddha in several of the important Suttas in the Digha and Majjhima Nikayas. The Blessed Lord came indeed as a Saviour breathing loving kindness to all that lives. The meanest worm to the highest man was the object of His divine compassion By His gentleness and wisdom He won all hearts. His sweetly vibrant voice was like that of the Kurawika bird. He made men and gods abandon their erratic and heretical ideas. He taught the supreme importance of individual exertion. He proclaimed 189

the Doctrine of Scientific Analysis. Before accepting traditions, revelations, dogmas backed up by logic and analogy, the utterances of saints and magicians they should be tested in the crucible of Scientific Causality. Only when the effects are productive o f happiness should a doctrine be accepted. For the first time the K a r m a doctrine which remained a secret confined only to the Aranayaka philosophers was made the basis principle of individual evolution. The karma doctrine in its fulness was enunciated by the Blessed One and the errors of sixty-two beliefs were emphasised. Instead of metaphysics, materialistic theology and fatalistic teachings, the Lord promulgated the Law of Dependent Origination. L i f e cannot be annihilated nor can it be created. In the cosmic process nothing is permanent. Annihilation and a permanency of things are both ridiculed in the Dharma of our Lord. Everything is changing. In the plane, both of matter and spirit everything is subject to change and decay. A constructive and a destructive metabolism is subject to change and decay. A constructive and a destructive metabolism is the natural cosmic process. There is n o known beginning of individualised life. The theory of absorption and emanation which is a cardinal doctrine of certain pantheistic philosophies is explained in the cosmology of Buddhism. At the beginning of each Mahakalpa beings descent into this earth from the Abhassara Brahmaloka. These in their primitive state are ethereal. With the evolution of their desires they became material and evil began. At the destruction of the Universe human beings and animals that were on this earth are all reborn in the Abhassara. At the g r a n d dissolution even the hells are destroyed. In Buddhism there is n o eternal hell nor an eternal heaven. After long ages they appear a n d after long ages they disappear. T o be within the cosmic process, to be reborn in any finite conditioned existence is not the aim of the follower of the Buddha. He aspires to realise (Ajatam, Abhutam, Akatam and Asankhatam) the unborn, non-material, uncreated and the unconditioned state of Nirvana. To realise this is not given to those who believe in a creator, who is still under the law of ignorance a n d change, those who are fatalistic and those who are nihilistic in their ideas. He who has false perceptions of the permanancy of his o w n individual E g o and who confounds the Ego with his own sensations, perceptions and sankharas is bound by the fetters of ahamkara. Nirvana is not within his grasp. Those who are suffering f r o m some form of insanity cling to their own phantom E g o , and those who have an exaggerated idea of their own Egos are partially insane. Nirvana is for the sober scientific analytical student, who discarding all forms of theological metaphysics, priestly ceremonies and nihilistic ideas, exerts strenuously to lead an active life avoiding evil, d o i n g good and purifying the heart. (MBJ, Vol. i),Jme 190


14. The Fundamentals of Buddhism W H E N the Tathagata 2500 years ago began His world-mission, India was in full bloom of her civilization. The people were independent, the country prosperous; no foreign foe desecrated the sacred soil. The religious spirit was in the initial stage of evolution. There were the two extremes of the representative elements of religious and social progress, vigorously manifesting in the ethics of the life of the people. There were the different orders of wandering and stationery ascetics, the forest philosophers, the masters of ritualism, cynics, prototypes of Diogenes, dialectitians and controversialists, the latter wearing armour to cause terror to the hearts of the people, exaggerating the superiority of their own scholastic attainments, fire-worshippers, water-baptists, who held the efficacy of the sanctity of water to wash off sins, the Brahmans who proclaimed the supremacy of their high birth, as sons of the creator, who proceeded from Brahma's mouth, such was the kaleidoscopic scene when the Great Teacher, made majestic appearance to proclaim His great discovery. The Brahmajala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya, Sutta Pitaka, gives the various aspects of the representative religious movements of the time. There were polytheists, deists, theists, pantheists, henotheists, nihilists, agnostics, hedonists, mystics, resurrectionists, in mutual opposition, each one asserting the supremacy of his own school, trying to win converts in their missionary peregrinations, whose recriminations were made manifest-in scepticism, visible at the time. The whole atomsphere was saturated with it. The Prince Siddhartha, son of the Raja Suddhodana, of the House of the proud Sakyas, having renounced his royal pleasures, had gone to the forest in search of Truth and Freedom. His six years of painful asceticism had a profound effect in the public estimation of his incomparable renunciation. The people were prepared to receive His message which He was to announce. 191

He was the spiritual Sun, and the stars of the religious firmament lost their lustre when the Tathagato appeared on the spiritual horizon proclaiming a triumphant victory for those who are heroic enough to enter the arena and engage in combat with the cohorts of Ignorance and Passion. The result of the victory was infinite freedom, here and now, in full consciousness. Man's life is full of changes. There is birth, old age, illness, death, not to speak of the temporary despairs, anxieties, fears, lamentations, griefs, miseries, sorrows, &c. Why should all these sufferings arise ? Theologians, and masters of ritual declared that it was the will of the Lord Isvara, the Architect of the Universe that such things should b e . The ignorant world was cognizant of the illogical, unreasonable despotism of autocratic kings and princes ; and the theologians o f ancient India soothed the minds of inquiring people in asserting that the Lord to please himself was playing with the world. He was t h e head of the grand hunt. The Kings were earthly despots, and Isvara was supreme of despots. No one dared to ask the reason of his errors. The potter takes the clay, shapes it and produces the p o t . The Isvara was the earthly potter. The earthly potter had m o r e reasoning ability, inasmuch as he refrained from producing ill shapen pots. There was at least symmetry. He did not take counsel from, his own experiences. He continues for ever and ever to create the deaf, dumb, blind, the crippled and the paralytic, and the feeble­ minded. He creates to destroy man when he is in the womb, and from the moment of his birth the child is in the hands of the despot. The mother and the child are never safe. The Architect despot had his ministers on earth in the form of priests, a selfish body of irrational swindlers, who maintained themselves by living in deception. Weakminded man, was satisfied with the position given to him by the hierarchy of priests ; and the latter cleverly manipulated the ceremonial regulations, giving man the freedom to play with his passions, but limiting his potentialities by giving him a conscience, which was the medium between him and the man-made Creator^ The will and energy of man were destroyed. He was made dependent on the priest ; and the priestly hierarchy constituted themselves as the medium between the mythical Creator and muddle-headed man. Man guided by his animal tendencies was satisfied so long as he h a d the freedom to enjoy the experiences of his own sensations in t h e carnal world. Carnal passions when stimulated prevent man f r o m the use of his analytical powers. He falls a victim to the former. He loses his freedom and entangles himself more and more in the wheel of suffering. Partiality, Anger, Fear, Ignorance are t h e Biases of moral degeneration. Justice and truth vanish before the bias of favouritism. Anger makes man a demon ; fear is caused b y Ignorance, and Ignorance is the cause of all mental and physical suffering. The Isvara type of gods have, like human beings, their own favourites. Brahama had the tribe of Brahmans, Jehovah h a d 192

his Jews, Allah had his Muhammad, God had his Jesus. Jehovah created, failed, and repented, and promised that he would never again punish man. With that promise he ceased naturally to continue his profession. But muddle-headed man, still continues to pray to escape from the wrath of God. The glory of the Buddha depends not on his own royal birth, but in the supreme Wisdom that He obtained by self—conquest and his infinite love. He discovered that man is a bundle of ever—changing feelings, perceptions, volitions, and they are guided by his own consciousness, which works under the four biases of Partiality, Angry feelings, Fear and Ignorance. To bring man from the Path of Ignroance into the sunlight of Truth and Freedom from fear was His glorified mission. As a Prince he was able to discover by his own individual experience what sense enjoyments could produce in the way of happiness. A permanency of sense enjoyments was not possible to be realized, and with their cessation, there could be no happiness. A craving desire for the enjoyment of sense pleasures was therefore abandoned. As a Bodhisat, living amidst luxurious court, He before tasting the sweets of pleasures of the five senses, viz. eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, analysed them whether the enjoyment would produce happiness, and not finding it, he abandoned, and the renunciation gave him the experience of freedom from painful sensations. Renunciation therefore was proclaimed as a necessary cause for the realization of perfection. In his 29th. year seeing for the first time the four signs of sickness, old age, death, and ascetic calm, the Prince Siddhartha, left home for the homeless state. He studied under the Brahman philosophers of the forest, thephilosopy whereby consciousness is liberated from gross sen­ sualism to a divine subUmity in the intensely spiritual realms of arupa brahma loka, where consciousness is at rest for 84,000 kalpas. To the Prince Ascetic the state was not absolutely perfect. He found on analy­ sis that germs of apperception (sanna) were not absolutely destroyed. Consciousness unfreed from apperceptions was not absolutely liber­ ated. He who made the great renunciation why should he be satisfied with the contents of a spiritual existence where there were signs of decay ultimately. The philosophy of apperceptions He therefore abandoned, and went into the sylvan retreats of Uruwela in Magadha, and on the banks of the river Neranjara, He began those strenuous body—mortifying exertions which he continued for six years. In the Majjhima Nikaya, Sinhanada Sutta are given the descriptive details of the stupendous efforts made by the Prince. His body reduced to a mere skeleton, His physical powers gone, one day he fell down through sheer loss of vital energy, and remained unconscious for a time. The yoga of suspending breath, the fastings which won him the admiration of his fellow ascetics, as well as the exhaustion of his mental and physical strength, gave him no happiness, except pain, 193 9—R 4147 (2/65)

bodily weakness, and loss of consciousness. He abandoned Asceti­ cism and bodily mortification for in them could not be found the way of Wisdom ; and the way he thought must be in another direction. And He reflected that as a tender babe when sitting on the shade of the Jambu tree, on the day of the harvest festival, he experienced the bliss of joy free from passions, and the intuitional knowledge— Satanusarivinnanam—Came to him that the way of wisdom lies through joy and happiness. ' Eseva maggo bodhiyati.' The infant psychology of innocence and joy was established by the Ascetic Prince on that memorable day. The six years' penance and morti­ fication resulted in the great discovery of the Middle Path avoiding the extremes of Kama yoga and Atma kilamatha yoga. He condemned the former, which was a union of the mind with the enjoyments of the five physical senses, as low, vulgar, earthly, ignoble and without result ; and the latter which was destructive to the development of a healthy organism as productive of pain, ignoble and without result. He through the dhyana methods discovered that happiness to be permanent must be free absolutely from Avijja-Ignorance, and in full possession of Vijja - Illuminating Wisdom. He discovered the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. The Blessed One denounced every form of belief that destroyed individual activity. Dependence on a god helps to destroy self—' reliance. A creator—god has no place in the evolutionaty scheme of the world process. The law of change is the cosmic law. The seasons follow the law of change. It is called the utu niyama. The seasons follow the cosmic process. It is unalterable. The seeds germinate and produce the same species. A mango seed germinates and produces a tree. It is following the cosmic law of bija niyama. Every cause produces an effect. It is the Kamma niyama. The development of certain exalted virtues when consummated produce a rare individual. That is the Dhamma niyama. There are fixed laws and no monster—demon, or a creator—god can alter them to suit his fancy. When men are in a state of ignorance and have not yet developed the analytical faculty, myth—makers arise and promulgate certain erroneous theories. That a creator created a world out of nothing and made man out of the dust of the ground is one such myth; that the Creator has an external foe to contend against is another myth ; that man fell through the diabolism of a demon is another myth; that future generations should suffer for the faults of the first parents is another myth ; that the Creator will send his only begotten Son to save the world is another myth ; that God became the husband of a virgin is another myth ; that man can be saved by the shedding of blood of another individual is another myth ; that evil committed can be atoned by means of prayer is another myth; that unless you believe that there is no salvation except through the grace of anothe individual is another myth ; that whatever happens has all been predestinated by some creator is another myth ; that causes do not 194

produce effects is another myth. The followers of the Blessed One relegate all these myths to the limbo of oblivion. Individual effort based on righteousness produces good Karma, and the effect of g o o d deeds ; no animal sacrifice is needed to secure one's salvation. Individual happiness in a temporary heaven is not what a Buddhist desires to have. Heavens, Gods, Brahmas, Creators are all under the sway of the Immutable law of change. What the Buddha discovered was freedom based on knowledge ; sorrow, suffering, grief, despair, lamentations, which association with the unpleasant and separation from the pleasant produce—When giving birth to a child the mother feels the pangs of travail. When the child falls ill the parents show anxiety and sorrow. The black-haired youth is changed into an aged man. The youthful sunny nature has vanished never again to appear, and that causes grief. Can any one deny these facts ? Sorrow does exist. This the Buddha pro­ claimed as a supreme Truth. Ignorance blinds man from seeing truth, and covetous desires bind him to things that attract his senses. Some wish to be born in an eternal spiritual heaven ; some desire to be born in a material heaven where pleasures are associated with the five sense organs. Some desire not to be reborn here or anywhere else. Personal ego desires are fetters. T o destroy Ignorance one has to follow the noble Path. Ignorance produces Sankharas. Not to know the Law of Change, and of Cause and Effect is Ignorance. The great discovery made by the Blessed One gave hope to man to make the earnest effort to destroy Ignorance. Ignorance leads to the generation of ideations or volitions. Man is a creator. He creates momentarily. These volitional tendencies are called Sankharas. They are divided into two categories :— 1. Punnabhisamkhara, apunnabhisamkhara, Anejabhi samkharas (meritorious volitions, unmeritorious volitions, unproductive volitions). 2 . Kaya samkhara, vaci sankhara, citta samkhara. With each expiration and inspiration a volition is produced ; with each investigation a samkhara is produced ; with each sensation and perception a samkhara is produced. Samkhara connotes a karma. Ignorance and karma are interdependent. Parents, relations, friends are the results of Karma. Karma gives rewards and punishments. Karma and Ignorance in the past evolved a new consciousness in this life. Where there is a consciousness in activity, there is Name and form. Name (nama) connotes feelings, perceptions, and volitions. Form(rupa)is the human organism, which when analysed is composed of disintegrating matter (pathavi) kept in motion by association with heat, (tejo) liquid (apo) and air (vayo). Rupam Jirati—The material organism disintergrates, namagottam na jirati, the subjective immaterial nature never disintegrates. 195

In the human organism—nama rupa—are the six seats of conscious­ ness, viz., eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. Where the the eye comes in contact with an objective or subjective form, consciousness is awakened similarly with the other organs. Contactphasso—is the cause of sensation (vedana) ; and sensation is threefold— pleasant, unpleasant and indifferent. Sensation produces Tanha. Tanha is the craving desire, and is of three kinds : Kama tanha, bhava tanha, vibhava tanha. Kama tanha is the craving desire for sensual pleasures; bhava tanha for a continued heavenly existence ; vibhava tanha for a cessation of existence. A pleasant sensation belongs to the category of kama tanha, an unpleasant sensation to the category of vibhava tanha. Tanha generates a fourfold upadana in the form of sensual pleasures (kama) ; false, religious views (ditthi) ; ascetic superstitions (silabbata) ; and egoism (attavada). Sensual pleasures, unscientific religious views, ascetic supersitions and egoism, individually creates karma for a future existence (Bhavo) in either of the three realms of Kama bhava, Rupa bhava and Arupa bhava. The celestial sensual heavens from the Kama bhava, the worlds of the Brahma gods form the Rupa Bhava ; and the worlds where only consciousness operates are the Arupa bhava. In all these realms of existence there is birth, decay, death, grief, sorrow, lamentation, &c. T o escape from the wheel of Ignorance and Craving desires there is only one way—The Noble Eightfold Path. MB] Vol. 22, May



Ill Buddhist Ethics 15. The Ethics of Buddha 16. The Good Law 17. The Religion of the Householder 18. The Duty of the Bhikkhus and Laymen 19. Practical Instructions to Brahmacharis 20. Desire in Buddhism 21. Karma Activity and its Fruits 22. The Noble Eightfold Path 23. The Psychology of Progress or the Thirty-seven Principles of Bodhi

15. The Ethics of Buddha " Akkodhena jine kodham Asadhum sadhuna jine Jine kadariyam danena Saccena alikavadinam." " By love is conquered hatred ; The unrighteous by the righteous are conquered. Conquer the avaricious by charity ; By truth the words of the liar." " Sabba papassa akaranam ; Kusalassa upasampada ; Sacittapariyodapanam ; Etam Buddhana sasanam." " Abstain from all evil ; Cultivate all that is just and humane. Purify the mind ; These are the exhortations of the BUDDHAS." Dhammapada. The ethics of Buddha are the culmination of all ethical philosophies promulgated by the great Indian teachers who lived before him. The moral precepts of the Vedic teachers and of the Rishis, who enunciated the philosophic system incorporated in the Upanishads, are based on utilitarian justice. Recompense injury with justice, was the ethical formula of all great religious teachers who preceded Buddha. It is in the hope of obtaining some reward, either here or hereafter, that man regulates his conduct. It is the salvation of self, the forgetting o f the cares and anxieties of the world, that is aimed at ; it is simply conforming to the commonplace formula : " D o unto others as you would that they should do unto you." It is everywhere the clinging to self first and foremost. The sacrifice to the gods ordained by the Brahmans, the offerings instituted by the Mosaic Law to the Jehovah * Pamphlet available at the British Museum, London. the Diary this was written in 1897-98.

According to a note in


of the Jews, the sacrifices ordered by Confucius to the great Heaven, these indicate the materialistic conceptions of the promulgators who initiated these ceremonial moralities. Ethical conduct consisted either in the performance of these sacrifices and in showing obedience to the behests of a priestly hierarchy ; or it was retiring from the world into the solitudes of the Aranyakas, and meditating on the reality of the Aham, I am, in the hope of realizing that Self is Brahma, or that Self is separate from the body. The class of ascetics who retired into the forest life in order to demonstrate that the soul is not the body, but that it is a separate entity, mortified the flesh in all conceivable manners, in the hope of emancipating the inner soul. The more they applied themselves to abandon all concern for the gross body, the easier they expected it would be for the soul to escape from the body. On the psychological experiences attained through this severe regime, the ascetics of India founded the ethics of asceticism. They lived like cows, like fowls, like sheep, like dogs, like bats, conforming their conduct to their observations of these animals. Bodily mortifications was their aim in life, and in it they became adepts. The greater the tortures they could undergo, the holier they became in the eyes of the people. The three fundamental dogmas found in the ancient systems of the faith were : 1.

Acceptance of the will of a Supreme Lord.


Acceptance of a predestined fatalism,

}. Acceptance of materialistic belief that everything comes into being by chance without any law or order. As a sequence of the belief that the world is treated by the will of the Lord (Isvara) the ethics of sacrifice and ceremonialism were formulated by the priestly class who became the monopolists of religion and the mediators between man and gods. Man became a tool in their hands, and his individuality was effaced. Those, who had accepted the belief that all has been predestined that everything one does is the result of previous action, and that it is futile to make efforts to avoid what is to be,—became slaves of a blind fatalism. These avoided the path of ceremonies and the gods and renounced the life of social activity. They became retired ascetics, voluntarily afflicted the flesh, and lived in the idea of separateness of the soul and body. The third class, those who denied the existence of gods, declared that everything was the result of chance ; there is no law and order in the phenomenal changes that are taking place. These nihilists were at antipodes ethically to the ascetics ; their ethics were founded on aesthetics ; their goal was the gratification of the senses, and after death, annihilation. 200

Religious belief, under each of these aspects, destroys individual freedom and precludes emancipation from selfhood. The ethics of theology show the path to the heavens where life can be spent in the company of gods and angels, in singing and in restful enjoyment. The ethics of asceticism proclaimed the possibility of a formless existence where there should be no vestige of body, but only soul. A realization that " I am Brahma ", that "I am freed from the body " was the prospective bliss of the ascetics. Twenty-five hundred years ago, the civilized nations of Asia wit­ nessed the appearance of great personages whose teachings have influenced countless numbers of beings. It was a period of stupendous intellectual activity. In Greece, Persia, India, and China, there occurred radical changes in the region of moral ideas. Pythagoras in Greece ; Laot-sze and Confucius in China ; Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesying a change in the convenant which Jehovah had made with Moses eight hundred and eighty years before,—these were personages living at the time when SAKYA MUNI in yellow garb, surrounded by his band of one thousand two hundred disciples, travelled on foot from place to place over the Gangetic Valley, proclaiming to the world that death had been conquered, immortality had been found, and that a noble freedom had been realised in life. All philosophies and religions agree in the existence of suffering. In Jewish theology (Genesis iii, 17) we find the expression : " Cursed is the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shall thou eat of it all the days of thy life." The Rishis of India based all their experiences on the idea of suffering. It was on the idea of sorrow and suffering that Prince Siddhartha concentrated his thoughts. From his sixteenth year to the twenty-ninth year of his age, he lived the life of a gay young prince ; but these pleasures and enjoyments did not give him rest. It was to discover the secret of perfect peace that in his twenty-ninth year he made the Great Renunciation for the sake of humanity. He first went to the Rishis and studied the philosophy of the soul. They had conquered desires of the lower self, they studied nature and lived in peaceful retirement, so that the very gods envied their lives. Failing to find peace in the philoso phy of the Rishis, he adopted rigorous rules, and for nearly six years he persevered in this path. But he realized that the ascetic habits were " painful, ignoble, and useless " for the gaining of enlightenment. :

Having given up the ascetic habits, he went to the sylvan shades of Uruvela, near the river Neranjara, a charming spot close to the villages where people dwell. While seated under the banyan tree, close by the river, expecting to receive food, Sujata, the daughter of the village chief, came to the tree to offer milk to the tree God. Think­ ing the ascetic to be that god, she offered him the food, which he 201

accepted. It was on the full moon day of Vaisak (May) that he resolved never to withdraw from the shadow of the great Bodhi Tree until he had realized the state of perfect enlightenment. Before dawn the the whole universe was an open book to Him and illumination was achieved. He became the all-knowing BUDDHA, the Lord of the Universe. For seven weeks, sitting, standing, walking, he enjoyed the bliss of perfect peace,—that Nirvana which all teachers, philosophers, Brahmans, ascetics, strove in vain to realize. The BUDDHA had found it by his own understanding, wisdom, and knowledge. He had realized the absolute calm of the perfected mind—the subjugation of self— the annihilation of desire. He is now the victorious conqueror. The doubt whether so glorious a truth would be received by those who are absorbed in pleasures, suggested itself to him. The voice of suffering humanity finds expression in the appeal of Brahma, the chief of the gods, to open the gates of immortality as there are beings ready to receive the message. And the Blessed One spoke : " Wide open (are) the doors to Immortality ; Those who have faith let them go forth to receive it". The message which the BUDDHA proclaimed to the band of five disciples at Benares is : (1) That there is suffering in life : birth death, decay, old age, despair, lamentation, grief, pain, all constitute suffering. (2) That the ultimate cause of all suffering is due to selfish desires. (3) That there is emancipation from this suffering. (4) That there is a way to emancipate oneself from this suffering. These the Blessed One called the Four Noble Truths, which no Brahman God, Mara, or ascetic could deny. The way which he discovered was called the Noble Eightfold Path. They are : Sammaditthi.—Right

comprehension of the law of casue and effect.

Sammasankappo.—Right aspiration ; renunciation of self; compassion and non-injury (non-retaliation or forgiveness of injury). Sammdvdca.—Right speech ; abstaining from slander, idle talk, falsehood, and harsh words. Samm&kammanta.—Right work ; abstaining from destruction of life, from dishonest gain, from indulging in sensuality. Sammajivo.—Right livelihood ; abstaining from unrighteous pro­ fessions which tend to the destruction of feDow-beings. SatKmavayamo.—Right endeavour; a ceaseless exertion to avoid evil and to do good in thought, word, and deed. 202

Sammdsati.—Right concentration of thought; training the mind by analysis to discover the non-reality of forms, sensations, ideas, and volitions of the mind. Sammasamadhi.—The of Self.

bliss of the mind emancipated from all ideas

The man who devotes his time to the enjoyment of passions which are " Low, vulgar, earthly, ignoble, and unprofitable," as well as the man who gives himself up to ascetic life, which is " painful, ignoble, and unprofitable," is caught in the whirlpool of suffering existence, and will never find the way to Nirvana. Selfish sensual pleasure, as well as selfish asceticism, are extremes to be avoided. They end in suffering and pain and clinging to self. The blessedness of life consists in living up to the sublime ideal of unselfishness and dispassionate duty. It is ignorance that makes us cling to the idea of separateness to the illusion that one's soul is separate from the body ; that the atman is real, that " J " exist. In ignorance an individual creates karma, good, or bad. Each karma becomes a centre of consciousness, and each centre becomes a renewed individuality environed by sensations. Sensations produce contact and contact produces feeling which in turn produces desire. This desire is called Tanha, and produces the vehicle for further existence which finds a birth somewhere, and continues the chain of grief and-suffering. One has to lead the noble life which destroys the fetters of the chain binding him to death. First he has to destroy the idea of self and separateness in all forms. T o destroy this idea he has to cast aside all soul theories. Rhys Davids in his " American Lectures on Buddhism " says : " There is no such thing as an individuality which is permanent—even were a permanent individuality to be possible it would not be desirable to be separate. The effort to keep oneself separate may succeed indeed for a time, but so long as it is successful it involves limitation, and there­ fore ignorance and therefore pain. ' No, it is not separateness you should hope and long for,' says the Buddhist, ' it is union.' The sense of oneness with all that now is, that has ever been, that can ever be—the sense that shall enlarge the horizon of your being to the limits of the universe, to the boundaries of time and space, that shall lift you into a new plane far beyond, outside all mean and miserable care for self. Why stand shrinking there ? Give up the fool's paradise of " This is I' and 'This is mine.' It is a real fact, the greatest of all realities that you are asked to grasp. Leap forward without fear I" p. 129. This idea of self has been the bugbear of all incomplete systems o f psychology. A dualist always posits a permanent self. It is a phan­ tom of the self-hypnotised mind springing from an erroneous con­ ception. There is no separate permanent " I " outside of one's "karman"—the totality of one's experiences in word, deed, and 203

thought. An unchanging, permanent, separate soul-entity, residing in the body, is an hallucination of a psychologised mind. This theory of " souls " is a remnant of the heirloom which has come down from primitive philosophies—inherited, according to Prof. Rhys Davids, from the " the savage beliefs of earliest periods of history." All religions that posit a separate soul-entity belong to the animistic philosophy which is the creed of the savages. This animistic belief for the first time was combated by the Blessed One as prejudicial to the complete development of man's character. So long as man retains this belief, in howsoever transcendental a form, so long, he cannot become perfectly unselfish. No life can be per­ fected until it has realized the state of emancipation from all ideas of a separate self. The Vedic literature according to the researches of Orientalists, began to take shape about 2,500 B.C. From the simple conception of tribal (devas) gods, who are pleased with the offering of butter, the elaborated system of Vedic and Brahman ritualism was formulated by the priesthood demanding complicated sacrifices, the hideous slaughtering of hundreds of cattle, goats and horses to please the so-called gods. Human sacrifices were also offered. The literature of the Upanishads was the outcome of the philo­ sophic speculation of the Rishis. These sages having renounced wife, wealth, children, parents, friends, retired into the forests and in solitude mused and speculated on the reality of the atman. They selfishly clung to the " I ", and put themselves in a hypnotic condition of belief in the permanency of self. The condition of this transcendentally selfish mind after death could be inferred only by the trained psychologist. The result of this ascetic life is that the devotee endures after death in the transcendental unconsciousness of the Arupa Brahma state for 84,000 kalpas. This is almost eternity ; but after the termination of this period he has once more to begin life. The practical application of this philosophy to life was found in the asceticism of the Rishis. They were still under the dominion of passions. They had not achieved self-control and self-conquest. They cursed and showed anger at critical moments. Perfect realization of peace of mind was not to be found in them. " Before and during the Vedic era," writes the scholarly Sir M. Coomara Swami, " It was the shedding of blood, the sacrifice of man or beast, the oblations of butter and milk, the worship of fire and the warning elements, which marked the awakening of the supernatural sentiment in the Hindu breast. But anon a change came over the land. Peace, genteleness, and all the mild virtues gained the ascendant. True sacrifice, it was self-sacrifice. The preparation for heaven consisted in the destruction of all evil passions. And the greatest happiness, it was inculcated, consisted in a life of philsophic trust and quiet." 204

There were in India other forms of religion based on the idea that each man had a separate soul which is eternal and that emancipation consisted in getting it out of the body. This soul, it was asserted, transmigrated from one body to another and was of various forms. Soul atoms were found in water, in air, in fire, and in earth. Those who had faith in this doctrine thought that in drinking cold water they swallowed so many souls, and therefore abstained from drinking cold water ; they wore " mouth coverings " to avoid inhaling souls that were floating in the air ; they refrained from walking and moving lest they should destroy earth souls, and the avoided the burning of lights for fear of fire monads. The longer one lives, they thought, the more one helps to destroy these, and therefore these philosophers adopted the extreme asceticism of abandoning all nourishment and attempted to live on nothing. They allowed themselves to be bitten by insects and vermin. They sat exposed to rain and the heat of the sun, until gradually they killed the sense of feeling and shame. The psychology of Buddha's teachings consists of the doctrine of Dependent Causation, continuity of the reincarnating individual according to the karmic potencies, the transformation of all organic and inorganic life in obedience to the laws of perpetual motion and final peace of perfect rest —Nirvana. Karma means deeds. By word, deed and thought we do karma, and our fife consists of karma. Every good thought, deed, and word, every bad thought, deed, and word, effects certain results according to its nature and potentiality. Each individual being is the inheritor of his past karma, reaching back to eternity, and he continues to live life after life according to his karma. Buddha taught that life is eternal; but the individual in his ignorance thinks that happiness consists in clinging to self, or in the enjoyment of the senses, or in utter annihilation. This clinging to self, in either of the three forms, brings suffering and continual becoming. The only means of terminating this evolutionary series of sufferings is by attaining to the state of Nirvana by the abnegation of self and selfish­ ness and separateness ; by the extinction of all superstitious beliefs ; by the destruction of dogmatic scepticism which precludes the recog­ nition of truth, here and hereafter. For the first time in history, the idea of the brotherhood of man was established by the Buddha, and practically exemplified by bis followers who formed the Brotherhood of the Sangha. They modelled their lives according to the Noble Eightfold Path, and they lived in per­ fecting themselves in the virtues of charity, purity of fife, self, sacrificing duty, truth, perseverance, forgiveness, wisdom, will power, all-embracing love, and non-expectation of results (rewards). 205

Discarding all dogmatic theology and speculation, the Buddha opened the gates of immortality and called upon all to enter the " Qty of Eternal Peace " by leading the noble holy life of self-sacrifice and compassion and saving the world from ignorance. In the Maha Satipatthdna Sutra (the great discourse on the way of non-self) the BLESSED O N E preached to the people of Kurukshetra that there is only one way to truth, peace, and enlightenment. It is by a complete realization of non-self by emancipating the mind from all ideas of a permanent self by analysis, by a perfect life of purity and activity of concentrated consciousness. All systems of thought that live to grow hoary with age, inevitably rlifferentiate with varying creeds, so numerous phases of Buddhist belief are to-day exhibited after its twenty-four centuries of existence. In India it existed, shedding the radiant lustre of its sweet compassion for nearly 1,500 years. Before the majestic personality of the Pro­ mulgator, kings bowed. He accepted the hospitality of even the street sweeper, who was considered a vile wretch by the Brahman hierarchy, and he admitted the chandala to the sacred Brotherhood, showing thus by example that there is no difference between man and man and he enthroned virtue and truth, and left the legacy to his disciples who carried the message of peace and brotherhood to all countries in Asia. It is the pride of Buddhism that it can show a bloodless conquest through all these 2,500 years. N o religion but Buddhism could have produced a powerful potentate like the mighty Emperor Asoka who carried to neighboring countries a civilization based on enlightenment and peace. The rock-cut edicts of this beloved Emperor, whose name has lived these 2,200 years in the memory of countless numbers of peoples, show that India was in the zenith of a peaceful civilization before Christ. Art, literature, and science nourished. Women took part in everything that was good and noble equally with man. She became a public teacher for the first time, and with man she spread the blessings of Buddha's religion. The princess Sanghamitta, only daughter of the great Emperor, went as a missionary to Ceylon and with her royal brother, the Arahat Mahinda, established Buddhism there. The blessings of education were given to all. Seven year old children were trained under the spiritualizing influence of great teachers. The tender mind was taken care of under better environments than formerly. Political econo­ mists in those days regarded properly the impressionable mind of the child as a soil in which to instil moral ideas. Buddhism live in India 206

so long as her children did not run after strange gods ; and India flourished during the Buddhist period. When the people neglected the ordinances of the great Teacher then came the decline of the" doctrine. Superstition again took hold of the thought, and in an evil hour the Mohammedan conquerors entered India. The vestiges of Buddhism were destroyed by this inhuman, barbarous race. Thousands of bhikkhus were killed, temples were destroyed, libraries were burned and Buddhism died in India. After seven centuries, successful efforts are being made, by the Maha Bodhi Society to resuscitate the venerable religion. In Ceylon, Buddhism has lived uninterrupted through all these z,zoo years. A colony of Sinhalese came 2,400 years ago from Sinhapura, in Bengal, bringing with them Aryan traditions. These descendants of the " Lion tribe " of Bengal, after subjugating the aborigines, settled in Ceylon, planted the Aryan civilization, con­ structed tanks, built bridges, roads, hospitals and temples, maintaining their individualizing characteristics as an Aryan people, although time after time, Malabars, Tamils, Malayans, made attempts to destroy them. In the sixteenth century the fanatical Portugese came. In their eager desire to spread Catholicism they persecuted the people, violated the chastity of females and outraged all sentiments of humanity. But they failed in their attempt to eradicate the religion of the Tathagata. The Dutch followed them, and they, too, attempted to conquer the country, but failed, and after a hundred years the British came. The impartial historian of the future will discover that after all, the " blood-thirsty " tyrant, Sri Wickrama Raja Sinha, the last Sinhalese king, who beautified the city of Kandy, whose delightful pleasure in garden Peradeniya was the paradise of the world, became the victim of early British greed. A people who had created a literature, whose history dates back 2,400 years, whose accounts have been verified and corroborated to the very letter two thousand years later by the researches of European orientalists and archaeologists in deciphering Asoka inscriptions ; who had made known their civi­ lization by sending their embassies to China, Rome, and Egypt, who sent their women to Tibet to establish the order of Nuns ; who had never been known as drunkards or murderers, are now, under British rule, a slavish people, victims of drunkenness and many western vices. But Buddhism still survives, and it is due to her influence alone that the Sinhalese have not met with the fate of the Tasmaniam, the African savage, or the North American Indian. When the day of reckoning arrives, England will have to answer for the many unjust things that she has done in destroying the independence of a people


who had maintained a noble and peaceful independence for 2,300 years. Buddhism in Siam, too, has civilized, humanized and en­ lightened the people. They are, in the opinion of Europeans " gentle, amiable, shrewd, lively, and, fonder of amusem*nt than work ; they are neither given to disputing, nor favorable to change, and it is said dishonesty is repugnant to their habits," . Bayard Taylor in his " Siam " (p. 345) says : " Hitherto the Buddhist religion, which prevails in Siam in a form probably more pure and simple than elsewhere, has firmly withstood the endeavour of the Christian missionaries to supplant it. ' D p you think' said one of the Buddhist priests to a missionary, ' you will beat down our great mountains with your small tools ?' And the late king is reported to have said that the Buddhists would as likely convert the Christians, as that the Christians would convert the Buddhists." In Siam under the present enlightened king, things on the whole are making progress. Instead of trying to convert the Siamese into sectarian Christianity, if the resident missionaries in Bankok would devote their time to enlightening the people on the basis adopted in educating the American people at home, better and more lasting results would surely be gained. Dogmatic theology and secretarian Christianity cannot make progress in countries where the teachings of BUDDHA have taken root. In Japan we find a people marvellous in their intelligence and adapted by nature to receive all that is noblest and sublime. Where else but in Japan does one find such sweet refinement, such gentle attention, such modest behaviour ? And it is the pride of Buddhism that the great Japanese race have remained true to BUDDHA these thirteen centuries. Baron Hubner in 1871 wrote : " B u t what no pen or pencil can ever truly render is the sight of the streets, with their busy, picturesque crowd of men and women, smiling courteously and bowing profoundly to each other. . . . The people are happy and contented. Misery is unknown amongst them." Buddhism in China, although mixed with the superstitions of the original cults, yet exhibits its power of individuality in having moulded the minds of the people to accept the Aryan doctrines of 208

BUDDHA. Mr. Samuel Johnson, the indefatigable American scholar, in his work on " China " after studying Chinese Buddhism arrived at the following conclusions, vi%:— " Its unselfishness ; its assertion of an absolute law ; combination of idealism with practical sense, of reason with sentiment, of clear ideas with pure ethics and practical humanity ; its reconciliation of moral determinism with practical freedom ; its democratic philosophy ; its peculiar fitness for the mass of men ; its poetic capabilities ; its extraordinary readiness to assimilate all popular beliefs." Buddhist monks have always worked for the amelioration of the masses in China when enlightened emperors ruled. Fa Hian, Hiouen Thsang, I'tsing, and other illustrious Chinese monks visited India, and their patient researches in that country have been trans­ lated by Oriental scholars. The Chinese Buddhist monks carried the peaceful message of BUDDHA'S love to the nomadic tribes of Mongolia and humanised them. The gentle, hospitable, nomadic Mongolian is the result of BUDDHA'S teachings. In Tibet Buddhism lives, although surrounded by base superstition. From a state of savagery and barbarism the Tibetan was converted. The description of Tibet given by Abbe Hue on his travels show the religious nature of the Tibetan. When he visited Lhasa he was astonished to find a perfect picture of Roman liturgy transplanted in Lhasa. In his anguish, he wrote that the Devil in his hostility to Christianity had anticipated his coming. The Tibetan lives in the atmosphere of religion. In the temples at Lhasa, Tashilampo, Koumboum, lamas daily sing invocations of Love and Peace. Influences of these utterances are to be found in the peaceful, compassionate lives of the people. In Burma, the tender influence of Buddhism is best seen in its power to elevate womanhood. The visitor to Burma is struck with the independence, freedom, and sweetness of the Burmese woman and her affection for her husband. While other religions crush the sweet nature of woman, Buddhism raises her to the highest social position. A child, a king, a spiritual teacher, and woman are the four revered objects in Buddhist social polity. In the " Toy, Cart," a Sanskrit drama, translated into English by H. H. Wilson, 209

a Buddhist bhikshu addresses in the following words a lady who had lost her way : " Rise, lady, rise. In a neighbouring convent dwells a holy sister ; rest awhile with her and recover your spirits." And after having asked the (bhikhuni) nun to attend to her he takes her to her house, and on the way he reverently repeats : " Gently, lady, gently. Stand aside, good friends, stand aside, make way for a young female and a bhikshu." T o sum up : the practical and humane teaching of BUDDHA establishes the Brotherhood of Man without distinction of caste or color ; it elevates man into a nobler nature, and raises woman to equality with man ; it incites man to practise compassion toward all living creatures and stops the destruction of animals for food.


16. The Good Law W H E N one practises the ten Perfections aspiring at some future age to become the Saviour of the world, such a one is known as a Bodhi­ satva, and he has to fulfil the laws of Anuttara Samma Sambhodhi, the wisdom of omniscience infinite. He has to fulfil for countless births the laws of absolute charity, purified conduct; renunciation of sensual desires, higher wisdom, strenuous exertion, forgiving patience, perfect trathfulness, undaunted will power, universal loving kindness, and equanimity. Nirvana may be realized in three ways ; (i) By the practice of the Paramitas for four Asankheyya and a hundred thousand Kalpas (z) In two Asankheyya Kalpas, (3) In one Asankheyya Kalpa. T o the first category belong the Buddhas of infinite wisdom, to the second category belong the Pacceka Buddhas who get infinite knowledge, but are unable to lead others to Nirvana ; to the third category belong the great Arhats who are born when an Infinite Buddha makes His appearance in the world and become disciples of the Lord. A Buddha of infinite wisdom is supreme. When such a one appears there is none above Him in the Universe. No two Infinite Buddhas can appear simultaneously. Each Samma Sam Buddha has two chief male disciples, and two female disciples. There are four stages of holiness in the path of Nirvana. The first is the Sotapatti, second the Sakadagami, third Anagami, fourth the Arhat. The first three stages can be reached by the lay disciple, both men and women, following the domestic life. Sotapatti is a full house­ holder, enjoying all the pleasures of the senses ; but never violating the five precepts. The Sakadagami is a potential celibate although living in the family : the Anagami, lives in the house, but remains 211

entirely a celibate. He is called a Grihastha Brahmachari. T h e Arhat can never live in a family. He is obliged to make the renunci­ ation. He has destroyed the ten fetters. He must either put on the yellow robe or cease to exist as a human being. He has realized the Nirvana without the Upadanas. The Anagami has destroyed the first five fetters of egoism, scepticism, abnormal asceticism, desire for sense enjoyment and ill will. Before his death if he fails to realize the fruits of Nirvana, after death he is reborn in a Suddhavasa Brahma Loka. When he realizes Nirvana, there is no return to earth life. Only Anagamis are reborn in the Suddhavasa, and they are called. Arahanta Brahmarajas. They realize Nirvana in that state. The Sakadagami is making the effort to practise the Brahmacariya precepts and to destroy the five fetters of egoism, scepticism, fanatical asceticism, desire for sense enjoyment and ill will. T h e Sakadagami returns only once to earth life. The Sotapatti observes the five rules of conduct very strictly, and has four qualifications. He associates only with the virtuous, never listens to heresies and false doctrines, never does anything in violation of the law of Cause and Effect, and strictly follows the precepts o f the Dhamma. He may appear on Earth once, three times or even seven times. The fundamental doctrines promulgated by the Most Exalted Buddha are called the Bodhi Pakkhiya Dhamma. They are 37 in number, viz : 4 4 4 5 5 7 8

Satipatthana Sammappadhana Iddhipada Indriya Bala Bojjhanga Ariya Magga

The development of consciousness plays an important part in the psychology of Buddha's Doctrine. The four foundations of con­ sciousness are analysis of the 32 portions of the physical body j analysis of the three-fold sensation of (Sukha, Dukkha, Adukkhamasukha) pleasant, unpleasant, indifferent; analysis of the generating process of each thought: analysis of the variations of the principles of psychology as taught in the Dhamma. The four-fold strenuous exerttions are : to cast away, to abandon, to destroy evil thought, word or deed already born ; not to generate an evil thought, word, or deed yet unborn ; to generate good thoughts, words or deeds, not yet born ; to increase, develop, reproduce good thoughts, words or deeds already born. 212

The Foundations of the four-fold Transcendental Developments are— Earnest desire—Chanda Earnest endeavour—Viriya Conscious progress—Chitta Logical investigation—Vimamsa The five organs of power for psychic development— Faith—Saddha Memory—Sati Exertion—Viriya Unity of good thoughts—Samadhi Wisdom—Panna The five psychic powers are founded on Faith, Memory, Exertion, Psychic Illumination, and Infinite Wisdom. The Seven Bojjhangas are— Memory—Sati Analysis of the Doctrine—Dhamma Vicaya Vitrile activity—Viriya Joyfulness—Piti Serenity—Passadhi Psychic Illumination—Samadhi Equanimity—Upekkha The eight stages of the Noble Path are— 1.

Scientific acceptance of the Four Truths


Cherishing right desires


Speaking words that are true, sweet and gentle

4. Refraining from destruction of life, stealing and senseal pleasures. 5.

Following a righteous livelihood by refraining from trading in poison, murderous weapons, liquor, flesh and slaves.


Strenuous exertion to avoid evil and generate good.


Analysis of body, sensations, volitions and the essentials of the Doctrine.

8. Realisation of Nirvana by means of psychic illumination. 213

The disciple of Buddha refrains from indulging in speculations as to the Whence, Whither and What am I. He discards heresies about the soul and refrains from identifying it with either the body, sensations, perceptions, volitions or consciousness. He discards all nihilistic views which are promulgated by certain religious teachers. He condemns such views as are held by heretics. He discards the theory that the cosmic progress had a known beginning. He repudiates the theory that a god created man or that he came out of the body some Brahma. He considers that such gods are as ignorant as their followers, priests or prophets. He accepts the great grand Law of Cause and Effect with its corollaries, ramifying in manifold directions. He repudiates the fatalistic view of life and the other equally foolish view that a god predestined as to what should happen for man and the world. He discards the theory that all deeds com­ mitted in some former birth have the potency to produce suffering, making present activity important. The existence of gods of very great power the Buddhist admits. He is taught by the Lord that there are numberless solar systems, and that there are great Brahmas who are chiefs of ten thousand world systems. Nevertheless they are still under the great law of change and suffering. After many millions of years they have to die and be reborn. Once the Lord was going the round in the streets of Rajagriha, and seeing a young pig He smiled. Ananda seeing Him smile, asked Him to say why He has smiled. The Lord answered "Ananda, strange are the vicissitudes of Sansaric life. The young pig that you see yonder, before he was born here was a Brahma god enjoying the bliss of happiness in a Brahmaloka. His good karma having exhausted he can no more stay there and he is now born a pig! Such is Sansara." The past is infinite. It has no known beginning. With an infinite past, with the future before you, which you make for good or for evil, with the present under control your destiny is in your hands. Activity in doing such deeds as will generate good results, as will produce no pain on any living being, is called good Karma. When good Karma produces results it becomes cosmic ; when no results are expected the Karma becomes super-cosmic, and is synonymous with Nirvana. The true Bhikkhu who follows faithfully the exalted life of perfect Brahmacariyam looks with disgust at the pleasures which the gods enjoy in the celestial realms. They are eating the Karma fruit ; they can make no fresh good Karma. After the cessation of their good Karma, down they come, unless a Buddha should appear and preach to them. The heaven that other religious teachers have painted with such fervour, demanding absolute faith in them, to the Buddhist is no attainment. (MBJ Vol. 22, Nov. 1914) 214

17. The Religion of the Householder * BEFORE the appearance of the Buddha, Sakya Muni, as the Universal Teacher of mankind, a religion founded on universal pity, kindness, and non-sectarian ethics was not known. Religions were formulated by leaders of tribes for the especial use of such tribes over whom they held sway. When we study the old testament of the Jews, what do we see, except that Moses, as leader made the laws to suit the wandering nomads, who were going to find a home in Canaan ? Laws were made to keep the rebellious tribes under control during their march through the desert. A religion for a setded people and a religion for a wandering nomadic tribe should not be the same. In a settled community like the great body of people of India, religion is a necessity. The religion of a conquering people is soon accepted, under certain conditions, when it is offered to them. Persecution makes people to accept a religion, even against their will. But, succeeding generations forget the ancient national traditions, and may even become quite iconoclastic in their turn. Christianity was at first the religion of helots and the poorer class of people who lived in various parts of Greece, Asia Minor and Rome. It was a comforting doctrine to the poor to be told that they will get the reward in the next birth in heaven. There was unity in the indigent community. The early Christians were poor but united, and this helped them. The expansion of Christianity was not due to any philosophical teaching, but to the exisgencies of the situation. The Roman Empire was in a decadent state at the time of Constantine, and the Roman army was full of poorer class of people, and they had come to look upon Christianity as the special religion intended for the poor. Slaves were many at that time and they had all accepted Christianity. Augustine was converted to Christianity not by argument, but by a vision from heaven. It might have been a case of hallucination. Whatever it may be, Constantine did not become penitent and followed the principles of righteousness, thus showing that he had not changed his evil life to become good. On the contrary he did the most inhuman acts which neither a father no a husband ought certainly to do. His was merely a political conversion, but the leaders of the Church the bishops, found the (A lecture delivered at the Bengal "National Medical CoHege, Calcutta, February, 1 9 1 1 ) 215

opportunity to achieve their ambitions. The religion that taught non-resistance, poverty, meekness, by an irony of fate gave birth to the most voluptuous, gorgeous, and inquisitorial and persecuting eccleciastical organization in the world. In ancient India Brahmanical priesthood was exacting, and made laws to suit a specialized class, who kept the non-Brahman communities in a state of stagnation. Religion of the higher class was not to be given to the servant class. Caste became a stereotyped institution, and class hatred was born. But the servile class had no way to rebel. They were reduced to impotency by the cruel laws enacted by the law-givers. The Veda was not to be read by the non-Brahman, and to the latter category was brought even the Kshatriyas. The hostility shown by the Brahmans to the Kshatriyas is recorded in the Puranas . When the Buddha appeared 2500 years ago, the Brahmans were divided into two camps, one party, who took the philosophical attitude of maintaining the more righteous principle of good character above mere birth, trying to convince the other that mere birth was nothing if one had not learning and good character. The Brahmans were making every effort to show that they were the most superior, having been born out of the mouth of Brahma, while the other classes were taught to believe that they came from more degenerate limbs of the same creator. The old generation of Brahmans had to be convinced of the foolishness of the aristocratic theory, and it was evident that among them were some of the noblest, who were ready to accept Truth above the mere assertion of a community that they were superior, and only a great personality was needed to storm the fortress. The younger generation of Brahmans who followed the older were also divided : the aristocratic party treating the Kshatriyas with perfect contempt : and the righteousness-supreme party, who held that greatness consists in noble character. India was then isolated, no Alexander had come from the West to show his power, and Europe was then sunk in darkness. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were not born, Mahommad, Jesus, and other later day prophets had not yet made their appearance. The Buddha appeared and preached the Gospel of Universal Brotherhood, Unity, Love, Mercy and the potentiality of the individual, who, whatever his gotra and jati, had the qualification to understand, and the health to persevere in the path of Truth. In the Pali it is called Khanasampatti, availing of the opportunity to climb high to reach the summits of freedom from the four kinds of bias, showing favouritism, doing injustice through hatred, doing injustice through fear of authority, doing that which is not in accordance with Truth through ignorance of the wisdom which can only be gained by a knowledge of scientific analysis. 216

To understand the great mission that the Tathagata had accom­ plished, it is necessary that one should make a study of the different aspects of Religion and social organizations, especially of India, and if possible of the world. The expansion of the intellect by a wider study of human laws will help to discover Truth. We must not lose sight of the fact that however good the article may be, if it is not well advertised, some one else would enter the arena, and by extensive advertising may get his inferior article accepted. The majority of the people are half insane and easily imposed upon by charlatans. We all know that intoxicants are injurious to health, but look at the methods adopted by the different Whisky dealers to advertise their own special whisky. The things that perish, and are impermanent and ignoble receive a royal reception, while the more exalted, which is associated with the Mind and which is more permanent, is neglected. The national consciousness has to be educated if a nation is to become great. Teachers by the thousands should be trained to bring up children, and parents taught the principles of development and decline. Parents, teachers, spiritual and secular, should be examples of the highest virtue, so that they will be able to influence the future generations. The more the teachers show the spirit of self sacrifice, associated with the spirit of compassion like the mother that takes every care of herself for the love of her unborn child, still in the womb, the better it will be for the development of the future generation. We shall not enter into a polemical discussion as to which religion is best in these days of competition, when religions are advertised like " Pears Soap " , " Dwar's Whisky ", "Beechan's Pills", " Zambuk " " Sanatogan ", and " E n o ' s Furit Salt " : We know how easily people are led to accept error on the strength of a book. People are by nature superstitious, and are imbued with the instinct of credulity. Astrology, occultism, ghostology, palmistry are the vulgar sciences that require no investigation. Thousands of the credulous are swindled by men and women who pose themselves as the chosen of god. The real saviour of man is he who saves ignorant people from the hands of immoral occultists, whisky dealers, and opium sellers. The occultists dabbling in mystery and esotericism bring down the human understanding into animalism. They are enemies of human development and of the science of wisdom. And this is especially so in India, the land of insane mysticism and animalising sciences. A few occultists by their degenerate tendencies can help the stagnation of a community. Science never conceals her fruits, and the life•—giving Sun does not hide his light : and the Buddha enunciated the God Law and declared that He hides nothing from the people. " Inquire, investigate, analyse, and do not accept anyone's dictum without thorough deliberate investigation, and do not believe the magician, the occultist, a revealed book, or the logical disputant"— this was the Great Teacher's advice to the people of India. The 217

common people should not be transformed into donkeys and bullocks : they must be elevated and enlightened, and helped to become men. Wise parents train their children to become good citizens, and enlightened teachers educate their pupils to be courteous and gentle, and learned in arts and sciences. The holy Bhikkhus and Brahmans by their virtuous and noble life show the wisdom of following the law of Renunciation. Those who spend their time in hedonistic pleasures can never become the best examples of a people. And the holy teacher is he who obtains from the pleasures that the house­ holder enjoys. If the householder does not see in the spiritual teacher virtue, why should he pay him homage ? He must be an example of self-abnegation, cultivating the higher life to receive the homage of the householder. A spiritual teacher can abandon the religious life, and adopt the life of a politician, and keep the people down in a state of vassalage and medievalism, as was the case with the European peoples, under the political supremacy of the Roman Church. A small class will of course be benefitted by following this selfish and undemocratic source. But it is not wise to keep the people in a state of ignorance, and slavery, for unexpected cataclysms occur, and the power of the elect swept off, as was the case with the priesthood of the Roman church, in France, Italy and Portugal. The decline of Indian freedom began with the degeneration of the people, who were brought under the priestly law of caste, and allowed to remain in utter ignorance. Missions were neglected and allowed to shift themselves in the so-called depressed classes, which number about 1 4 0 millions. Man instead of being elevated, became a degene­ rate, intellectually feeble-minded, and physically a slave to do the work of a beast. The result we see in India in the battalions of coolies struggling for existence. Such a sight as is to be seen in Indian railway stations, at the arrival of passenger trains, when these men are seen actually engaged in hand to hand fight, to get the luggage of the passengers is seen nowhere else. This kind of life reacts upon the nation, and a way must be found to make the burden of the poor easy. What is the cause that India should suffer in this frightful way ? Why should not means be found to make the life of the poor easy ? India in the ancient days was considered to be the richest in the world and the traditional Pagoda tree was then flourishing. What made the people to decline, after having reached such a high degree of civilization ? It is only when you examine the peasant Indian villager, that you realize how much understanding he has ? He is the most simple looking individual, contented with a little sattu or fried gram and water. He remains the same while the whole world is moving ? Look at the Chinese shoe-maker and compare him with the Indian shoe-maker. Look at the Japanese artizan and the Hindu; what a difference there is in the general intelligence of the one compared 218

to the other. Why should not the Indian artizan get that amount of happiness and enjoyment in India, which his brother gets in Japan, China, or in the United States ? This is a great work, a noble work, and much depends on the kind of religion which the householder professes. The religion of the Buddha was intended for all castes. He made no distinction between the Brahman and the Sudra. To all H E gave the ambrosia of the eternal Dhamma. As we see today, the first query which a man has to answer when he is confronted with another native of India, is about his jati, and on that depend the treatment he is expected to get. The same question was put to the Great Teacher by the Brahmans 2500 years ago. What is your caste? And the Buddha in reply said, " Do not ask my caste, ask about my conduct", and the Buddha by His all-embracing Doctrine of Love taught that a man whatever his caste, one become great, provided he follows the laws of eugenics and morality. He was not the teacher of a special darsana, like the system of nyaya, or yoga or sankhaya, and He did not wish to keep one class of men above, and another class below, teaching them to hate each other. He extolled Truth, and set Karma, Vidya and Dharma above wealth and high birth. Karma is good deeds bearing good fruits : Vidya is science of trade, agriculture, industrialism and navigation : Dharma is righteousness. To make all happy contented, loving and to practise the virtue of mercy was His object, and in fulfilment of this great mission, He set to work, and succeded in discovering a Path which is safe, and a path in which all can travel. He founded a Religion with the lesser and greater precepts. One for the Householder, the Agarika, and another for the Ascetic (Anagarika) who renounced the life of the householder. The former was intended for those who wished to enjoy a life of pleasure, engaged in arts, trade, agriculture, to produce wealth. The Anagarika saw a burden in the family life, he therefore wished to be free from the cares and anxieties of the family man. It was the life of absolute freedom, fearing none, and showing patience, forgiveness, love, and devoting himself for the welfare of others. The householder was the sower, and the religious man was the fertile field, and good deeds were the seeds that the householder sowed. The twice-born class had his Bible, and he had also the Brahman priest to officiate at his altar and propitiate the family god, but the non-Brahman of the Sudra class, was debarred by the law-givers from reading the Veda, and taking part in the Brahman rituals. What was he to do ? To be a perpetual slave does not tend to elevate life, and the Buddha in opening the gates of immorality, welcomed to the Bhikkhu life, men of all castes, trained in the Tathagata Vinaya, the Discipline of the Tathagata, and they were sent among the people to preach and teach. The Bhikkhu settled in the village, opened his school, got the village children together, taught them morality, science and religion. The vihara school became the centre of the 219

village, and once in a week men, women, and children assembled in the village Dharmasala, to listen to the teachings of Buddha's Law of Love. It was a comprehensive morality. Once in a fort­ night the village folk, dressed in white, spend twenty-four hours in the village vihara, in devoting themselves to the good law, and abstained themselves from all householder's duties, to lead the celibate life. Every village in Buddhist lands has the beautiful vihara, with the small cheti, the courtyard, where the branch of a sacred Bo tree flourished giving cool shade to those who sat under it to meditate. The first principle of the Religion of the Buddha was prevention of cruelty to animals, followed by the five principles to be observed daily by every householder, viz., to abstain from killing, from taking illegally things which belong to another, from violating women who were under guardianship of their own kith and kin, from lying and slander, and from taking intoxicating liquor and drugs. This was the ordinary code of social morality which the Buddha emphasised, which every householder who wishes to be born after death in heaven, should observe. In the Sevitabbasevitabba Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya the Tathagata taught the Dhamma of association and non-association, which included the five precepts as well as the laws of friendly speech, which when cultivated developed love, unity, concord, pleasantness, and a desire to know more of the higher laws of Truth. Hatred, convetousness, superstitious worship ceased, because the mind was trained to follow the ethics of a higher life, and love dawned and universal kindness reigned. The doctrine of Karma was taught which enunciated the principle that by doing good karma you enjoy good fruits ; by doing evil deeds, you suffer. Along with the law of Karma the householders were taught to believe that the life of man did not cease to exist here but that according to the Karma, it was born again. The law of self-development was simplified into a mathematical formula. Hatred quickened the decline of self, and extending love to all expanded self and quickened development. This wonderful doctrine the Buddha enunciated, and enjoined the Bhikkhus to preach it to the Kshatriyas, Brahmans, Vessas, and Sudras. In the Sigala Sutta, Digha Nikaya, He gave a synopsis of the duties of the house­ holder, wherein he was taught how he should live in this world bringing happiness to himself and to the world. His social duties under the all-embracing law of Buddha's love, widened, and from the self it expanded till the whole breathing world became one with self. Buddha was the first Aryan teacher that prohibited the sale of human beings, of weapons used for depriving life, of animals for slaughter, of poisons for kiUing purposes, of intoxicants that produced disease, making man insane and caused so much domestic misery by reducing him to poverty. He held up the lofty ideals of Buddhahood, and Arahatship above divinity whose consumation 220

depend on the observance of the ten paramitas. Woman and man were equal in the presence of the Good Law, and by evil doing woman and man are both liable to undergo the same kind of suffering in the next world. Nirvana was the appanage not of one sex and of one caste. Women were free to follow their own individual aspirations. The Order of Bhikkhunis was the refuge, and saintly woman found an asylum in the Bhikkhuni viharas were they could, without molestation, live the higher life. The householder according to his ability to lead the spiritual life, was given the rules to observe. Daily he had to observe the five rules, and also to practise the ten manusya dharma : weekly, or fort­ nightly he had to observe with his wife, the right rules or silas, enjoining the partial observance of the celibate Brahmachariya fife for 24 hours. The fruits of holiness were for the Bhikkhu and the Upasaka householder. The Arahat stage is only for the Bhikkhu, which is the highest, but the houlseholder had other three stages of holiness, viz., the Sotapatti, Sakadagami, and Anagami. The Sotapatti householder observed the five silas. Even at the risk of his life the Sotapatti Upasaka or (upasika the female devotee) will not violate the five silas. The stage of Sotapatti is the path of the elected one, niyato sambodhiparayano. Men and women remaining as house­ holders are able to reach either of three states of holiness in numerical order, 1st. Sotapatti, 2nd, Sakadagami, 3rd, Anagami, The Anagami, although a householder, yet lives the Brahmachari life permanently. The Arhatship is for the one who abandons the home-life, and men and women were allowed to enter the order of Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis after they had received the consent of their parents or guardians. India was the home of the religion of the householder. According to the Brahmanical laws of social polity, the large mass of people, who were not of the twice-born class, practically were precluded from accepting the higher laws of Brahmachariya, and they were debarred from practising the life of yoga. To this large community the Buddha's law of love, and the Discipline which He had in his mercy inculcated and called the Aryan Discipline were meant. For the first time the teeming millions of India received a Religion, and they were given the chance to go through a Discipline, which helped them to be religious. The sensual life of the householder underwent a change, the rich became more unselfish : his superfluous wealth was given to the social betterment of the poor. The king lived the religious life of the householder on the uposatha days, took part in the holy life, eating the same food with the ordinary upasaka, wearing the same kind of white dress. On that day, once in a week, or in a fortnight, or in a month, the king and the subject met and listened to the sweet doctrine of the Buddha's love to all. 221

For full one thousand years India had forgotten to observe the principles of the Law of Love. We see the effect of the neglect when we look back to the glorious period of Aryan culture, which produced emperors and kings of the type of Asoka, Kaniska, Siladitya, and Dharmapala. We see the non-Aryan lands today where the Aryan Dharma of the Buddha helping the people to be contented, happy active and free. Which of two countries afford a pleasant picture, Burma and Buddha's law of Love or Bihar without the law of Buddha's love ? Take up the life of the householder as enjoined by the Buddha, and see whether it is beyond you to accept it. Make the effort and see whether you can follow the principles in your daily life. A little self-denial is all that you need, and you will feel the pleasant delight in being able to realize the majesty of a purified life of contented cheerfulness, without the fear of being hated by those who are wearing the sacrificial thread. Without the Law of Love of Buddha, there will be always hatred shown by the twice-born to the non-dvijas, for at the initation of the Brahman boy when he is given the sacrificial thread, he is taught not to look at the face of the Sudra during three days. Can there be love in the heart of a man who shows such a feeling towards his fellow men ? Study the Buddha's Dharma, and you will see how elevating are are His teachings which He gave in all compassion to the millions who stood outside the pale of the elect. Surely the people of India under the Emperor Asoka lived happier and better lives than under the kings of the Mogul period. For full one thousand years India had lived without Buddhism, what have the people to show as a record of triumphant deeds ? But looking at the past, when the religion of the land was the Dharma of the Tathagata not one caste but all were happy,'contented and free. To the present generation of Indians, I bring the message of Buddha, and I ask them to investigate into the Doctrines that He taught, and follow them if they are good. Without inquiry it is not proper to condemn a code of morality which is so admirably fitted to develop the Aryan consciousness in the path of enlightenment and spiritual freedom. (MBJ Vol. 19)


18. The Duty of the Bhikkhus and Laymen T H E Bhikkhu who does not observe the precepts and leads an unworthy immoral life is called a ' Samana preta' which means a dead ghost and he is also called a ' mahacora ' great thief. The bad upasaka is called ' upasaka chandala '. The duty of a good Bhikkhu is to study the Dhamma, to attend to the daily duties in connection with the worship of the Buddha, to keep the arama ' temple premises ' -clean, to get his food by begging, to practise kammatthana for the development of his psychic faculties and for the attention of passions. He has to observe the disciplinary rules of perfect conduct : has to control his sense organs in walking, standing, sitting, lying down, moving from place to place, and to cultivate attentiveness coupled with wisdom in every act he does. He has to observe the rules of perfect hVelihood in order to get his food (ajiva parisuddhasila) : and make strenuous effort to prevent sinful thoughts arising, to create good thoughts and to fertilise them, he has to resolve that either he shall die in the battle field of psychical progress or conquer and avoid all passionate and sensual longings : cast off all angry thoughts and hatred : not let the mind become indolent and slothful, and his per­ ceptions weak : nor let restlessness and scepticism have control over him. (The five nivaranas are kamachanda, vyapada, thinamiddha, udhacca, kukucca and vicikissha). His mind must not dwell on any other subject outside his special psychical field of activity. He should practise wakefulness by sleeping only four hours during night, that is from ten o'clock to two o'clock in the morning, and from two o'clock in the morning to use the cloister. Cleanliness is absolutely necessary for the psychical student. The Lord Buddha emphasising cleanliness declared that the observance of cleanliness is the fulfilment of the law of the Buddha. Physical cleanliness is a corollary to mental purity. If the oil is impure, and the wick not trimmed and lamp full of dirt the light could not be bright. Dirty nails, unkempt hair, ill-smelling 223

clothes, unclean seat are hindrances to psychical progress. The object of the Bhikkhu life is to preserve the perfect life of Brahmacariyam. Renunciation is the law of the Bhikkhu's life. He must not touch gold or silver, nor be attached to his residence, his patrons, his clan, and he must not hesitate to impart knowledge to others. Concealment of knowledge is condemned. He must be always con­ tented with whatever food he gets and be ready to share it with other Bhikkhus. He must not covet anything. He must be ready to leave his residence just as the bird readily leaves one tree to another. He should love solitude, and not be fond of society. Gossip he has to avoid, and where he could not be engaged in spiritual talk, he should observe the principles of jhana. He must keep the mind in a state of perfectual activity with perceptions of light and cultivate serenity of mind. His gestures should not show that he is restless.

These are the essential of the perfect life of a Bhikkhu. Now the duties of a layman are to take refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, the Buddha as the supreme one above all gods and lords and the Dhamma as the supreme one above all gods and lords and the Dhamma as verifiable Truth, and the Sangha as the brotherhood ot holy Bhikkhus without evil and sin. Upasaka has to observe mos, scrupulously, the five observances of non-destruction, non-stealingf non-sensuality, non-lying and non-intoxication. He must get rid of superstitions, avoid worship of false gods : take care of holy Bhikkhue by helping them with robes, food, residences and medicines. He should visit the Bhikkhus and listen to the Dhamma. He must not engage in unrighteous occupations, viz. trading in flesh, intoxicants, living beings, murderous weapons and poisons. He has to con­ tribute to the welfare of his relations, show hospitality to strangers give thanks to the guardian angels, and departed spirits and pay taxes to the king. He should visit the temple and pay worship to the Bodhi tree and the Relic Sthupa, and on sabbath days observe the eight precepts.

The Blessed One made no distinction of Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis, upasakas and upasikas. They were all to learn the Pali< Dhamma and study it and proclaim it for the welfare of others. The 224

consummation of the Brahmachariya life was not only for the Bhikkhu and the Bhikkhunis, but also for upasakas and upasikas. The door to Nibbana is open to all. The highest Arhatship was not the monopoly of the male species of human beings. It was the appanage of both men and women. Both Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis were allowed to preach the Dhamma to laymen and laywomen.

Unfortunately in Buddhist countries the study of the Dhamma is greatly neglected by lay people, and the Bhikkhus themselves have forgotten the duty of preaching the Dhamma to lay people who feed them. The Blessed One in loving solicitude visited the poorest laymen and lay women and preached to them the comforting Gospel. He showed his solicitude in advising His supporters in domestic matters. When Anathapindika asked the Blessed One about giving his youngest daughter in marriage to a family who were followers of the Nirgranthas, the Blessed One advised the householder in the affir­ mative saying that after the marriage He would convert the whole family to follow the Dhamma.

Brahmanas and Kshattriyas, it is said in the commentary, called the Sumangalavilasini, are proud, the former of their mantras, and the latter of their high birth. Consequently they do not care to go through the self-sacrificing efforts demanded at the hands of the Bhikkhus. But the householder who is following the profession of trade or agriculture is best fitted for the holy calling. The menial engaged in servitude is also unfit for the high calling.

The Brahmans had their Vedas, the Kshatriyas had their military duties and they were not eager for the attainment of holiness. But the independent householder, engaged in either trade or agriculture, after he has heard the Dhamma from either the Blessed One or one of His disciples, begins to think of the encumbrances of the family life, and wishing to realize the holy life joins the holy Order of Bhikkhus, and strives for Arhatship. The Dhamma therefore is best fitted for the householder, and it is to the kulaputta (son of the clan) that the Blessed One prockirfeed the Dhamma. 225 10—R 4147

T o the Bhikkhus the Blessed One gave the Higher Doctrine, the uttari manussa dhamma, for the realization of Nibbana and fruits of holiness. To them He taught the doctrine of perfection. He enunciated the Four Noble Truths, the Five Balas, Indriyas, the four Padhanas, the four iddhipadas, the seven bojjhangas, the eightfold path. T o the lay people He taught the ordinary Doctrine of Domestic Ethics ending in the happiness of heaven. The lay follower has to observe the five precepts, the ten kusalas, and avoid the five professions and abstain from the ten evils : take refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. The duty of the lay follower is to provide robes, food, residence, and medicine to the Bhikkhu, and the duty of the Bhikkhu js to preach the Dhamma to the lay follower.

(MBJ Vol.




19. Practical Instructions to Brahmacharis i

OUR LORD BUDDHA taught the doctrine of the holy perfect life whose consummation is the realization of eternal happiness — the state of Nirvana, which is two-fold - upadhisesa nibbana, and anupadisesa nibbana. Thefirststate is to follow the precepts. It is absolutely neces­ sary to have faith in the Lord Buddha as the incomparable Promulga­ tor of Eternal Truth. It is necessary to have faith in the life-giving Dhamma and in the Sangha of perfect men, who have reached the superdivine state of Arhatship. The eight rules are for the householder: T o abstain from destroying life, taking things not given, sexual pleasures, lying, uttering harsh words, slandering, unprofitable conversation, taking intoxicants, taking solid food after the sun passes the meridian, dancing, sensual music, foolish shows, wearing garlands, perfumes, cosmetics, and other unguents to beautify the skin, using high and broad beds. Those who wish to live the higher life to realise Nibbana (Nirvana) should wear the yellow robe, and live in a Monastery, and beg his food and not touch or ask for gold and silver. He has to follow the Eight Principles of the Perfect Path. They are,— ( 1 ) T o have Perfect Views, i.e., to study the 1 2 bases of Law of Interdependent Causes and Effects ; to study the four sublime Truths ; that there is pain, suffering, misery unhappiness, that such are due to Ignorance, that all such suffering can be annihi­ lated ; that the Way is the Eight fold Noble Path. (2) Perfect Desires. T o adopt a life of Renunciation of ignoble sense pleasures ; of showing mercy to all, and of loving kindness to all. These two categories form what is called in Pali Panna, Sanskrit Prajna, Supercosmic Wisdom. (3) Perfect Speech. T o abstain from falsehood, slanderous speech, harsh words, and unprofitable conversation. T o speak the truth always, to use such words as will create concord not discord, to use sweet mellifluent words of peace and harmony, and engage in conversation that tends to progress, to meritorious activity etc. 227

(4) Perfect Deeds. To abstain from destroying life ; from taking things that belong to others ; from all sensual demoralizing associations ; to save life, to make others to abstain from destroy­ ing life ; to practise charity, to observe the perfect life of physical and mental purity. ( 5 ) Perfect Livelihood. To abstain from selling animals to be slaughtered ; liquor and other narcotics ; poisonous substances, selling human beings ; and murderous weapons. (6) Perfect Endeavour. Persevering effort to destroy evil thoughts that have arisen ; persevering effort to prevent evil thoughts to arise ; persevering effort to create good thoughts, persevering effort to retain and increase good thoughts. ( 7 ) Perfect Memory. By continuous analysis of the human body physiologically, anatomically, biologically memory is to be strengthened ; by continuous analysis of sense feelings and sense organs in their threefold aspects ; analysis of thought consciousnesses in their 89 aspects ; analysis, of the 5 obstacles to psychic progress and of the 7 principles of Wisdom to psychic expansion and growth. ( 8 ) Perfect concentration of Purified Meritorious Thoughts by the practice of the Four Jhanas or Dhyanas. The ten evils, Dasa Akusala, that have to be avoided daily are— Killing, stealing, sexual immorality, falsehood, slander, harsh words, useless unprofitable talk, covetousness, hatred and avoiding the acceptance of unscientific views. The Ten Good things, Dasa Kusala, that are to be practised daily are— Giving charity ; observing the ethical rules of morality ; creating and developing meritorious thought activities ; showing reverence and hospitality ; serving others and nursing the sick ; offering the result of meritorious acts to others ; acceptance of the results of meritorious deeds thus offered ; preaching the Dhamma ; listening to the Dhamma ; clarifyling the mind from false theological views.

(MBJ Vol. 40, January & February 1933)



Precepts to be Observed by the Brahmachari The Bhagavan Buddha is my Guru and Teacher ; I follow His precepts and His teachings, and I take the holy, sinless, Brahmacharis as my example. I surrender my life at the altar of Humanity I will show mercy and compassion to all Uving beings. I shall abstain from destroying life. I shall practise charity and give to the needy ; and help the poor by giving food, drinks, clothes, &c. I shall never dishonestly take others' things I shall abstain from sensual pleasures, and avoid women, singing parties, dancing girls, theaters, bad friends. I shall always speak gently, never harshly and avoid falsehood, slander, useless talk. Only words of thuth I shall speak. I shall not associate with gamblers and drunkards. I shall not show malice and covetousness. I shall not hate others nor show illwill. I shall not accept any statement as true that goes against the welfare of others and produce pain to others, and reject that which goes against the Law of Karma. I know that there is pain and suffering in this world. Painful is birth, the child and the mother both undergo pain. Disease and sickness, old age and death, seperation from those whom we love, union with those whom we dislike, all associations, sensations, perceptions, volitions, and thoughts that are unpleasant produce misery and mental suffering. I abandon all desires that produce evil Karma I will cultivate all desires that are elevating, holy, and productive of good and guard the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, and the body from evil sights, evil sounds, evil smells, evil tastes, and evil contact. All things change, change is the law. The human being is always changing. For 1 0 months in the mother's womb there was a gradual process of germination, beginning in a germ cell. From birth to death there is change. Black hair turns grey, skin gets wrinkled, limbs become weak, teeth fall, ears and eyes lose their power. In old age, in sickness there is suffering, and the dying man feels pain. Change and misery go together. The wise man therefore avoids clinging and renounces such pleasures as shall bring ultimate pain. He has no pride, and accepts the law of growth and decay as natural. Prosperity gives place to poverty, profit to loss, praise to blame happiness to misery, and vice versa. 229

Avoid the path of injustice. To please friends, relations, one should never do an unjust act. Never do anything in anger and malice, and show no fear and do no cowardly act and avoid doing things foolishly. Ignorance is the cause of all suffering ; ignorance prevents man from being happy. That which produces pain and evil should be avoided. That which brings happiness and peace should be promoted and developed. Activity in doing good is the law of progress. Delay and neglect produce suffering and misery. Nothing should be done without thought. Sitting, standing, walking, lying down, every movement of each limb should be associated with consciousness. Memory should be cultivated. Strictly follow the Noble Middle Path, avoiding ascetic practices and life of lust. Scientific studies promote the growth of consciousness, and help the acquisition of Wisdom. One should never dogmatise ; but always analyse. To promote the growth of both body and mind it is necessary to have the four requisites :— ( 1 ) Proper clothes to cover the body and to protect it from heat and cold, from mosquitoes, insects. (2) Nourishing diet to build up the body to do good deeds. (3) Seats and residence that are healthy and hygienic. (4) Medicaments when the body is overtaken by disease. Bodily cleanliness is a necessity. Nails, hair, teeth should be kept clean. Conceit, pride, egoism, stubbornness, harbouring anger, self adula­ tion, malice, hypocrisy, cunning deception, running down others are contaminations. The godly attributes of love, compassion, delight and equality should be practised. Generosity, Pleasant speech, Brotherhood and Altruistic Service are the virtues of harmonious association. Inasmuch as all good deeds proceed from the elements of Renunci­ ation one should always strive to avoid sensuous pleasures, that are correlated with sin and lust. Slothfulness, restlessness, irritability, unscientific sceptism blur the mind. Sleep should be regulated. There should be union between sleep and wakefulness. Breathing should be cultivated rhythmically and consciously. The spinal cord should be strengthened by sitting straight and cross legged. Avoid association and practise solitude daily for some time. Give up desire for happiness in celestial realms after death. Exert to realize the unconditioned, infinte eternal happiness of Nirvana, in full consciousness in this life, on this earth. Freedom is Wisdom's highest gift, depending on perfect Brahmacariyam. (MBJ Vol 22. Nov. 1914) 230


Desire in Buddhism

SUPERFICIAL students of the religion of the Lord Buddha, especially the followers of dogmatic beliefs, find fault with the teachings thereof that they destroy desire, and that a religion that destroys lofty desires is a pessimism, and that European races shall never accept such a religion. Unfortunately for the cause of Truth no attempt has been made to show the hollowness of such a baseless assertion, and the Bhikkhus have not done their duty to proclaim what the Blessed One taught. The three hundred millions of European peoples were satisfied with the Semitic religion of Canaan, and did not wish for more light. The Buddhist Bhikkhus and the more intelligent lay Buddhists have no idea of the conditions prevalent in Europe. For nearly fifteen centuries the European nations lived isolated, and when they woke up from their long sleep it was not to preach culture or religion that they crossed the oceans, but as apostles of the God of Mammon. "A rabid race fanatically bold, And steeled to cruelty by lust of gold Traversed the waves, the unknown world explored ; The cross their standard, but their faith the sword ; Their steps were graves ; over prostrate realms they trod They worshipped Mammon while they vowed to God." Study of religion and the inquiry into the philosophies of ancient India began after the Upanishads had been translated into Latin, and the first philosophical thinker who investigated the Upanishads was the German philosopher Schopenhauer. He had read of the sublime life of the Buddha and found in the philosophy enunciated by the Great Teacher a resemblance to his own philosophy which was generally known as a philosophy of pessimism. Schopenhauer was more a student o f the philosophy of the Upanishads, nevertheless Tiis sympathy with Buddhism was enough for the common man to


denounce Buddhism as a pessimism. It proclaimed the Four N o b l e Truths, and the first Truth was Sorrow, and a religion that proclaimed sorrow as its first principle was not the religion for the materalistic European. He was frightened to think of sorrow, and like the ancient gods who trembled when they heard for the first time from the Blessed One the doctrine of Transciency, (anicca), the dogmatists, theologians and hedonists shouted, "Away with Buddhism; we don't want it, it is a pessimism, and a religion that killed all desires. T h e pleasure of life, the high hopes were not to be given up, and a religion that killed all desires may be good to the people of India, but not to the virile European." Since the time of Schopenhauer the baseless assertion is repeated to the great detriment of philosophical enquiryLet us make a serious inquiry whether the Great Teacher did actually teach such a gospel to the world. Remember India is a continent, not like Palestine or Arabia, peopled by wild, roving Semitic Bedouins, children of the desert, and that it is a vast country peopled by highly spritualized races, with a civilization going back to thousands and thousands of years, and the cradle land of religions and philosophies. In a country where religious inquiry is man's birth-right, dogmatism has no place. India never knew in its long record of history to persecute people for their religious opinions. The persecuting spirit of religious tyranny began with the Semitic. Jehovahism, and later ruthlessly followed by the founder of Islam The Semitic spirit was implanted in the Latin and Teuton heart after the introduction of the Semitic doctrine of Palestine into Europe. Never having had a religion with a history and theology among the European races, it was a quite easy for the promulgators of the Semitic faith to impress on the European mind the terribleness of the Jealous Jah of Mt. Horeb. Europe succumbed, and its future was made a blank by means of terrifying dogmatism ending with hell fire and brimstone to eternity. Barthelemy St. Hilaire in France frightened the people of France by the pronouncement he had made that Buddhism is an annihilation. One hell fire was enough for the people, and if another was to proclaim annihilation, why the people will go mad !


In England the missionary was the sworn enemy of Buddhism. He proclaimed that it was a downright heathenism with devil worship as its complement. It was therefore fit for the cannibals, and the missionary actually proclaimed in his annual report that Buddhist parents did offer their children to crocodiles. With widow burning^ infanticide, and the hideous Juggernaut car like the Moloch of the Old Testament demanding human holocausts, and worshipping stocks and stones, which the puritanic people of the British isles were asked to believe by the missionary, there was no hope for the acceptance of the Truth which the Great Teacher proclaimed to the Aryans of ancient India. Recently a book was published under the title of "Trade, Politics and Christianity" by Longmans, Green & Co. Its author was one Mr. A. J . Macdonald, M.A., and the head-hunter of Imperialistic politics, who knows all about the African hippotami and Rhinoceros and the Cannibals of Africa, has contributed a glowing introduction thereto. This head-hunter with the seriousness which make us blush says "Perhaps Pity as a cosmic force, was only born with the ministry of Christ." The history of the Inquisition, the slave trade in the hands of the British for nearly three centuries, the annihilation of the Tasmanians, the introduction of Opium into China at the point of the bayonet, the introduction of firewater into countries where no poisonous drinks were known before, the annihilation of the ancient people of Central America, the partial destruction of the Red Native races of North America, the lynching of helpless Negroes in the United States, the destruction of the feathered tribe for their beautiful plumage to adorn the heads of women, are all due to the birth of pity in the hearts of the followers of Christ. The man has not read the Old Testament seriously and critically to find out what its contents are, and he has not seriously investigated into the dog­ matics of Christianity with an eternal hell in flames. It is the desire to realize the highest happiness that prompts the Buddhist to become an Arhat and realize the highest wisdom ; it is desire that prompts the good man to aspire for imperial sovereignity o f a Chakravarti ; it is desire that prompts the thinking Buddhist to d o good deeds and give the merits to others. Meritorious desires 233

prompted the great Buddhist King Asoka to send missionaries to the then civilized countries of Asia ; it was desire that prompted the righteous emperor to give his own son and daughter to the B u d d h a sasana ; it was the noble desire to save that prompted the Prince Mahinda and the Princess Sanghmitta to go to Ceylon to preach the Dhamma to the men and women of Ceylon 2 2 2 2 years ago. I t w a s desire that made the immortal Buddhaghosa to leave India and go­ to Ceylon and write the Pali Commentaries. Desire is of two kinds, the noble and the ignoble. Noble desires prompt man to do works of charity, they make men sober, enlightened and good ; ignoble desires make men to adopt the policy of Machiavelli, to distribute opium, intoxicating liquor, and introduce syphillis and create bastards, and murder helpless people for the sake of rubber, gold and land. Buddhism condemns ignoble desires, and emphasises on the necessity of cultivating noble desires. Buddha condemned (Tanha) craving and lustful desire (Chandaraga) ; and emphasised on the development of (Chanda iddhipadd) the will to develop lofty desires, and to create (punnabhisamkharas) meritorious deeds, words and thoughts. Tanha and chandaraga are born of Ignorance ; chanda iddhipada and punnabhisamkharas are born of (Pragna) Divine Wisdom. All good deeds, good words, good thoughts proceed from the element of Noble Desires, the Nekhamma dhatu and the Nekhamma sankappa of the Aryan Noble Path enunciated by the Blessed One the Buddha Sakyamuni. Section II.—Aryadharma


of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1 9 1 7 .

21. Karma Activity and its Fruits KAMMA or (Karma) is deed, and vipaka is the fruit. The field of activity is called karma kshetra. The thoughts or Vinnana are called (bija) germinating seeds. The living being is composed of the five skandhas, which are rupa, vedana, sanna, samkhara and vinnana. Rupa is the physical body composed of the four great changing elements, vi%., pathavi, apo, tejo, and vayo, which may be called the hard, or solid ; watery or liquid ; fiery or heat ; and the windy element or air. The physical organism when analysed may be divided into these four constantly changing elements. They are called the mahabhuta or the upadi rupa. The development of the human cell in the womb of the mother is a subject of scientific study to understand the evolution of the embryo. Embryology, geology and biology are subjects that a student of the Abhidharma should study to know something of the evolution of the kalla bija (germinal seed) in the mother's womb. From the moment of entrance of the seed into the womb it begins to go through the manifold processes of embryological evolution for nearly ten months, if in the interval no catastrophe falls to destroy the embryo. In the ancient days in Egypt before its grand civilization was ultimately destroyed by the early Christians, the ancient Egyptians were taught that the deity formed man out of the earth. In the work called the " Dawn of Civilization" by Professor Flinders Petrie is given an illustration showing the formation of man by the deity from the earth. If only people were taught the manifold process of the evolution of the embryo, each one would then think that he began his career in the protoplasmic stage, that he first entered the tabernacle as a spirit and lived in darkness for nearly 300 days in the womb of his mother. There is no transmigration of a separate atman or sou 1 in the animistic sense in the psychology of Buddha. There is the skandha parampara and the chitta parampara without a break in 235

continuity according to the Law of Cause and Effect. Man is materialized karma and karma are the thoughts generated in con­ sciousness. Karma generated by evil thoughts are called demeritorious karma producing sorrow ; karma generated by pleasant thoughts are called meritorious karma productive of happiness. Every ideation is a potential karma. Covetousness, anger, and unscientific comprehension of Dharma produce evil karma. Loving kindness, non-anger and scientific comprehension of Dharma produce g o o d karma. Sankharas and the realm of fruition are interdependent. Every sankhara has its sympathetic realms either in the kamaloka or rupaloka or arupaloka. T o give a concrete instance ; the eye sees, the eye consciousness takes cognizance of the form, and then goes through the stages o f reception, deciding, fixing and the final impression is made after the fourth revolution of the fixing thought is associated with lobha, dosa, and moha, of alobha, adosa and amoha, Man is born of karma ; his own karma are his relations, his karma in his refuge ; he is the inheritor of his own karma. No god, creator, priest, brahman or king can interfere with his karma. Good karma elevates man, and his thinking power is purified and strengthened. Resoluteness to achieve great things has to be cultivated. The welfare of the world should be the impelling force to achieve great things. Com­ passion must always follow resoluteness. Every evil thought is reborn if not destroyed ; so does also a good thought. The karma generated in the past may all be destroyed by the accumulation of good karma. By the superabundant accumulation of good karma by strenuousness in this one life can emancipation be purchased. This is the secret that Buddha discovered under the Bodhi Tree. Who created skandhas ? such a question is out of place in the psychology of the Abhidharma. There is no creation but growth. When the lady in Uncle Tom's Cabin asked the negro girl Topsy, " Who created you," ? she answered " I growed, nobody created me". The Rupa skandha is undergoing changes momentarily. For two consecutive seconds there is no identity of even a particle of matter, but only continuity without a break. Man is therefore a highly complex compound, psycho-physiological in nature, undergoing changes with electronic rapidity, influenced by environments, of cold, heat, and feelings associated with pleasure, non-pleasure, and indifference, influenced by perceptions and apperceptions, by means of objective pictures, forms, living and artificial, objective and subjective, creating karma with every volition, and consciousness taking cognizance of the whole phenomena " within this one fathom long body, Man is a creative being. He imagines things and gives life to them. According to the capacity of his own imagination he creates, and the phantoms that he creates become the bases of metaphysical superstructure.


In primitive society man is like a child willing to believe and to accept what he has heard, and that which is put before him in a persistent form he willingly accepts. Religions founded on meta­ physical speculations belong to the region of myths. An ascetic constitution given to prayer and fasts becomes a prey to objective hallucinations. Nothing is more easy than to form a new religion provided the man who wished to impose his views on others had the wilfulness to become a charlatan. He must lose his sense of shame, and be willing to sacrifice his life. He should follow the path of the ascetic, and practise austerities in the way of fasting and live in solitude in some mountain fastness engaged in prayer. Asceticism is an essential requisite. Fasting and prayer and living in a mountain fastness have been a sine qua non with all religious promulgators. Moses was forty days and forty nights without food and drink in the mountain of Sinai. Jesus was engaged in fasting and prayer, and he especially recommended them to tuVdisciples, Mohammad before he preached the religion of Islam was given to much fasting and prayer. Each individual according to the Aryan theory has an ishta devata. The Prince Siddhartha too heard the voice of Mara, chief of the celestial region, who promised all things on earth if he would give up his quest. The Prince was not satisfied with the material and divine pleasures of the lower and the higher heavens. The voice of Mara, was a kind of will-o-the wisp, but he did not follow it. The greater gods appeared before Him, and when they found that His quest was different from all other people they worshipped Him. Religions that do not teach the doctrine of Kamma may be called micchaditthi. Certain religions do not teach a past but teach a future, and those that ignore the teaching of kamma may be called nihilistic. They teach a beginning a few thousand years back, and an endless future either in a pleasurable or unpleasurable state. Any religion that ignores the doctrine of cause and effect is unfit for the thoughtful. The principles of Kamma and vipaka taken together postulate the scientific theory of the Conservation of Energy. Man is like an electric dynamo generating energy (Karma) every second. The mind is like the cinema machine. Kamma paccayo and vipaka paccayo are two of the twenty-four' paccayas which form the basis of the seventh book of the Abhidhamma called the Patthana. The Patthana doctrine shows the cosmic process in its entirety, and the fulness thereof can only be appreciated by the superior beings as the Buddhas and the Arhats. The twentyfour pachchayas are hetu ; arammana ; adhipati ; anantara ; samanatara ; sahajata ; annamanna ; nissaya ; upanissaya ; purejata ; pacchajata ; asevana ; kamma ; vipaka ; ahara ; indriya ; jhana ; magga ; sampayutta ; vippayutta ; atthi ; natthi ; vigata ; avigata. 237

The Doctrine of Karma has been distorted by those who have not comprehended the subject in its entirety. The Blessed One enunciated the doctrine from the scientific standpoint and psychologically explained it to His Bhikkhus. The Karma doctrine was known to the Jatila ascetics of the Upanishad school who kept the sacred fire and these only were admitted to the Bhikkhu Order by the Blessed One without letting them go through the four months' probation (parivasa). The members of the Sakya family were also exempted from the rule laid down about the parivasa. The members of Sakya family were exempted from the probation rule because they were related to the Blessed One, and the Jatila ascetics who kept the sacred fire because they accepted the law of Karma. In the Chandogya Upanishad, Yajnavalkya is asked to explain the doctrine of karma, which he does in secrecy, thereby showing that it was an esoteric doctrine explained only to the followers of the Upanishad. The fact is mentioned that Yajnavalkya explained to Artabhaga in secret the doctrine of karma and nothing more is recorded. It was left to the Blessed One to explain the important doctrine in its fullness to His Bhikkhus and the lay followers. Subha the young Brahman, son of Todeyya chief of the Todeyya school, one day came to the Blessed One and asked Him what is the cause that one man is born poor, another rich, one of low birth, another high ; and the Blessed One explained that it is due to their karma. The karma kanda of the Brahmanas did not give the rationale of the psychological operation of the doctrine of karma. To them karma was sacrifice and observing the rituals according to the Veda. The exoteric rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices, etc., formed karma to the Brahmans. They had no idea of the operations of the karmic law from the standpoint of yathabhutanana which was the discovery •of the Blessed Tathagata, after He had won the divine knowledge of looking into the past, and looking to the future, after death. By the science of pubbenivasanusmriti the Blessed One obtained the divine knowledge to look back into the past births of the individual and also to the past history of the earth. He saw the cosmic destruc­ tions and the reconstructions of countless billions of solar systems ; and by the divine eye of dibbachakkhu. He saw the future of the living being, how death follows birth, according to the karma he has done during life. Good deeds produced good fruits which gave birth, according to the karma he has done during life. Good deeds produced good fruits which gave birth to happiness either on earth or in heaven ; bad deeds birth in a state of suffering on earth, or in a purgatory or in the animal kingdom.


The fire—worshipping Jatila ascetics practised the Jhanas and abhijna, and obtained iddhi, and they looked to the past for many kalpas, and promulgated the law of good and bad karma. After the attainment of the divine knowledge of looking into the past and looking to the future, the Blessed One did not rest, but pushed on in search of further wisdom, and then the supreme knowledge came that shook the foundations of the earth and heavens. The secret of life was revealed for the first time, and the Blessed One discovered the great Law of Continuous Dependent Causality.. Imasmin sati idam hoti imassa uppada idam uppajjati, yadidam avijja paccaya samkhara, &c. A creative beginning was found to be baseless ; and equally false was the belief that life ends in annihilation. The law of change in its fullness the Blessed One comprehended, and the knowledge based on wisdom came to Him that nothing is permanent and nothing is annihilated, but only change in continuity. The error of the Egoists was that they took it for granted that things are permanent, and that a deity created matter out of nothing, at a certain period in the past. Fatalists formulated the erroneous idea that everything is predestinated, and that there is no need to make an effort to change the course of affairs. With a beginning in the past and an ending at death cannot but give rise to the error of nihilism. The ethic of nihilism was hedonistic enjoyments which gave rise to the saying " let us eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die". The ethic of Fatalism gave birth to the error of bodily mortification. Fatalism when associated with the idea of a deity creating the world is destructive to self and the world. The belief that a deity created the world several thousand years ago makes the muddle—headed individual to invent a code of ritualistic practices to propitiate the deity by offering bloody sacrifices. At the time when the Blessed One began to promulgate the Great Law of Dependent Causality with its corollary the doctrine of Karma, India had accepted the broad principles of ritualistic practices called the karma kanda which made the followers of the Brahmans to give bloody offerings to the deity. Fatalism made the followers of the doctrine to adopt the ascetic life in its fullness, subjecting the body to extreme pain. Those who neither followed a deity nor adopted the ethic of the fataist took to the nihilistic ethic of sensual enjoyments. Priestcraft naturally operates in full force when people are believers of the creative doctrine by a deity. With the deity is born the devil, and the poor people to escape from the devil have to propitiate the god, and the priest rule then begins Darkness appears with priest rule, because the devil is given a permanent place to torture the people. The priest gains his livelihood easily.


Nothing is permanent, nothing is annihilated, there is a continuity in the working of the Law of Cause and Effect in the change from eternity to eternity. Misery and happiness, profit and loss, praise and blame, prosperity and adversity, these are the links in the long chain of cause and effect. There is no creation and no annihilation, but only change. Everywhere we see only motion and activity. The atom is breaking to electrons and all life seem—to follow a kaleidoscopic activity with the continuous productiveness of a cinema. Activity is the law of life. Karma and Vipaka follow each other as night follows day. The wise man comprehending this great law avoids evil, does good and makes the effort to purify the heart and live in peace with all, sending forth love to both god and devil, man and animal, and shows that he is grateful even to the shady tree that gave him shade. Section II—Aryadharma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1917.



The Noble Eightfold Path

T H E Lord Buddha in the wisdom of His omniscience and great compassion discovered the Way that leads to supreme happiness here and after death in the higher heavens. He found that the human being has no known beginning, and that he s born here according to the karma deeds that he had done in his previous births. In this life the human being by his thoughts, deeds and words create karma. Good thoughts, good deeds, good words create good karma ; evil deeds, evil words, evil thoughts create evil karma. In the past kalpas, in many births the human being had created both evil and good karma, and in this life he reaps the results of both the good and the bad karma that he had done previously. The karma that ha does in this life will have their effects in after lives. Certain karnas that he had done in past lives not having had the opportunity to produce their effects, they lie in wait till the opportunity arrives. Such karma is called aparapariya vedaniya karma. In this life certain people abstaining from evil do good deeds, and yet we see them suffering ; and the answer is that their suffering is due to the remnant of evil karma they had done in the distant past. The opportunity having been found the evil karma begins to operate. We see men doing evil deeds live happily, the answer is that it is due to their good karma of the past. The incomprehensible complexity of the karmic law is only grasped by the omniscient Buddhas and none else. Those who do not understand the processes of the karmic law either adopt the materialis­ tic theory or depend upon the fatalistic idea or come to think that everything happens according to the will of a capricious deity. In this connection the Maha kammavibhanga sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya, translated by Lord Charlmers, should be carefully read. Man is the result of his own karma. So long as he continues to think erroneously he will have to bear the burden of his own karma. Ignorance is the operating cause which makes man to do evil karma. ;


Destroy Ignorance by Wisdom, and the Way to destroy Ignorance is to observe the principles of the Eight-fold Path, viz. :- Right Insight, Right Desires, Right Speech, Right Deeds, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Attentiveness and Right Illumination. Right insight is obtained by the study of the four noble truths whereby Ignorance could be destroyed. The study of the i z Nidanas or the operating causes helps to understand the cosmic process whereby gods and human beings are tied to the wheel of evolutionary life. This earth of ours is interrelated with other worlds ; and g o d s and men according to their karma go on circuambulating within the evolutionary wheel of life, now born as man, now as a god, now asapreta(ghost), now as an animal, etc. The individualized conscious­ ness of the living being at death is drawn by the force of karma into another form. The human germ plasm on the first day of its life is inconceivably minute, and invisible to the naked eye. Before 1 8 2 7 its nature was not known to European medical men. Professor Sir Arthur Keith, President-elect of the British Association, says " that it was in 1 8 2 7 that Baer found what generations of anatomists had sought for in vain the human ovum, that microscopic speck o f protoplasm which is the starting point of every human life". What Baer had discovered in 1 8 2 7 our Lord Buddha discovered 2,500 years ago^ The development of the human ovum with its prenatal associations in past births the Lord Buddha has shown in the great Law of Inter— Dependent Causality. The history of each human ovum is revealed to the Adept who knows the science of divine clairvoyance. Semitic theologians had no idea of psychic biology, they did not know the progressive development of the ovum in its weekly sojourn in the womb. They in their ignorance dogmatized that man was created for the first time, 6,000 years ago by a deity who had his habitation in the back part of Mt. Horeb in Arabia. The wisdom of the great Aryan teachers was too much for the muddleheaded theologians of Arabia. Europe went under the pall of Semitic theologians, and scientific progress was forcibly stopped by papal bulls. Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall and Herbert Spencer did much in the 19th century to help the scientific spirit, but their efforts were insufficient to curb the dogmatic theologians who have gained power with the help o f


•mechanical science. The influence of theology is now on the ascendency and the facilities afforded by science are taken advantage of by the theologian to throttle the students of psychological science. The panacea needed to cure the muddleheaded is to be found in the laboratory of the great Aryan Teacher, who taught the principles of a universal religion 2 , 5 0 0 years ago. Today the world is ruled by statesmen and theologians who are foreign to the spirit of benevolent •compassion. They do not see beyond this present life which they think is to be spent in physical activity and sensuous enjoyment, and in the destruction of the freedom which the smaller nations enjoy. Psychological studies are neglected because they do not give enough sensuous excitement. Theology has no scientific basis, neither has it a rational ethical foundation and it is against science. There is a weekly article which appears in the London Times on some aspect of Christian belief, accentuating on the merits of Christi­ anity ; daily there is an advertisem*nt in the same paper extolling the merits of a certain big dry goods store in the city of London, which brings before the mind's eye of the reader the name of the store. A •certain London daily paper also advertises that it has the largest circulation. This shows the supremacy of the art of advertising. The Lord Buddha emphasised the fact that the people are enticed to believe a thing however false by calling their attention thereto by shouting. The Brahmans of old knew the trick that by continuous shouting they could make the people believe that what they say is true. They compiled treatises showing the superiority of their community, that the Brah­ mans came out of the mouth of the creator, while the non-Brahmans proceeded from his lower limbs. The non-Brahmans believed the baseless assertion and the superiority of the Brahman caste was tacitly accepted by the Indian people. Then appeared the Lord Buddha who combated the false idea, and ridiculed the Brahman pretensions, and for nearly a thousand years there was freedom in the land of caste distinctions. The Brahmans by political methods got back the place which they had lost, and regained their lost position. There are various methods to keep the human mind in a state of stagnating immoral unprogressiveness. Alcohol, opium, different kinds o f narcotics and the companionship of woman are sufficient to make 243

the mind insane. The instruments adopted to bring about reactions are both political and theological. Buddhism abhors both methods and adopts the analytical method whereby man is given the choice to select the best by showing the degeneracy which results in the weakening of the mind by letting the five senses to be influenced by sensualism. The Lord Buddha knowing the causes of human degenera­ tion showed the Way to gain freedom from the thraldom of passions and to transcend the path of the gods. The causes of human degenera­ tion the Compassionate Lord pointed out in the Chain of Dependent Causality. The path of emancipation from the stagnating causes is the Noble Eight-fold Path. Follow the path of Ignorance and your life will be full of misery in this life : follow the sublime principles o f the Noble Eight-fold Path and you are able to enjoy continuous happiness in this life and hereafter. The eight principles, as stated above, are Right Insight, Right Aspirations, Right Speech, Right Deeds, Right Means of Livelihaod, Right Effort, Right Fixity of Mind and Right Illumination. To gain wisdom it is necessary to study all sciences as they treat on subjects which are helpful to gain knowledge on the formation of the human body and psychological processes of the human mind. Geology, physiology, anatomy, biology, astronomy, psychology are useful studies to gain the elements of evolutionary science. The teachings of the Buddha should then be taken up for serious study and the results thereof should be applied for the development of personality. (MRJ Vol. 36, March 1928.)

IV Psychology and Metaphysics


The Path of Psychology.


The Psychology of Buddhism.

26. The Psychology of Hearing. 27.

The Dhyana Yoga in the Religion of Buddha.

28. The Super-Cosmic Nature of the Dhamma. 29. The Transcendentalism of the Buddha Dhamma. 30. Buddhism in Relation to the Super-Normal. 31. Evolution and Creation. 32. The Nidanas or the Law of Dependent Causation. 33. The Philosophy of the Skandhas and the Nirvanic Doctrine. 34. The Doctrine of Nirvana.


The Psychology of Progress or the Thirty-seven Principles of Bodhi* The Scripture of the Saviour of the world, Lord Buddha—Prince Siddhartha styled on earth— In Earth and Heavens and Hells Incomparable, All-honoured, Wisest, Best, most Pitiful ; The Teacher of Nirvana and the Law. —-Light of Asia.

T H E Doctrine of the Holy One, the all-knowing Buddha is for Bhikkhus, lay Brahmacharis and house-holders. The Buddha held aloft the supremacy of Righteous Truth (Dhamma) above gods, kings, wealth, caste and colour. The Brahman is he who lives the holy life. The Buddha, the Lord of Compassion, who loveth all beings alike, preached the Kalyana Dhamma advocating the noble holy life of Brahmachariya, and expounded the doctrine of Nirvana, which bringeth peace, enlightenment, wisdom and extinction of sin and sorrow. H e opened the Gate of Immortality, and admitted all who wished to escape from the fetters of Ignorance and Sensuous selfish desires. The gates of hell were closed to him who walked in the path of Enlightenment (Sambodhi). Hell is for those who kill, destroy, steal, live adulterous lives, drink intoxicants, speak untruth, use harsh language, maliciously slander, covet other's things, hate others, and deny the law of cause and effect, Karma and it fruits. The Buddha came to lead people who showed fear of the next life, and had faith in a life of Righteousness. He accepted the old ethical religions which preached charity, moral conduct, the heavenly life and proceeded further in proclaiming a new Doctrine not found in the old religions, vi%., the immutable Law of Change, and the way to escape from the miseries of old age, decay and death and recurrent suffering. There is no hell to him who follows His Doctrine, he is assured of the Path of Sambodhi. * Pamphlet dedicated to Mrs. T. S. Foster of Honolulu, published in Ceylon in April, 1946. 247

The Holy One showed the path to Heaven and the Path to eternal Nirvana. The Heavens, both lower and the higher, are under the law of Change ; Nirvana is above the law of Change. It is asankhata, avyakata and lokottara, infinite, beyond matter and super cosmic. The follower of the Holy One, the Compassionate Lord, has above all to learn the principle of ahimsa, harmlessness. He has to refrain from violating the five great duties of the householdet, vi^., avoid destroying life, avoid taking that which does not belong to him, avoid unlawful sensuous pleasures, avoid speaking untruths, and avoid drinking intoxicants that cause delay making him senseless. In addition to these five the follower of the Holy Compassionate Lord has to refrain from slander, using harsh speech, and idle talk that produces no spiritual advantage ; he has to refrain from covetous­ ness, hatred, ill will, and foolish speculative beliefs and dogmas of the Whence, Whither and What am I. The path to eternal Happiness is called the Aryamarga, the Supreme Path. The Doctrine of the Holy One is called the " Arya Dharma " and the true follower of the Arya Dharma is called the Aryan or AriyS. The thirty-seven principles of Bodhi are—(a) the four fsatipatthanas) psychological truths relating to the body, sense feelings, mind and Nirvana. (b) the (sammappadhanas) four-fold Effort to stop the growth of sin and the development of the Good. (e) the four (iddhipadas) foundations of psychic power. (d) the five (indriyas) seats of psychical growth. (e) the five (balas) psychical powers which lead to Nibbana. ( / ) the seven (bojjhangas) seven-fold attributes of Enlightenment. (g) the eight factors of the Noble Path(Ariyo atthangiko maggo). The Complete elucidation of the 3 7 principles of the Bodhipakkhiya dharma is to be found in the Abhidharma. The Four Satipatlhanas are —kayanuppassana, vedananupassana, cittanupassana and dhammanupassana. Kayanupassand teaches the way to analyse each of the 32 parts of the physical body, vi%., hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow of the bones, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, brain, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach, faces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, lymph, saliva, snot, synovic fluid, urine. Vedananupassana, treats on the psychology of sensations, which are pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral. Sensations are caused by the activity of the six sense organs : eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. Their instability is cognised by anaylsis. 248

Cittanupassana teaches how to analyse the evolution of the thoughts that arise in the mind, vi\., passionate thoughts, non-passionate thoughts, angry thoughts, non-angry thoughts, foolish thoughts, nonfoolish thoughts, meritorious thoughts, demeritorious thoughts, low thoughts, sublime thoughts, unfettered thoughts, independent thoughts, unclinging thoughts, etc. Dhammanupassana shows the method of analysis of the five obstacles, the seven-fold principles of enlightenment, the five skandhas, and the six seats of sensation. The five obstacles (nlvaranas) to realize Nirvana are craving for sen­ suous enjoyments, hatred, showing ill-will to others, slothfulness and inactive habits, restlessness of mind or mind-wandering, denial of a past and future life and of the necessity of doing meritorious deeds, and unbelief in the law of Cause and Effect (karma and vipaka). The Four Sammappadhanas are:—(a) The effort to prevent evil thoughts, not yet arisen, to arise, and having made the effort the devotee must strenuously strive ; (b) He makes the effort, perseveres strenuously to cast off the evil thoughts already arisen ; (e) similarly he endeavours to bring into objectivity meritorious thoughts not yet arisen and strenuously strives to create meritorious thoughts ; (d) he strives for the preservation, retention, growth, increase, development and perfection of the meritorious thoughts already arisen. This is called Strenuous Effort. The Four (Iddhipadas) Foundations of Psychical Activity:—First is creation of the Desire to attain to the supreme heights of psychical progress, with concentrated mind, the purifying desire (Chanda) should be created (2) Strenuous Effort to reach the goal. (3) The purifying consciousness free from demeritorious thought. (4) The power of Analysis, whereby the conclusions are put to the test of analysis, and to this end he makes the effort, untarnished by other considerations to analyse the results in order to reach the goal of Righteous Truth. The Five Psychical Powers (Indriyas) are:—(1) Faith is the seat of Psychical development. Without faith (saddha) no psychical progress is possible. Faith in the supremeness of the Enlightened One who hath reached the summit of omniscience by the power of his own perfections, who for four asankheyya and hundred thousand kalpas strenuously exerted to fulfil the ten paramitas in order to reach the consummation of infinite wisdom (anuttara samma sambodhi). Faith in the power of Truth ; faith in the perfect holiness of the Arhats ; faith in the purity of one's own conduct ; faith in the power of almsgiving ; faith in the existence of spiritual beings etc. (2) Strenuous Effort (viriya) to reach the consummation of psychical progress in the path of Arhatship to realize Nirvana. Effort should be continuous, unceasing, without showing signs of indolence. It is the 249

effort to cast off evil, and to develop the virtues that are meritorious as given in the paragraph under the head sammappadhanas. No power on earth or in heaven should be allowed to stand before as an impedi­ ment to give up the resolution to reach the consummation of holiness. Only by effort can the supreme goal be reached. Effort is the founda­ tion of power, and the teachings of the Lord are founded on the doctrine which emphasises the supremeness of Effort. Effort must be well balanced, sustaining, not too much and not too slow. (3) Retentive Memory (Sati). The power to remember, to recollect, to recall forgotten events in past lives is sati. Doing everything with presence of mind, such as standing, sitting, or lying down, in advancing or retiring, in looking and gazing, drawing in the arm, or stretching it out, in eating, drinking, tasting, easing, in putting on the dress etc. constitutes sati. The power to do the right thing at the right moment is sati. To have the presence of mind to avert danger, to stop the mind wandering into the realms of evil, whereby demeritorious results might follow. Sati is like the soldier that stands armed to prevent the enemy from entering the citadel. Sati is the refuge of the mind. It is the opposite of forgetfulness, and the ever watchful mind conquers the enemy in the form of evil thoughts. (4) Samadhi is concentrated meritorious consciousness. It is the unruffled flow of purifying merit-producing thoughts, free from all passions and sins and foolishness. The undisciplined mind is like the wild bull, and only the trained mind that does not go into forbidden pastures, where sense objects disturb the calmness of the mind, that can realize the state of Samadhi. To gain Samadhi the student striving to reach the stage of holiness should be free from the burden of domestic life and be engaged in the observance of precepts of perfect Brahmachariya, free from every kind of lustful thought, angry thoughts, free from slothfulness, restlessness and doubt. He should have a scientific conception of the immutability of the universal Law of Cause and Effect and not be a victim to mere belief in dogmas and rituals ; and given to the practice of the four Jhanas which makes the mind radiant and illuminating whereby the Truth of Truths becomes clear. ( 5 ) Panfia or in Sanskrit Pragiia connotes super-normal wisdom whereby truth of the Law of Cause and Effect is realized. The co­ ordination of Sati, Samadhi, Viriya and Panfia produces Will-power (adhitthana). Without Samadhi Pafina could not be realized, and when pafrha is born) then all doubts of the whence, whither and what am I, cease. All questionings which belong to animistic and pagan religions about a creator or soul, or a future world are set aside. He ceases asking questions from others, and he does not answer foolish questions which fools only ask. This noble wisdom is like unto a well-sharpened sword that he uses to destroy Ignorance which is the root cause of suffering. Psychical Wisdom belongs to the supercosmic realm whereby the truth of Nirvana is realized. 250

The Five Ba/as (Powers):—(i) Faith (saddha) is a psycho-spiritual power built on the foundation of knowledge ; (2) Strenuousness in persevering activity (Viriya) is a psycho-spiritual power built on the foundation of Activity. By strenuous striving the highest spiritual achievements are accomplished ; (3) Attentive memory (Sati) is a psycho-spiritual power which enables the mind trained in Jh&na (Sanskrit Dhyana) to look back to the past incarnations of one's life for many kalpas back ; (4) Samadhi is the fulfilment of the four Jhanas which bring peace and purified thinking without being disturbed by the waves of passion, anger and foolishness ; (5) Psychical wisdom (Pafina) is the result of thinking with a knowledge of the great Law of Cause and Effect. The Seven-Fold Bojjhangas are:—Sati, Dhammavicaya, Viriya, Piti, Passaddhi, Samadhi and Upekkha. The following note would give an idea of what Sati connotes : a vigilant memory is the result of training. A born idiot, or one who is feeble-minded is not expected to have a good memory. But one born with intelligence may undergo a discipline whereby memory may be strengthened. For this purpose he has to learn to do everything attentively with conscious knowledge : walking, standing, sitting, lying down, stretching his arm, in taking food, drinking water, easing himself, talking, seeing, hearing, etc. The early training of the child in school is useful to have the memory strengthened. When standing the child should be taught to stand straight, and not on one foot. Memory building should be helped by physical training, and the most important is conscious Breathing. With mouth closed, the child should be made to breathe attentively, inhaling and exhaling consciously. It helps the development of psychic energy. To develop Satisambajjhanga the student has to practise thinking from cause to effect, and from effect to cause. This is called yonisomanasikaro. The mind is ever in motion. Before anyone of the sense organs is made to work the mind begins to act. To develop Sati it is necessary to go through a preliminary training of doing everything with attention. The feeble-minded has not the power to bring consciousness to work beforehand. His mind is partially atrophied, and is very slow to act. In order to develop the attribute of Satisambojjhanga the student should associate with persons of active mind, not with dullards, and should reside in places which help the growth of sati. Books which treat on the psychology of attention should be studied. T o develop the Dhammavicaya Sambojjhanga the student should investigate, question and study treatises on psychology ; he should obey the laws of hygiene, and be clean in body, in the clothes that he wears, in the seats that he uses. Cleanliness is the first principle for the fulfilment of the precepts of the Doctrine promulgated by the Tathagata. He who is unclean, untidy, from whose body and clothes the smell of 251

perspiration emanates is unable to develop the dhammavicaya sambojjhanga. The student should make an effort to bring the sense organs under the control of laws of discipline. The eye, the car, ear, the nose, the tongue, and the tactile organs are called in the Aryan psychology ' ocean ' because of the extensiveness of impact. The student should not associate with ignorant people but with the learned in psychology and sciences, and be strenuous in his effort to comprehend the higher laws of psychology (gambhirafiana), and the place that he lives should be clean and helpful to develop the faculty of analysis. He has to study the science that relates to the physio­ logy of the body, the elements, physical and psychic, etc. In Pali the terms are khandha , dhStu, Syatana, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, magganga, jhana, samatha, vipassanafiana. To keep the body and mind in a state of equilibrium he should make effort ; and the effort should be in harmony with the development of other psychic attributes. Too much faith and little wisdom is injurious. Faith without wisdom (panna) makes a man stupid, and only reasoning without faith makes one cunning. Some people argue saying " Oh ! I do show my love to Buddha in thought," and neglect the virtues of almsgiving, paying adoration to the Relics of the Buddha, do not observe the precepts, refrain from visiting the Bhikkhus who are saintly, learned etc. Hypocrisy has no place in the life of the earnest student who makes the effort to realize Truth. T o harmonize the principles of faith, wisdom, concentration of good thoughts and effort the attribute of Sati is required. The mere assertion that the creation of good thought is sufficient without doing meritorious deeds is insufficient to produce the merit of going to heaven. The actual doing of meritorious deeds is required to be born in heaven. Indolence of mind is caused if there is more of calm and less of effort. Calmness and effort working together leads to real concentration and is productive of Samadhi. Faith, strenuousness and wisdom are to be equilibrized by the functioning of Sati, hence the necessity of analysis. It is the presence of Sati that helps the mind. Without Sati, the mind (cittam) is without a refuge. He who is ignorant of the science of the skandhas is called unwise (duppafiiio). The one who is efficient in the science of evolution and dissolution is called (Pannavanta puggala) enlightened. The knowledge to analyse the changes of the atom has to be acquired. The student who has the desire to acquire Dhammavicaya sambojjhanga should follow the above instructions. Viriya Sambojjhanga (the principle of strenuousness) is associated with the initial effort (arambhadhatu) its continuance (nikkhama dhatu) and (parakkama dhatu) the sustaining power in co-ordination gives the necessary result to produce the attribute of psychic Will. The psychic Will is the product of the four indriyas of sati, samadhi, viriya and panna. The indolent can have no idea of the meritoriousness 252

of effort. The aids to provoke viriya sambojjhanga in the Bhikkhu are going the round to receive food with the begging bowl with a reflective mind, and when received to return to the temple and partake it with a reflective mind. He has to think of the great inheritance he is heir to, and think of the supremeness of the Great Teacher, and of the royal house to which He belonged, and that he is a scion of the great Kshattriya family tracing descent from the primeval monarch Ikshvaku, so that he may thereby not bring shame on the royal ancestors by any want of strenuous effort for the realization of the consummation of the seven principles of Enlightenment ending in Nirvana. The strenuous effort should not be allowed to wane, and as aids he has to associate with individuals who are strenuous, and reject the association of the dullards and the lazy. It is only during the period of youth that one can exert, and youth should therefore be used to practise strenuousness. Those born in states of suffering are not given to make the effort. The opportunity is now and exertion is a psychic necessity for supernal progress. The old, the feeble and the diseased have not the power to exert, only the strong and the young can make use of the power to exert. The Doctrine of the Tathagata is for the scion of noble family (kulaputra) whether by birth or by (acara) noble conduct. Unhealthy places are not suited for the spiritual student who is making the psychic effort to reach Nibbana's shore. Piti Sambojjhanga connotes psychic delight which is a result of psychic effort. T o acquire the attribute of Plti one should think of the holy life of the Buddha and of His incomparable Doctrine and of His holy Disciples, and of the" saintly life which comes to him who follows the path of four-fold Silas wherein he has to practise the ethics in their fullness ; Self-control, moderate in diet, and righteous livelihood. He should practise the five precepts, and avoid the ten prohibitions. When he knows that he is free from psychic impurities, which come from the violation of the five precepts, i>i%., destroying life, stealing, sensuous living, untruthfulness and drunkenness, and that he is not violating the ten precepts, a joy and delight come to the mind. The student who desires to enjoy the feeling of psychic delight has to practise charity and self-denial in order to given to the poor and the needy. He should think of spiritual beings who are born in states of happiness and avoid doing such things as will produce lust and passion. He should avoid association with harsh, rough people, and seek the company of the gentle and the pure, and study such sutras which treat on the subject of psychic delight. Whatever place that is unsuited to lead the life of delight should be avoided. Cool places, arbours, etc. he should seek. Passaddhi Sambojjhanga Serenity of mind, feelings, perceptions and thought activities is called passaddhi sambojjhanga. T o bring into existence the serenity into the mind one has to regulate his diet, and


take only such food as will help the body to produce the required serenity. Pleasant food, such as milk, curd, butter, ghee, fruits, corn and grain, and other food obtained without destruction of life, a pleasant climate, pleasant surroundings, pleasant seats, pleasant postures, that are healthy to the body, will help the development of passaddhi sambojjhanga. Association with persons who believe in the law of karma, avoiding the association of dogmatists, unbelievers of the law of karma, immoral people who do not lead the psychospiritual life is required. Such seats and places as are helpful to develop the serenity of mind should be selected. Samadhi sambojjhanga belongs to the pure life of psychic unity. Unfavourable demeritorious thoughts which produce mind-wandering have to be avoided. Restlessness of mind is unfavourable to psychic unity. To develop samadhi sambojjhanga perfect cleanliness of body and surroundings is required. The sense organs have to be controlled. Lustful thoughts should find no place in the heart. Ever watchful to prevent evil thoughts arising, ready to rebuke the mind when needed, he should be proficient in the science of yoga. His associations should be all aids to the development of samadhi. He should associate with persons who are practising the Dhyanas (Jhanas). The Jhanas are four which are only for the Brahmacharis and Bhikkhus who strictly follow the principles of the Noble eightfold path. Those given to destroying life and violating the precepts, and have the desire for sensuous enjoyment need not make the attempt to practise the Jhanas (Dhyanas). The five obstacles (nlvaranas) have to be removed. When the mind is freed from the five nlvaranas then only can the mind be turned towards the field of Dhyana. Sensuous desires, hatred, illwill, slothfulness, excitement, and psychical doubts have to be removed altogether, giving place to purity, loving kindness, mental awakefulness, serenity of body and mind, and faith based on knowledge. Purified ideations, psychical investigation, love of solitude, cheerfulness, and bliss are the results of the first stage of Jhana. When the mind is well established in the Jhanas the supernal knowledge of looking back to the past births, the insight into the future births and the supreme knowledge of the cosmic process ending in Nirvana are obtained. Upekkha ambojjhanga. This is the last state of the enlightened mind looking at things impartially with no desire for material things, free from favouritism, showing equal love to all. Anger, illwill, covetousness, pride have no place in his mind. He knows that man is born here according to his past karma, and that according to the karmic deeds here he shall be reborn again. He does not care for amusem*nts, and is free from frivolousness. All are objects of his tender soHcitude. Like the waters of the ocean, like the earth that receives whatever is thrown upon it he is free from attachment. He is merciful to friend and foe. 254

The Noble Eightfold Path (Ariyo atthangiko maggo).—(i) Right view of Truth (Sammaditthi). Samma is the opposite of mithya, and mithya connotes untruth. The truths that the Tathagata Buddha proclaimed are that sorrow, suffering, pain, misery, grief, despair lamentation exist where the physical body with its correlates feelings, perceptions, karma activities, and consciousness—exist. This is the first truth which He proclaimed. What man is there who will not feel the sorrow of old age, physical sufferings caused by illness, and at the death of his nearest and dearest ones ? To deny that there is sorrow is due to mental aberration caused either by - disease or unscientific and false religious teachings proclaimed by ignorant prophets and seers. The mother only knows the pain of travail. The child just born dies and the mother feels the loss. In certain cases the mother dies and the child lives. Think of the different " aches " —earache, toothache, bellyache, headache etc. that cause pain and physical suffering. Virulent forms of neuralgia, rheumatism, gout, sciatica, and a score of other diseases assuredly give physical pain. To deny physical pain is perhaps possible in the case of feeble­ minded folk, or paralytics. Physical pain exists, and by means of psychical effort it is possible to bear the pain with patience. The psychically advanced bear the pain by power of samadhi. The Four Great Truths that the Blessed One proclaimed are (i) the Existence of pain (dukkha), (2) the Causes that give rise to pain, (3) the Complete cessation of pain, (4) the Way to realize the painless state. It is to elucidate the psychology of these Four Great Truths that the Blessed One formulated the Dharma, Vinaya and the Abhidharma, which are embodied in the sacred books called the Tripitakas. T o understand the psychology of the Four Great Truths (dukkha, samudaya, nirodha, magga) it is necessary to study either Pali or Sanskrit or Chinese. The Tripitakas were brought into their present shape three months after the Great Release (Parinirvana) of the Buddha Tathagata. The second Truth explains the cause of (dukkha) the manifold Sorrows. It is Tanha based on Ignorance. Tanha. (Sanskrit trishna) is the never satisfied desire for enjoyment of sensuous pleasures of the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. In three ways the tanha operates, which make men desire for sensuous pleasures on earth and in the sensuous heavens. This form of tanha is called kama tanha. The craving for a permanent existence in physical form in a heaven is called bhava tanha. The other form of tanha is called vibhava tanha connoting the desire for annihilation. The first desire is confined to religions which are polytheistic, the second to monotheistic religions, and the third to nihilistic religions. The kama tanha operates in the six heavens of the Maharajas, Tavatirhsa, Yama, Tusita, Nirmanarati and Paranirmita vasavarti. The bhava tanha operates in the sixteen rupa brahmalokas and in the four arupa brahmalokas. Those who crave for nihilism are born in the parasakvalas outside the solar system. Man's desire is psychically creative. The deliberate motive is karma which 255

must produce effect (cetana, aham bhikkhave kammam vadami). Nirvana belongs to the realm of the unconditioned and is infinite, and eternal. It is called asankhata dhatu. The heavens come under sankhata dhatu. The asankhata dhatu is beyond the range of cosmic matter. The heavens are within the range of cosmic matter. Hence the existence of sorrow, death etc. in the heavens. The socalled gods come from heaven, are born on this earth, and die and again born in heaven and again return to this earth. The Brahman and the Kshatriya philosophers who lived in the forest practising the dhyana yoga desired to be born after death in the brahmalokas, rupa and arupa. In the rupa brahmalokas the Gods live in a spiritual form, and in the arupa heaven only conscious­ ness exists. The highest form of the arupa heaven was known as the nevasanfia na safifia (the neti neti of the Upanishad spiritual philosophy). The Buddha realized the nevasanfia state of happiness by the yoga process, and He went beyond the neti neti state, which He called the safifia vedayita nirodha, only possible for the celibate neophytes who are free from sensuous desires of the anagami order of holiness, freed from the fetters of egoism, ritualistic superstitions, doubts, sensuous desires, and illwill, anger or hatred. The nihilist enjoys life here to the full, and denies a future. Morality and loving kindness are not in his mind. Semitic morality is devoid of love. Materialistic nihilism, spiritualism, resurrectionism, brahmaloka happiness come under the three-fold tanha. Where tanha exists there is Ignorance. The tanhaic heavens were the psychical creations of illuminated seers long before the birth of Sakya Muni Buddha, Krishna, Rama, Jesus and Mohammad. The Buddha Sakya Muni accepted the heavens of the Aryan Seers with certain modifications. The follower of the Buddhas may take birth in any one of the heavens, or in the rupa brahmalokas, (but not in the arupa [brahmalokas or in the asanna satta, where the psychical body exists without conscious­ ness in activity), ultimately to reach the infinite condition of Nirvana. The desire for sensuous enjoyment is born of avidya (ignorance). Where the skandhas operate there is dukkha. The enlightened follower of Buddha Sakya Muni avoids the creation of tanhaic desires in his mind. The Buddha and the Arhats are free from this tanha. They eat the food given to them but is free from the desire (chanda raga) to have the same kind again. The third great Aryan Truth is Nirvana. The strenuous effort t o get rid of the tanha was made by the Prince Siddhartha, and when He discovered the Middle path He found the Way to eternal bliss and peace of Nirvana. The state of Nirvana has to be reached by observing the principles of the Noble Path, which is called the "EkSyano Maggo." The eternal state of Nirodha is called Nibbana. It is the consummation of love, perfect purity, a stainless life free from egoism, pride, and foolishness. Only through the noble eightfold path can 256

this eternal state of Nirvana be won. It is freed from the abominar tions of sensuous materialism. It is beyond the Neti Neti of the Upanishad philosophers. The fourth great Aryan Truth is the Way to reach the great freedom whereby the purified mind realizes the eternal bliss of Nirvana. The Noble Way has eight stages, vi%.,—(i) Right Views of Truth, (2) Right Desires, (3) Right Speech, (4) Right Actions, (5) Right Kind of Livelihood, (6) Right Exertion, (7) Right Training of Memory, (8) Right Unification of Good Thoughts. (In Pali the words are samma ditthi, samma sankappo, samma vaca, samma, kammanto, samma. ajivo, samma, vayamo, samma, sati, samma, samadhi). (In Sanskrit : Samyak drishti, samyak samkalpana, samyak vachana samyak karmanta, samyak fijlva, samyak smriti, samyak sam^dni). Samyak drishti is the right acceptance of truth by means of (VidyS) scientific investigation in accordance with the Law of Cause and Effect. Truth is based on loving kindness, renunciation of sensuous pleasures which hinder the realization of Truth, and the desire to avoid giving pain to man or beast (ahimsa naishkramya, and avyapada) Samyak samkalpana connotes the reproduction of lofty desires based on Truth. Savage, pagan ideas of cruelty, bloodshed, hatred, envy, jealousy, harming others have no place in the mind that gene­ rates the sublime desires of harmlessness, loving kindness to all living beings, and renunciation of ignoble, sensuous enjoyment, The samyak drishti and samyak samkalpana are co-related. Both combined produces (pragrla) the wisdom leading to the realisation of perfect bliss. The seeker of Truth and happiness should try to get knowledge by the study of astronomy, geology, biology, psychology, the ethics of evolution, and of the great Law of Cause and Effect. What would be the Effect of what is going to be done should be the thought of the seeker of happiness. The seeker of Truth and happi­ ness should not follow blindly the sayings of paid preachers who are asked to preach certain dogmas, which are utterly false. The man of truth is kind to all, he refrains from harming others, he is free from using torture to gain converts. He makes an effort to be free from partiality, anger, fear and stupidity. He rejects dogmas, superstitions, traditional beliefs, biblical authorities, miracles, sayings of so—called holy men, and the utterances of sensuous prophets and, gods. There are angry gods, jealous gods, vine gods, gazelled gods, water gods, lamb gods, black gods, white gods, serpent gods,. fighting gods, gods that fear iron chariots, gods that order demons to prompt men to do evil deeds, gods that love roast meat and blood of bullocks, gods that live in arks and in tabernacles, etc. The Buddhist accepts the gods of love, kindness, mercy and com­ passion. 257 11—R 4147

The three factors of Samyak vacana, Samyak karmanta, and Samyak ajiva are co-related, and the neophyte who is exerting to realize Truth should cultivate truthfulness, loving speech, and abstain from false­ hood, harsh speech, slander and unprofitable talk, and abstain from killing living beings, from stealing, and sensuousness in every form whatsoever. He refrains from adulterousness, fornication and alcoholic drinks. He refrains from making his livelihood by selling flesh, and animals to be slaughtered, he refrains from selling intoxi­ cating drinks and drugs, and poisonous substances and weapons of destruction and the sale of human beings. The three factors combine to make a man righteous in deeds. He does not help others to do evil deeds, and exhorts others to refrain from doing unrighteous deeds. The Aryan morality consists in the observance of the three factors. This is called the Aryan Sila. The remaining three factors of Samyak vyayama, Samyak sati or smriti and Samyak samadhi form the Aryan samadhi. Man by nature has a tendency to do wrong, and the Buddha therefore taught mankind to make an effort to avoid doing evil by deed, word and thought. He held up the standard of strenuousness as a beacon light in His Religion. Activity, Strenuousness, and Earnestness are ever praised in the psychology of His Religion. Samyak vyayama is explained under the head "Sammappadhana' above. Samyak sati or smriti is explained under "Satipatthana", "Satisambojjhanga", "Sati indriya, Sati bala". Samyak samadhi is explained under "Samadhi sambojjhanga " For forty-five years the Blessed Tathagata, the Buddha Sakyamuni, from the day that He first preached the Sermon of the Dhammacakka at the Deer Park, Isipatana, Benares, three months after He had reached perfect Enlightenment, to the last day of His life, He daily taught the doctrine of "Sambodhi" which consists of jthe above thirty-seven principles of supercosmic truth. His final words were spoken on His way to Kusinara to realize the state of the Great Release of anupadisesa nibbanadhatu, and they are well translated by Dr. Rhys Davids in the "Dialogues of Buddha", Part 2 , p. 1 2 8 , which are herein reproduced : "These O Bhikkhus, are the truths which, when I had realized I made known to you, which when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and gain and the weal of gods and men. "Behold now, O Bhikkhus, I exhort you :—The nature of things that come to be is dissolution. Fulfil ye the principles of the life o f Righteousness with strenuousness." 258


The Path of Psychology

T H E Buddha preached the Dhamma as well as a higher Dhamma. The latter is called the Abhidhamma. The Dhamma contains the popular Doctrine explained in a popular way the path to heaven, to the Brahma lokas and also to Nirvana.

The pure Brahman philosophy untainted by the doctrine of egohood is in no way antagonistic to the Dhamma of the Tathagata. Pure Brahmanism became contaminated after the religion of the Buddha Kasyapa had disappeared. The purifying doctrine was again preached by the Buddha Gotama. The essence of the Religion of the Buddhas is " Avoid all evil; increase the sum totality of good deeds ; unceasingly cleanse the heart: this is the religion of the Buddhas." The Tathagatas are the preachers of the supreme doctrine of anatma, which is synonymous with the word Nirvana. Nirvana is a condition to be created by self-control, wisdom and love. Anger, ill-will hatred, pride, conceit, indolence, delay in doing the right thing, slothfulness, desire to enjoy unhealthy lustful pleasure, harbouring anger, scepticism, self-esteem, hypocrisy, running down others, covetousness, arrogance, stubbornness, unyielding to truth, showing partiality, fear, muddle-headedness etc., are obstacles to the realiza­ tion of Nirvanic happiness.

There is a path to realize the supreme condition of Nirvana, and that path is reached by the fulfilment o f the ten paramitas, viz., unbounded charity ; purity in body by avoiding killings, stealing, committing adultery, speaking falsehood, drinking intoxicating 259

liquor, smoking or eating stupefying drugs ; desire to practise the higher life of sexual purity, avoiding sensuality ; making efforts to acquire the higher wisdom ; ever exerting in the performance o^ righteous duty ; never deviating from the path of truthfulness ; always willing to forgive even when persecuted and tortured ; strengthening the will-power by oukin g good resolutions and keeping them even at the risk of life ; showing love to all living beings visible and invisible ; and always contented and cheerful whatever happens. These ten paramitas have to be practised by those who wish to reach the haven of Nirvana. The Haven of Nirvana may be reached in three ways, viz., by the abhisambodhi method, by the pratyeka bodhi method, and by the sravaka bodhi method. The paramitas must be practised by the first method for four, eight or sixteen asankhya kalpas ; the second method requires two asankhya kalpas, and the last one asankheyya. The name given to those who practise the parami path is Bodhisatva and the candidate to Buddha­ hood is called Mahasatva Bodhisatva. The Buddha after His enlightenment enunciated the Middle Path for laymen and Bhikkhus to enter Nirvana within the period that His dhamma lasts viz., five thousand years. There are four paths under His Dispensation to reach the Nirvana goal. The sotapatti, sakada garni, anagami, and arahatta. The lay-men may follow the sotapatti, sakadagami and anagami paths. The Arahat path is for the Bhikkhu— not for householders. In the dispensation of the Gautama Buddha the path was made so easy that if one most strenuously exerts he can reach Nirvana here on this earth, in this life within a limited period, ranging from one day to seven years, but the most strenuous will, unceasing effort day and night, night and day is needed. The goal when once reached, experiencing the bliss of Nirvana is the same with the Buddha and the Arhats. The Buddha is the first Discoverer of the path long hidden, and He then tells the world of the existence of the great palace which is the end, and all must make the effort. The inventor of the motor car had to go through all the painful work before he obtained the results, but once he arrived at the goal of success, the path is easy, and the manufacturing of the motor car becomes easy. 260

Every individual living being is eternal, without a beginning and Without end.

There are two ways of existence the going round and

round the circle like the bullock yoked to the mill with its eyes bandaged, now enjoying, now undergoing misery, now in hell now in heaven, now being born in the Brahmaloka, now an animal; and the eternal round of weary sansara continues to be the easy way to the ignorant, muddle-headed being.

Like the sorrow stricken man

who takes to drinking intoxicating liquor to forget his misery, the ignorant man goes round and round the weary circle under the opiate of sense pleasures, false beliefs, and scepticisms.

The savage never

thinks of the future, he is satisfied if he gets something to eat and drink, and a place to lie down.

The Aryan people of India had a most spiritualizing code of ethics for several thousands of years. The Brahman, Kshatriya, and Vaishya philosophers of ancient India had penetrated into the heights of the Brahmalokas, and there found that the gods were most kind compassionate, loving, and contented and living in joyousness. The calm atmosphere of the Himalaya mountains gave the philosophers an impetus for higher thought. They soared and found that the highest happiness can be secured only by practising the divine qualities of rnetta, karuna, mudita and upekkha. Love all living beings; visible and invisible, far and near, high and low, devil and god, animal and man, all must be loved; Here the Aryan transcends all other nations. This is why India never is entirely destroyed.

The Buddha, 2,500 years ago, came to show the Aryan to transcend to greater heights of altruistic freedom, and the teaching did elevate them, and the cultured Aryans left the shores of India for the distant countries to civilize and humanize the less civilized races.


carried the teachings of love, compassion, mercy, contentment, right thinking, right livelihood, and taught the half civilized races to give up butchering animals and to cultivate love.

Sensuality and morbid

asceticism were condemned and spiritually modified to enjoy a clear consciousness.

Sensualism, materialistic beliefs

and wealth make 261

man a brute. Pride, ambition to get more power, degenerates the individuals and the race, and woe be to the man or race that follows the diabolical path. The science of psychology will open the eyes of man to the power of his own potentialities, and he will try to work for the good o f others, because it will bring his own development to quicker realiza­ tion. The radiant mind is neglected and man leads a life of animal selfishness. Man according to the Buddha is an everchanging being. For two consecutive moments he is not the same. With the knowledge o f Abhidharma he may live in perfect safety enjoying the bliss of solitude and peace.

Section II—Aryadharma


of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1917.


The Psychology of Buddhism

T H E supreme compassionateness of the Lord B U D D H A prompted Him to promulgate the Religion of Wisdom for the salvation of the world. There are no theories in His teachings. The B U D D H A discarded theories and preached verifiable truths. As Bodhisat, the Prince Siddhartha lived under the control of His father, Rajah Suddhodana, till the 29th year, when He made the great Renunciation. The desire to enjoy sensualising pleasures, was, by deep reflection and analysis, dominated by the greater desire to renounce. Renunciation became the basis of Nirvana. The desire for enjoyment is assada ; the reflective analysis is adinava ; the renunciation is nissarana. Contact (phasso) plays an important part in the production of sense impulses ; and contact is caused by the union of the sense organ with the external object associated with the operating consciousness. The sense organs are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. The eye takes cognisances objective phenomena (rupa), ear is attracted to sounds (sabda); nose to smell (gandha) tongue to taste (rasa) ; body to tactual objects (sparsa), and mind to psychical impulses, (dhamma). The living organism known as an individual is a composite of the five skandhas— rupa, vedana, sanna, sankhara, vinnana—the material body, feelings, perceptions, thought volitions, and consciousnesses. The rupa (body) is the result of the four compounds (bhutas)j Patavi—extension, apo-cohesion, tejo-heat, vayo-motion. The word bhuta connotes an apparitional form. The four apparitional agents are always changing. The union of the four compounds with the psychical activities based on feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousnesses suggests the idea of an individualising E g o . When the idea of an absolute permanency suggests itself to the mind the atman conception is formed. This idea gave rise to Error. The ever changing concepts, Viparinama dhamma, appear permanent to the Egoist. In the religion of the Buddha there is no room for a creator (Iswara) ; it combats the idea that all human activities are due to a prenatal causality (pubbe kata hetu); and rejects the idea that life can come into existence without a prenatal cause, and that it shall cease at death (ahetu appaccaya). In the Brahmajala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya see 'Dialogues of Buddha' Vol. 1 . By Rhys Davids the 263

Buddha enumerates sixty-two variations of psychical belief founded on the experience of individual sensations. Where consciousness is at work giving rise to sensations and perceptions perfect rest and emancipation could not be. The ' bathing ghats of belief' are three, viz. that the world has come into existence at the will of an all powerful creator ; that all present sufferings are due to prenatal life activities ; that life had no previous existence and that it is annihilated at death. Inasmuch as they are founded on nescience the Buddha rejected them as unworthy the attention of philosophers. Moreover they destroy the potentialities of continued human effort making man helplessly moribund. Without effort progressive development is impossible. Buddha built His Religion on the foundations of Energetic Effort, and Vigilant Activity. Life is all active. The infant babe begins to show activity. Month by month it continues to develop showing sign of increased effort. The sense organs show activity, from the fifth month, it makes the effort to crawl, to sit up, Sec. Here is the beginning of effort unaided either by man or god. In the midst of manifold catastrophes in the form of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tidal waves, land submergences, upheavals, shipwrecks, pestilential plagues, failure of crops, atmospheric disturbances, floods, conflagrations there is no place for an all powerful, all merciful creator. It is a figment of a diseased brain. Byron in his poem, ' Cain ' admirably expresses the monstrous nature of the creator in the following lines :— " If he has made, As he saith—which I know not, nor believe— But, if he made us—he cannot unmake : • We are immortal !—nay, he'd have us so, That he may torture :—let him ? He is great— But, in his greatness, is no happier than We in our conflict, Goodness would not make Evil ; and what else hath he made ? But let him Sit on his vast and solitary throne, Creating worlds, to make eternity Less burthensome to his immense existence And unparticipated solitude ! Let him crowd orb on orb : he is alone Indefinite, indissoluble tyrant ! Could he but crush himself 'twere the best boom He ever granted : but let him reign on And multiply himself in misery I "


Creators are the representations of psychical imbeciles. The Biblical creation story is a copy of the Babylonian story. Jehovah is made to play the part of a Creator of the world. He is painted as an old Arab Sheik, with a long flowing beard. He is dressed in a long gown, standing before him are the two naked figures of Adam and Eve. How utterly unphilosophic is the story of creation as it appears in the Old Testament. There are three different versions of the creation story in three different chapters of Genesis. In the ancient days each race had its own god creator. The god Brahma is the Aryan conception of a world creator. The Brahmanical Rishis evolved the idea of a creator ; they evolved the idea of the supremacy of a particular caste. They differentiated man not by character but by complexion. The creation myth is held up to ridicule in the Brahmajala, Kevaddha and Brahmanimantaniya Suttas. The great Brahma confesses ignorance when he is asked to explain regarding the dissolution of the cosmic elements. Brahma does not wish that the gods of his retinue should know that he is ignorant. They believe that Brahma is all knowing and all powerful, and why should he remove the veil of their ignorance. Let them not cease to confide in him ! Such are the ethics of creator gods. The Babel story shows how foolish a creator can be. Fancy the almighty showing fear at an impossible consummation. How could sensible people believe all this inane stuff ? How utterly ridiculous is the idea that Jehovah created man out of the dust of the ground ! Buddhism is the religion of strenuous endeavour. Its mission is to enlighten each human being to cleanse himself from the psychical impurities of covetousness, anger, pride, stubbornness, conceit, malice, envy, & c . The Bodhisat discovered the secret of human happiness in the conversion of the heart into a state of innocence free from all animal passions and evil tendencies. The uncontaminated mind is radiant. The contaminations are later accretions. By good deeds, good works, good thoughts one becomes pure. Evil pollutes. T o avoid evil and to do good one should strenuously endeavour. The Buddha pointed out that the cause of misery is due to ignorance of the law of cause and effect (Paticca Samuppada). Grief, sorrow, lamentation, despair, decay and dissolution, are the result of the coming together of the five skandhas. Buddhism is knowledge. That suffering is due to decay, disease and dissolution no god can deny. All religions teach that there is sorrow. All religions, except Buddhism, posit that sorrow is either the result of man's disobedience to God, or it is due to evil deeds done in a previous birth. Nihilism dogmatically denies a cause, and attribute everything to chance. The Buddha's mission was to eradicate the causes of present misery. The efficient cause is (Avijja) ignorance, Right knowledge consists in knowing that there is misery, that there are causes operating in twentyfour ways, which are known under the name of paccayas ; that there


is a cessation where causes cease to operate ; that there is a way to reach the glorious consummation discovered by the Tathagato. Desire for the enjoyment of pleasures of the five senses is called Tanha. Nirvana is that supreme realization, in full consciousness, of the consummation here, on this earth, when one is absolutely free from generating causes associated with the five physical earthly desires, lllwill and ignorance. Muddle-headedness, ilLwill, anger and covetousness are the root causes of continued suffering. Each time we commit a blunder we reap its effects. Nirvana is enlightened freedom. The three fold causes are laid at rest. The germinating seeds are com­ pletely destroyed. The fear of future rebirth, of annihilation and the desire for sensual existence do not arise in the mind of the one who studies the Psychology of the Buddha's Abhidharma. G o d s and heavens are for the deluded. They are not for the enlightened (Sravaka) disciple of the Great Teacher. Nirvana is not annihilation. The Buddha repudiated the thought that anything can be annihilated, and he emphasised that there is nothing absolutely permanent. Everything is going through a process of momentary changes. Every­ thing is in a state of flux. The body changes, the sense organs undergo change, ideas change. A thought comes into existence and dies instantaneously. Daily scores of such thoughts rise into being and pass away. The mind is, day and night, flowing down stream associating itself now with this, now with that. When it ceases to associate with physical organisms and sense perceptions, it has entered into Nirvana. When one rises above delusions, superstitions, fears, anger he is on the threshold of Nirvana. Nirvana is conscious realization of the infinite condition where there is no sensation o f changing desires. It is beyond the threefold phases of conditioned sense perceptions. ' I desire not to live, I desire not to die, I wait patiently till mine hour comes' said the noble Arhat Sariputta. Nirvana is the realization of the holy life of Brahmachariyam. T h e idea I am, this is mine, has no meaning to him, who has destroyed Tanha and Avijja. Gods, Creators, Heavens, Prayers, Saviours, Hells, transmigration theories, resurrections are all anticipations of the deluded. T h e development of consciousness strengthening the memory, avoiding recollections of associations tinged with sensual desires, resolute effort to generate thoughts of kindness, and renunciation are necessary to realize Nirvana. Ever watchfulness, analysis of sensations, perceptions, elements, seats of consciousness ; cheerfulness, serenity, strenuousness, concentration of good thoughts and equanimity are the characteristics of the disciple of Buddha. Speculations con­ cerning What am I, Whence and the Whither have no place in the enlightened mind of the Sravaka. He has destroyed the Sanyojana fetters. He is fearless. He is the victorious conqueror. He is fit to receive the homage of gods and men. (MB] 266

Vol, 2.x, February, 1 9 1 4 )


The Psychology of Hearing

M A N first hears and then he begins to think, and he thinks either in a way which may be called the right way or the wrong way. The Blessed One said "Bhikkhus, the sound and words that comes from outside, which he hears makes man to think, and he thinks either rationally or irrationally "Parato ca ghoso ayoniso ca manasikaro, micchaditthi, parato ca ghoso yoniso ca manasikaro sammaditthi." —Anguttara Nikaya. All are born in the same way. The pain of travail makes no distinction between the woman of high caste and low caste ; the high and the low has to g o through the same pain. The baby born whether of the high caste or low caste has to g o through the same experiences. Both are helpless, lying on its back it has to be fed by the mother, and for several months it can only croak, and the time comes when it begins to crawl, and until it is able to articulate, it is more like a baby animal utterly helpless. The baby left to itself when able to crawl, the first it does is to scratch the earth and eat it. It has no idea of taste except that of the taste of milk. In the child state there is no differentiation of birth and caste. Children in the infant state do not show the spirit of ahamkara, and are unable to assert their individuality. When they begin to hear words, and able to understand their meaning, and know that the words come from their parents, and have to be listened to, the sense of fear of punish­ ment begins. When the sense of perception is developed, they begin to distinguish colours. The sense of vinnana begins when the child is able to drive away a crow. At this stage the age of discipline begins. Children of tender age like to taste whatever is eatable, and they like to hide the thing they like for future use. Children begin stealing at an early age. They receive a warning first, and then punishment. The Agganna sutta tells us that at the first dawn of the world man was a spiritual being, eating no solid food, satisfied with the light of his own effulgence, and feeling no want of the light of the sun. 267

The future human being, does he not go through this experience for nearly ten months in the womb of the mother ? The story as related in the Agganna sutta is more like an allegory of the birth of the embryo, its development in the womb, the coming out of the womb fully grown, its first feeling of darkness, its first cry, and then its first experience of seeing the sun light, the first tasting of milk, and later on when it begins to crawl, milk is substituted for some kind of soft food. At this stage it begins to eat earth and dirt, etc. If the story is carefully read in the light of an allegory it will be found that the Buddha wished to provoke the intelligent mind to think how foolish and sinful it is to think that man was created, and that he is superior to another by reason of mere birth. The story is an allegory of the evolution of the embryo and the rebirth of consciousness.

The caste feeling is artificial. The theory of caste is taught to the Brahman boy in his twelfth year. The colour feeling is also trans­ mitted in European countries from the parent to the child. The child first hears and he is taught to carry out the order of his parents or teacher or priest. According to the Brahmanical Puranas the theory of caste was enunciated in the Dvaparayuga ; in the Satya and Treta age there was no caste.

Why do grown up men do evil? The young boy does not like to kill, but he is taught by the priest to carry out the will of an imaginary god. The boy is asked the indecent question " Who made y o u " and the answer is forced on him, and he says, "God made me in his own image and in his own likeness." The unsymmetrical shape o f the body of the Negro, if the answer is true, is the model of g o d . The Negro boy repeating the answer of the Christian catechism, if he is an intelligent boy, ought to feel that his god who created him is of the same shape as himself. An American boy when learning his catechism was repeating the words "god made me in his own image and in his own likeness "; and the boy's little brother echoed : "it is a bad model."

Teachers and parents who teach hide boys to repeat foolishly wh.-vt was taught to a nomadic tribe in the desert of Sinai in a barbaric age, do immense harm to the undeveloped child. Unscientific dogmas when diffused bring unhappiness to the world. Why should


the little boy born in a civilized family, in an enlightened age be taught religious dogmas which were good for tribes when they were yet in the nomadic state, and when the scientific spirit had not yet been evolved? Children should be taught the ethics of the happy home. The law courts are full of cases wherein people are accused of theft, adultery, forgery, assault, defamation, drunkenness, selling opium or liquor without a license, cruelty to animals and so on, but no one is accused of the crime of atheism or nihilism. Punishments are awarded to those found guilty of having committed immoral deeds. It is there­ fore necessary to teach the child from his infancy that it is bad to be cruel, to steal, to fight, to tell lies, to drink intoxicants, to speak harshly, to back bite. This world of ours can be made happy if people would only abstain from committing immoral deeds. Mud­ dle-headed priests and prophets wifhing to dupe and dominate un-manageable tribes invented gods of cruelty, and taught the people that they will be punished if the god was not given the blood of bleating kids and innocent kine. T o propitiate the imaginary gods created by pagan prophets millions of useful animals are slaughtered year by year, and the world is deluged by their blood. Ask the child whether it is good to kill animals, and if he had not been taught the metaphysics of speculative theism, he would most assuredly answer in the negative. He will say that stealing is bad, that associating with bad women is not good, that telling lies is bad, that backbiting is bad, that using harsh and abusive language is bad, that drinking intoxicating liquor is bad, and if he is asked why drinking liquor is bad he will tell you that the drunkard loses his senses, that he beats his wife, and mother and father, and that he behaves badly. What is therefore needed? Every child should be taught the ethics of the happy home, and the illiterate grown ups should be taught morality. Child psychology is an interesting subject of study. Books teaching the cruel deeds of savage gods, and the inhuman immoralities of prophets and priests should be made taboo. Stories of heroes who were ready to sacrifice their sons and daughters, and of brutal prophets who sent bears to tear up little children, and of saviours who cursed trees, and killed hogs by the thousands to please a mad devil and of myths of creators who made man from his mouth and the dust of the ground, should be excluded from the kindergarten and the school. The immoral stories that the child hears influence him to repeat them and the innocent mind is poisoned and its growth to­ wards truth is therby arrested. Books containing immoral stories of gods and prophets and heroes should be excluded from the child's library. Destructiveness comes from an immoral, savage brain, and •269

the good man can only teach to show loving kindness to all. Pride of birth and caste and colour has been productive of great unhappiness. The Ethics of Embryology and of Child Psychology may be taught to all children in common from their 7th year. Truthfulness should be emphasised as a necessity in the life of the child. Trugthfulness is immortal speech said the Blessed One. Learn to hear only that which is productive of kindness, truthfulness and self-sacrifice. Pride and Egoism are ignoble, and should be always condemned. The merciful Lord, the Blessed One, taught the Ethics of the Happy Home. May civilized humanity teach them to their children. How thoughts are generated and how they are to be controlled. Religions founded upon priestcraft and dogma make man a slave of a despotic deity. Sankara says in his Commentary to the Vedanta Sutras that Isvara created the world and man for his own pleasure. The Creator is compared to a despotic prince who does whatever he likes. There is none to question him. The Commentator to explain the position of the despotism of the creator had recourse to an earthly illustration. The muddle-headed people, illiterate and lacking the reasoning powers reconciled to the statement ,and accepted the statement as a dogma. Machiavelli too based his arguments in enunciating his views on diplomacy seeing the despotism of Borgia. Jesus with his little flock of disciples preached a doctrine which spread after his death rapidly in many lands. Judaism, Islam of Mahammad and Christianity are Semitic religions. The credulity of the human mind is remarkable. A mere sound is enough to change the views of a human being. Fasting and prayer had been always popular with religious minded people, and a moderate course of asceticism and a well disciplined mind with a desire to live the purified life help man to gain mystic insight into the penetralia of mysteries. There are dogmatic religions which show no mercy to the fallen. Man lives on this earth for say a hundred years, and then die. There is no man while he is yet alive, who refrains from doing a little good. According to the dogma of a certain animistic religion a man may have done good but if he does not believe the dogma that a human being born some centuries ago in some part of the Asiatic world, was the son of a god, there is no salvation for him. Eternal damnation in a hell is the punishment meted out to him. Men who formulated such dogmas and founded religions had no comprehension of the psychological nature of the human mind. They never realized that man was born with a purpose. Instead of promoting the happiness of humanity certain religious founders brought more unhappiness to the world by their revolting dogmas. 270

For nearly fifteen centuries many millions of human beings have been tortured, oppressed, burnt, hanged, quartered for holding certain religious views that were not in conformity with the unscientific dogmas of the established religion. Millions of human beings have suffered death in vain on account of the devilishness of religious agitators. This earth which could be made the scene of human happiness is converted into a slaughter house. Destruction without the agency of man there is enough on this earth. Cyclones, famines, plagues, tornadoes, earthquakes, tidal waves, & c , carry hundreds of thousands off to death. Man instead of lessening the death rate adopt the most diabolical methods to accentuate slaughter. Persecutions and destruction in the battle field are caused by human selfishness. If each one does what little good he can instead of committing evil, this earth would indeed be a happy place. Secience and wisdom are brought into use to cause more destruction. The great war that is now being fought in Europe is devastating countries and millions are being sacrificed unnecessarily. The world is large enough for all but the covetousness of some is greater than others, and to this cause the great war is due. Religion is a thing of the heart, and it is beyond the power of man to go into the heart of other people. T o oppress a human being for his inner convictions is diabolical. Bruno was burn at the stake by the muddle-headed, ignorant ecclesiastics of Rome, and today we know that Bruno was right and the Vatican wrong. Man is a thinking being, and he is changing every second in body and mind. He is not the same in thought for two consecutive minutes. The child of today who is ignorant of higher mathematics after he enters the higher form in the college may know to solve deep problems. T o persecute a human being for religion is most inhuman. But the dogmatists, who adopted methods of persecution, had no knowledge of psychology, and of the psychical changes taking places in the human mind. Psychology was never a part of animistic religion. Dogma and psychology never go together. A religion without psychology is unfit for the thinker. The only religion with a complete psychology from beginning to end is the Arya Dharma enunciated by the Lord of Mercy, Sakya Muni, the Tathagata Buddha. In renunciation the Blessed One found freedom from pride, selfishness and anger, and love came to live on earth, and the earth was happy, for the bloody religions had not yet been born. Fair Aryavarta was then purely Aryan, and the religion of love taught freedom to man by psychological methods. Men and women learnt the science, and they did not want priests, gods, and 271

animal sacrifice to realize emancipation from passion, anger, and ignorance, what was wanted was effort and uprightness, and freedom from hypocrisy. The desire to gain the higher wisdom was developed, and the low desires for selfish gain were by effort annihilated. This wonderful Doctrine perished from the land of its birth with the degeneration of the people who neglected the teachings of wisdom and love. The generation that lived when the final disappearance came were given to luxury and sensual indulgence. Two thousand years of prosperity made the later generations of the people to become indolent and luxurious. Laziness and luxury were responsible for the decline of the people of India. Aryan psychology as enunciated by the Blessed One analysed the human mind and classified the feelings, perceptions and volitions thereof into categories of Good and Evil. T o the Good belonged the meritorious thought, and to the evil the demeritorious thoughts. Man was taught that in his hands lay his own salvation, and that he is a responsible rational being, and that by controlling his senses, evil thoughts shall not arise, and that is within his power to live a life of perfect holiness here. By the diffusion of the Doctrine of Love brotherliness was established, animals received kindness at the hands of man, animaj sacrifices ceased ; and wisdom reigned. Psychological contentment is spiritual wealth. The Abhidhamma teaches that there are seven mental phases to every act of consciousness : they are first, (phasso, vedana, sanna, cetana, ekaggata, jivitindriya, manasikara) contact, feeling, perception, volition, focussing, life energy and rational activity. Second.—Six mental conditions, viz., (vitakka, vicara, adhimokkha, viriya, piti, chanda). birth of an idea ; investigation ; decision ; effect; cheerfulness ; lofty desire. Third.—There are fourteen mental phases which are immoral viz., muddle-headedness ; shamelessness ; absence of fear to commit evil ; restlessness ; false views ; pride ; ill will ; envy ; miserliness ; fretfulness ; sleepiness ; dulness ; doubting (moha, ahirika, anottappa, uddhacca, lobha, ditthi, mana, dosa, issa, macchariya, kukucca, thina, middha, vicikiccha). 272

Fourth.—There are nineteen mental conditions which are ethically moral, viz., intelligent faith ; recollectedness ; sense of shame ; fear of sin ; generosity, non-hatred ; mental equilibrium ; mental serenity ; and bodily serenity ; lightness of body ; and lightness of mind ; gentleness in feelings ; gentleness of mind ; bodily activity ; mental activity ; proficiency in body and proficiency in mind ; uprightness of feelings and uprightness of mind. Fifth.—Right speech, right activity in abstaining from killing, stealing and sensual indulgence ; and right livelihood in abstaining from selling poisons, liquor that intoxicates, weapons of destruction, flesh of animals and human beings. Sixth.—The

two infinites, viz., kindness ; delightful satisfaction.

Seventh.—Analytical wisdom (panna). Things that we see, the sounds that we hear, the smells that we inhale, the varieties of eatables that we taste, the objects that come in contact with our touch all have the characteristic of creativeness. The eye meets with a form and the two coalescing produces the eye consciousness, and the three coming together produces contact; contact—produces feeling, and feelings produces thought germs which are called samkharas. Man is a creative being. Whenever the sense organs are active a thought is in the process of coming to existence. Some individual thoughts are born and pass away without generating karma. Others produce karma after having gone through the manifold processes which are called (patisandhi bhavanga, avajjana, dassana, savana, ghana, Jsayana, phusana, sampaticchana, santirana, votthappana, javana, tadalambana, cuti) rebirth, continued existence, inclination, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, receiving, investigating, determining, revolving, registering, ceasing to be. Before an impression is individualised it has to go through the different stages of psychological evolution. We are living in a world of sense impressions. Every object however small is liable to create a thought, the minutest sound, the feeblest smell, the slightest taste, the least touch, or the former recollections of any one of these is sufficient to give rise to a thought. Osasing to be and coming into existence, such is the ever revolving nature of the mind. It is compared to a monkey that is always busy, leaving one branch, catching hold of another, leaving that and getting hold of another. Every time an object is brought before the eye, the eye consciousness is produced, and then the evolution of 273

the eye consciousness begins after receiving the picture impression in the mind. It investigates, determines and in the javana state the apperceptioning takes place. In the javana revolution before the final registering is done, the opportunity is given to abandon the object or to receive it is one's inheritance. If in the javana state the mind is inclined to the object, and the coalition takes place with either one of the elements of (lobha) covetous desire (dosa) anger or (moha) foolish imagination, the karma is formed. Within the twinkling of the eye through the sense organs the karma thoughts come into being. By controlling the sense organs and by a little practice of the evolving nature of each thought, an evil thought, before it becomes a fully developed karma, can be rooted out. Hints to train the mind, the discipline the sense organs, to prevent new evil karma arising, &c., are given in the Abhidhamma sangaha. The Pali copy cost only a few pence, with the commentary the volume cost about a rupee and a half. The English translation by Shwe Zan Aung, edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids may be had at the Oxford University Press, Bombay.

Section II—Aryadharma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1917.


27. The Dhyana Yoga in the Religion of the Buddha THE higher Dharma intended for the Brahmachari is an absolute transcendentalism.

The Bhikkhu has to lead the perfect life of the

saint, he has to lead the exalted life of the Buddhas and the Arhats. He has to follow the rules of the Patimokkha, control his sense organs, and keep himself aloof from the ordinary path of the worldly man. Walking, lying down, sitting, standing, talking, keeping silent, in every movement of his limb he has to be wide awake. He has to discipline himself according to the rules laid down in the vinaya.

The yellow robe is his garment. By begging he has to

obtain his meal, and no solid food should he take after the sun passess the meridian. In quiet places, in caves, and in places of solitude, under shady trees, where he can enjoy the bliss of solitude, the Brahmachari should sit erect and practise the yoga of Breath. Fixing his visual consciousness in the centre of the heart, or at the tip of the nose, he should quietly begin to inhale and exhale keeping his consciousness all the while on the inhalations and the exhalations of his breath.

He must know when he is breathing, and he is conscious

that the breath that he inhaled was long or short, and the breath that he exhaled was long or short. He must refrain from thinking of sensual pleasures, and never wish to go back to the pleasures of sexualism. mind.

Money making in whatever form should not engage his

He must think of gold and silver as if they were poisonous


Their very touch is injurious to the Bhikkhu. Content­

ment should be his fixed principle. Covetousness he must avoid. Anger, passion, harbouring anger, pride, the spirit of revenge, conceit, arrogance, stubbornness, slothfulness, delay to do good acts, holding wrong ideas of religion, accepting nihilistic views, 275

envy, avarice, malice, generating polluting desires, etc., these have to be abandoned. They are contaminations. Moderate in eating, avoiding all kinds of intoxicating liquors and narcotics, avoiding falsehood, harsh speech, slander, idle gossip, he has to think o f only doing meritorious deeds of the higher realms. If the Bhikkhu is too much troubled by lustful thoughts he has to follow the ethics of the ragacharita, and avoid such food, seats, garments, associates, residences, that would engender thoughts, o f lustful passion. If he is troubled by angry thoughts, and feels hatred towards others, he has to associate with companions who will guide him in the path of love, he has to meditate the bhavana of loving kindness to all living beings ; he should not have seats soft, and pleasant j and his vision should come in contact with things that would not engender anger or hate. Food must be soft sweet and delicious and not hard and bad. The bhikkhu who is muddleheaded should cultivate the yoga of breathing, and associate with those who will guide him in the path of wisdom. There are forty different kinds of mental fixities which are called karmasthanas. The brahmachari who is inclined towards the higher life, who wishes to realize the bliss of Nirvana, may take one of the karmasthanas and begin training his mind. It is a process of self discipline to keep the mind wandering from one object to another. T o bring the mind into a radiant state of infiniteness is the object of the discipline of the Buddhas. They first inculcate abstinence from all evil which are called the twelve akusalas ; and thence forward sublimate the mind by doing meritorious karmas of the four planes leading to the goal of Nirvana. All meritorious karma have to be done to enjoy celestial happiness. Doing evil leadeth to hellish states, although not eternally. T o bring the mind into a state of radiancy is the object of the dhyana yoga. For details consult the great work called the Visuddhi Magga. The human consciousness is called vinnana or citta, or mano. The mind that is not brought under discipline goes downwards. The contaminations that lead the mind to the lower grades of hellishness, animality, ignobleness, viciousness are called kilesas. What 276

the kilesas are may be known by the simple word contamination. That which pollutes the mind has to be avoided. Every thought that is the result of anger is contamination ; every word spoken in anger and hatred and malice is a contamination ; every word spoken with lustful feelings is a contamination ; every deed done with a low desire and based on covetousness is a contamination. Every thing done in the spirit of self-sacrificing altruism is meitorious. There are eighteen foolish questions about the ego which have to be avoided, relating to the present, past and future. Buddhism is not a nihilism ; nor is it an agnosticism. It is not a religion o f dogmas. It is a religion of truths based on analysis. Every ideas is subjected to analysis. It is not a monotheism and acknowledges no creator. It is not a nihilism in that it posits the law of causes and effects, with an eternal future and an eternal past. It is not an egoism, nor is it a pantheism. It avoids speculation. It is founded on the Four Noble Truths. It accepts the beliefs of the existence of gods, and great Brahmas, who are chiefs of the world systems. One great Brahma can, by his power, illuminate by his own glory ten thousand world systems. The Buddhist hates neither god nor devil. He has no quarrel with the religions of the ante Buddhist period nor with religions of the post-Buddhist period. He loves all ; he analyses every dogma, rejects the bad and accepts the good.

Sabbapapassa akaranam Kusalassa upasampada Sacitta pariyo dapanam Etam Buddhana Sasanam The Blessed One is the great Teacher and Guide of both gods and men. Analysis of mind and b o d y ; spreading loving thoughts throughout the universe ; resolute will to reach the goal by good words, good deeds and good thoughts this is Buddhism.

(Section II—Aryadharma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1917).



The Super-cosmic Nature of the Dhamma

H E who wishes to understand the Dhamma of the Lord Buddha should give up his previous faiths and ceremonial observances and his dog­ matic beliefs which have stood in his way for the right comprehension of supreme Truth. The belief in a creator has to be banished from his mind as well as the belief that whatever happens now is due to the kamma of previous births, and the nihilistic belief that whatever happens is without a cause and also is without effect. The Buddha accepted the teachings of the Rishis who lived the forest life practising the Jhanas, the samapattis and the four brahma viharas which gave them birth in the rupa brahmalokas and the four arupa brahmalokas. The cosmic world included ( i ) the states of sufferings called niraya, the animal womb, ghosts, asuras ; (2)kamasugati bhumi included the world of human beings and celestial angels (3) rupaloka where the brahma gods live (4) the arupa brahmalokas where the Mind in its purified from lives in a sublime state. The super cosmic world is called lokuttara which could be reached only by following the thirty seven principles of Bodhi, the culmination of the holy life is eternal calm and happiness which is called N I B B A N A DHATU. Those who do evil are born in the next birth in states of extreme agony.

The demeritorious karmas are destroying life, taking things

which belong to others, living adulterous life, given to falsehood, and taking alcoholic stimulants and narcotic drugs which bring on partial or complete insanity. 279

The ten demeritorious karma are destruction of life, stealing, and adulterous living including alcoholism. These are called kaya karma. Deliberate lying, harsh speech, slanderous speech, and unprofitable talk : these are called vaci karma. Covetousness, illwill and pagan beliefs which ignore the supreme law of Cause and Effect, that there is no effect in charity and in good deeds, and that no good results in nursing parents, and being sceptical regarding the existence of holy Brahmans and Sramanas, and disbelief regarding previous existences and future existences. Under the category of pagan beliefs creatism, nihilism may be included. The saying that man should cling to his wife and give up his parents is a pagan advice. These are called mano karma or evil karma generated by thought. Those who do the ten evils are born after death in states of suffering, either in the purgatorial world, or in the animal world, or as pretas elementals in the spirit world. In the human kingdom some are born blind, deaf, dumb, feeble­ minded, lame, idiotic, insane, epileptic, etc. They did good karma t u t with evil, selfish, covetous motives, not with feelings of love and generosity. Those who had done good karma with a generous heart, without illwill are born in good families and with no physical defects. Those who had cultivated the three good qualities of charity, love, and psychic and scientific studies are called three hetukas, possessors of three good causes, those who had cultivated two good characteris­ tics are called duhetukas. Those who had abstained from generating good qualities in past life are called ahetuka. The ahetukas and duhetukas are unfit in this life to attain to the summits of psychic purity. Those who wish to be reborn with the desire for psychic development should practise in this life generous charity, loving kindness and psychic culture. There are ten meritorious deeds called dasa kusala kamma : viz., t o give food, water, clothes, seats, beds, vehicles, flowers, perfumes, lights, etc., to the needy with a heart full of loving kindness and to give the light of wisdom is called dana.


To observe the five precepts, the eight precepts or the ten precepts is called Sila. To practise meditation in order to train the mind to realize Truth is called Bhavana. Altruistic psycho-analysts may be called bahvana. There are forty methods of psycho-mystic concentration each of which helps the mind to attain to the heights of psychic illumination as illustrated in the Visuddhi Magga. Paying due respect to spiritual elders, offering them seats and welcoming them cordially is called Apacayana. Nursing the sick and entertaining with food and sweet drinks is called Veyyavacca. Transferring the good karma which one does with a good heart to others asking them to accept the same with a good heart is called Pattidana. The good karma thus offered to others when accepted is called Pattanumodana. Hearing the Good Law with the intention of preaching to others is called Dhamma savana. Preaching the Good Law with beneficient motives expecting no gain is called Dhamma Desana. Strengthening the faith in the law of karma is called Ditthijjukamma Those who observe the ten meritorious kusala kammas after death are born in the celestial regions. Building bridges, roads, hospitals, almshouses, setting up lamps, establishing parks, orchards, public baths, and digging up tanks all belong to the category of good karma. Any good deed done based on the element of renunciation is called a meritorious deed. (MBJ


34 July




The Transcendentalism of the Buddha Dhamma

may translate Pali texts into English or any other European language, they may edit the Pitakas, and yet they may not be able to grasp the artha of the psychology of the Dharma. In the Alagaddupama sutta the Tathagata clearly stated that a Bhikkhu may study the whole of the Pitakas, and yet may not clearly grasp the spiritual essence of,the sublime Dharma. The vyanjana and the attha are two technical terms used by the Tathagata. The former connotes the letter and the latter term connotes the spirit. The Dhamma is divided into two categories, the vohara and the paramattha. The vohara is the ordinary common place view of truths, and the paramattha explains the essence of the Dhamma. In the Dhamma the discourses that are embodied in the Sutta Pitaka belong to the vohara category, that is to say they express the common place view, but to understand the essence of the Tathagata Dhamma a study of the Paramattha Dhamma is essential. The essential cate­ gories of the Dhamma are the five skandhas, the 18 dhatus, the 6 ayatanas, the iz nidanas or the links in the chain of the paticcasamuppada, the 5 balas, the 4 truths, the 7 bojjhangas, the 8 maggangas, the 2 2 indriyas, the 7 visuddhis, the 9 vipassana nana and the magga nana. The last four belong to the supercosmic transcendental science relating to the unconditioned Nirvana. PHILOLOGISTS

The Tathagata having attained to the supreme place in the universe became the Teacher of Brahmas Devas, Maras and human beings. The Tathagata is honoured by divine beings because of His infinite know­ ledge and wisdom. He is the Omniscient One, who has seen the universe face to face. Above the gods are the Brahma Gods, and the 283

Chief of the Brahma Gods has power to illuminate ten thousand world systems. In the presence of the mighty Brahma G o d the •cosmic gods of esoteric popular religions pale into insignificance. The gods of Arabia, Babylonia, Persia, Egypt, India, Assyria have ceased to exist. The gods are under the law of karma. They are born, live for the time and die and are born again according to their karma. They have failed to realize infinite wisdom, and yet the time comes when they too are able to listen to the Buddhas in the future and realize the infinite state of Nirvana. When the Lord Buddha began to turn the Wheel of the Good Law, the Brahmas and devas of the ten thousand worlds appeared before Him to listen to the Dhamma. It was an auspicious time when the Blessed One appeared. There were no creator gods then born. The idea of special creation of living beings had not yet taken hold of men's minds. The Horeb God had when the Lord was preaching the Gospel of Love and Compassion, no place in Jerusalem. The Temple of Zion had been capitulated to Nebucchadnezzar, the chosen people had by order of Jehovah been removed to Babylon, the remnant had declined to obey him, and after the time of Malachi, we hear nothing of the God of Israel. The Persian religion of Zoroaster •did not seek convers, and only the native born Persian was admitted to the religion of Ahuramazda. It was the same with the Hebrews. They did not seek converts like the Brahmans. In India the idea of a Creator had been abandoned by the followers of Jainism and Vedanta. T h e Brahmans were exclusive and the Veda was intended only for them. The Bhagavad Gita was the handbook of the fighting Ksha­ triyas. The duty of the Kshatriyas according to the teaching of the Bhagavad Gita was to kill the enemy. Sree Krishna advocated exter­ mination of the enemy, and at the termination of the Kurukshetra War royal caste had ceased to exist. The Bhagavad Gita is an exposition of the religious phenomena of the period. The different chapters of the Book treat on Yoga, Sankhya, Bhakti, Karma, Gnana and treats lightly on Veda's flowery language and of the celestial regions. Of the many chapters in the Book, the devotee of each of the different y o g a may follow what he thinks best. You may worship any God you like but have faith in Sree Krishna.


In China the practical thinkers of the period contemporary with the appearance of the Tathagata in India had ignored the Gods. Con­ fucius and Laotsze were the two luminaries that appeared in the firmament, and both of them had failed to inspire confidence of the people. It was after they had passed away that people began to think of the two Teachers with a sense of appreciation. India 2,500 years ago was the battlefield of philosophic thinkers. The six luminaries that appeared in the Gangetic Valley of the time were Purana Kassapa, Makkhli Gosala, Ajita Keskambali, Sanjaya Belattiputta, Pakuda Katyana and Niganta Nataputra. There were heads of Brahmanic schools like Pokkarasati, Todeyya, Tarukka, etc., whose names are given in the Sutras of the Digha, Majjhima, Anguttara and Khuddaka nikayas. In the Samannaphala sutta of Digha Nikaya brief sketches of the lives of the six ' Buddhas ' are given. In the Kosala Samyutta, King Pasenadi questions the Tatha­ gata why He does not honour old Brahmans, although he appears young in age. The different theories current at the time are given in the Cula Malunkya sutta, Devadaha sutta, Pancattayasutta, Majjhima Nikaya, in the Jaccandhavagga of the Udana, in the Brahmajala sutta, Digha Nikaya. The Tathagata has rejected theories and dogmas. The Thatagata Dhamma is free from speculative metaphsics, theories and dogmas and the Blessed One tells Aggi-Vaccagotta, the Ascetic, that the Doctrine taught by the Tathagata is profound, recondite, hard to comprehend, rare, excellent, beyond dialectic, subde, and that can be grasped only by the thoughtful. This Doctrine is difficult for you who belongs to another school of thought, who hold different views and following the leadership of another Teacher. Mental perturbality and partial insanity are the results of dogmatic asseverations. They confound clear thinking and lead to the byepaths of hatred, anger, persecutions, and massacres. Not one religious thinker or pro­ mulgator before or after the Buddha was free from anger and passion. The tribal god of the Hebrews was the embodiment of hatred and envy. The Brahmans when they got psychic power destroyed their enemies by their curses. The ascetics killed their bodies by a slow 285

process of starvation. For a thousand years the world was free f r o m theological warfare. Jesus was not then born and his religion w a s not preached in Asia by his disciples under order of the Holy Ghost. The iconoclastic Moslems unfurled their banner 1,000 years after the Parinirvana of Tathagata. Theological preachers were not scientific in their asseverations. They dogmatised on God as Creator, on souls and hell and the need of animal sacrifices to get the goodwill of angry Gods. They were lacking in the principles of mercy and loving compassion. The O l d Testament of the Hebrew Bible dipicts Jehovah as one who loves blood. Compassion has no place in his heart. When four hundred ; years ago the fiendish Portuguese appeared in Ceylon, the Buddhists for the first time came to know of the Christianity. They were vandals and iconoclasts religiously and politically. The next invaders of Ceylon were Dutch. Politically and commercially they were immoral but superior to the Portuguese Catholic Christians. (Read Draper's Conflict between Religion and Science, and Dr. White's Warfare between Theology and Science.) Jesus was neither a scientist nor a philosophic thinker. His only claim for worship was his assertion that he was the son of God. B u t his early teaching showed him to be full of kindness. The ethics o f the sermon on the mount were influenced with the spirit of the Blessed Tathagata. Judging from the ethics of the sermon on the mount it is evident that Jesus had come under the influence of both Buddhists and Vedantins. Take away, the sermon on the mount from the gospel, and you have the pronouncements of a theological dogmatist breathing vengeance without any hope. For a calm philosophic thinker dogmatic Christianity appears gruesome and morbid. It leads to partial insanity, and to the Buddhist Christian theologians appear as if they were half insane. They are full of conceit, lacking in the elements of sobriety, and rigidly dogmatic. Their only weapon is brimstone and hell fire and a fiendish God. The eternal Anuttara Samma Sambodhi was the goal of the noble-minded Aryan. To reach the supreme goal the devotee has to be full of compassion and be full of generosity, pure in character, renouncing ignoble pleasures, exerting to acquire Wisdom, strenuous in doing good and avoiding evil,


unshakeable in truthfulness, persevering with patience and forgiving all, the will to do good and avoid evil, loving friend and foe alike, and rising above praise and blame. The consummation of the compassionate life of Wisdom brings the supreme regard of Buddhahood. The Buddha shows the Way to Nirvana. From death to deathlessness, and supreme strenuous activity, working selflessly for the welfare of others. He is gone beyond good and evil. He had reached the Infinite. To comprehend the psychology of Nirvana one has to rise above the immoral ethics of muddle-headed theology. The metaphisics of pantheism, the dog­ matics of theology, the ethics of nihilism, materialism, hedonism, etc., have to be abandoned. The Nirvana doctrine is beyond the con­ ception of Gods, and Gods are in certain cases less wise than the prophets. The intelligent human being who has the power of rsason to find out Truth by analysis must be fearless, impartial, compassionate, and wise. He has to abstain from destruction of life and follow the moral precepts as given in the Samannaphal sutta. He is then on the path of Righteousness. When the heart is purified from the con­ taminating influences of anger, covetousness, harbouring anger, selfesteem, maligning others, free from stubborness, unavenging, free from pride and conceit, envy and miserliness, the vision of Nirvana becomes clear. Nirvana is not a postmortem existence, but is realizable in perfect consciousness in"this earthly body, purified^both physically and mentally. Desire for sensuous enj oyments has to be abandoned, and in its place Desire for the realization of Nirvana has to be implanted. The happiness of Nirvana is described as acala sukha unshakeable happiness. It is called also Ekanta sukha, unending happiness and Vimutti sukha, happiness of absolute freedom. Freed from ignoble sensuality, anger, hatred, ill-will, envy, jealousy, covetousness, pride, egoism, freed from the ten fetters called sanyojanas, the heart comes in contact with Nirvana, whereupon it realizes the bliss of peace, wisdom, activity in doing good for the happiness of others. The sevenfold attributes of the Nirvanic consciousness are perfect memory able to look back to the past births and to the future, perfect wisdom 287

supreme energy, cheerfulness without hilarity, serenity in body and mind unshakeable calmness, and equal mindedness in praise and blame, loss and gain, prosperity and adversity, grief and pleasure. A n individual with such a consciousness is worthy of homage of gods and men. He is the Arhat, the Buddha. An unending past and changing future is called Samsara. Samsara is the cosmic universe wherein the 12 nidanas have play. Nirvana is outside the law o f cosmic processes. Therefore it is called loka uttara—super cosmic. T o attain to the loka-uttara state the saintly disciple has to observe the laws of uttarimanussa dhamma laws of super-human righteousness, belonging to the plane of Ihana, vimokkha, samatha and vipassana and phala Sacchi-Kiriya. The supercosmic doctrine of Nirvana is not for the andha puthujjana. The andha puthujjana is blind in the vision of the elements o f supreme Truth. The kalyana puthujjana and the sekha are on the path, and the Asekha has realized Nirvana. He who knows the psychology of the Abhidharma and observes the higher laws belonging to the category of kalyana puthujjana and those who have realized the fruits of sotapatti, sakadagami and anagami are called Sekha. (MB] Vol. 37, March, 1929.)



Buddhism in Relation to the Supra-Normal

T H E BUDDHA sitting under the Bodhi Tree at Uruwela, triumphant in the great victory He had gained over the hosts of Mara, the thought came to Him ' how great is the attachment of the world to things that give pleasure to the senses, and the Truth that I have discovered how deeply hard it is for such as are given to sense enjoyment to comprehend and of what avail is the exertion to preach the Doctrine.' Instantaneous­ ly came Brahma, the chief of the world of gods, to announce that the world is ready, that there are some whose minds are prepared to receive the sublime Doctrine, and addressing the Buddha as the Victorious Conquerer, made the request to preach the Dhamma to a world ready to receive the glorious message. The Blessed One consented, after having seen with the eye of a Buddha, how men were groping in the dark, ignorant surrounded by the flames of lust, and yet helpless like orphans. The spirit of absolute compassion prompted Him to undertake the work of saving the world. * Who else is there but me, and I will save,' thus did the Blessed One say. Anatho lokasannivaso paramakarunnapatto tassa natthafifio koci afinattra mayati ; passantanam Buddhanam Bhagavantanam sattesu mahakaruna okkamati ".—Paiisambhida. The gatha that the Blessed One uttered in answer to Maha Brahma is full of psychological interest for certain words that it contains express the nature of the Doctrine that He decided to proclaim. " Aparuta tesam amatassa dvara Dhammam panitam manujesu Brahme." Open are the doors to Immortality Sweet is the Dhamma. Five hundred years before the appearance of Christ, and 1168 years before the birth of Islam, came the Blessed One with this message o f Immortality and Sweetness, calling upon the young men of noble families, who were willing to sacrifice ignorance, lust, and anger to listen to the Dhamma sweet in the beginning, sweet in the middle, sweet in the end. .28912

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In compassion for the world, for the good, for the gain, for the welfare of gods and men, the Buddha Tathagata, proclaimed the Doctrine of Nirvana and Holiness, to those who had made the renunciation of sense pleasures. India is the land of the Buddhas. In each kalpa Buddhas appear in India to proclaim the Gospel of Compassion, Wisdom and Holiness. India at the time of the appearance of the Blessed One had n o universal Religion. Ascetic philosophers each with a band of disciples lived in retreats receiving the homage of the communities. They were satisfied with their adumbrations of metaphysical speculations, and contented with their coterie of disciples. Some of the Brahman teachers had fine parks, whose sight gave joy to the aesthetic sense o f those who loved beauty. Such was the Ashrama of the Brahman Rammaka. Ascetics wandered hither and thither, each one proclaiming the superiority of his doctrine over the other. The people of the Gangetic Valley, then, as now, were always willing to pay homage t o those who have made the renunciation, accepting the vow of Brahmachariyam. The Brahmachari in India occupies a superior place. H e is compared to the Sun. The caste Brahman as a householder occupies a lower place. Toleration of all faiths is a necessity in India. It is the Stock Exchange of Religion. Of the Emperor Hadrian, it is said, that when people went to him and complained that so and so was abusing the gods, and that he should punish him, to such he gave the answer that the gods k n o w best, and that they can manage their business better than he could, and that he was there only to punish those who did wrong against the laws of the state. The people of India had always respected religious liberty, and never was a man punished for mocking at the g o d s . Where every man was a potential philosopher or hoping to arrive a t a god state, it is but proper that the state should abstain from taking the part of gods whose existence remains to be proved. In European States they had only one Religion and therefore they were intolerant. At the capital of King Prasenajit of Kosala there was at the Mallika Park the Ekasala built at the expense of Queen Mallika, for the purpose of holding debates, where all manner of religious discussions were held. An alien government and alien race ignorant of the ethics o f Aryan Communalism, can never understand the operations of the Aryan mind, subjectively. The King Prasenajit, comtemporary o f Buddha, was ready to make obeisance to any one who wore the garb of asceticism. The ascetic garb held the premier place in Indian society. In the Pali Suttas society was classified by the Buddha in the categorial order, of Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, Upasakas, Upasikas, Raja, Rajamahamatta, Titthiya, Titthiya savaka. The King occupying the fifth place in the order, and the Ministers of State, the sixth. The Buddha proclaimed Himself as Teacher of Gods and M e n ; H e called himself a Physician Surgeon, (Bhisakko sallakattd) see Sunakkhatta sutta. He exhorted the Bhikkhus neither to be elated when 290

others speak in praise of the Tathagato, nor to be annoyed when others abuse Him. They were to be calm always, and patiently exclaim what the Buddha had proclaimed. He was uncompromising in the attitude He adopted, when at certain times, other ascetics made attempts to reconcile their theories with the Doctrine that He pro­ claimed. The Buddhas in the past and in the future and the Buddha Gotama preach the Four Noble Truths. It is their especial Gospel, atha ya Buddhanam samukkamsika Dhamma desana. (Mahapadana Sutta, Digha Nikaya). The Buddha often times visited the asramas of other (paribbrajika) wandering ascetics. He was the accepted Leader of ascetics : His followers were King Bimbisara of Magadha, King Prasenajit (Pasenadi) of Kosala, the princes of Anga, the Licchavi princes of Vesali territory, the King Udeni of Avanti, and leading Brahmans like Pushkarasati, great bankers like Anathapindika, Pavarika, Upali, &c. The Buddha addressing the Brahman Sela, admitted Himself King of Righteousness (Dhamma raja) proclaiming the Laws of Righteous­ ness as did the Chakrawarti Monarchs of old. He enunciated the Dhamma in its two-fold form—one for the Bhikkhus, the other for the men of the world ; the former the Uttari manussa dhamma, the latter Manussa dhamma. The former for the superman, the latter for the householder. The uttari manussa doctrine was not for the laymen, and this Uttari Manussa Dhamma may therefore be called Supranormal. The exhibition to laymen of phenomenal (iddhi) powers coming under the category of Jhana (Dhyana) was strictly prohibited ; violation of this law-entailing dismissal from the upasampada order never again to be admitted to the rank of ordained Bhikshus. The teachings of the Tathagato are again divided into Sammuti and Paramattha. The Sammuti Satya, popular truths, Paramattha Satya, essential truths. The Paramattha doctrine is embodied in the Abhidhamma, otherwise called Veyyakarana. The sutta Pitaka contains the sammuti or vyavahara doctrines, the Vinaya Pitaka contains Ana or Laws relating to the well-being of the community. In the sammuti or vyavahara teachings the Buddha admitted the popular version of accepted truths relating to gods, heavens, hells, world systems, kasinas, cosmological interpretations, dhyana mysteries, referring to the five abhijnas, viz., (dibbacakku) divine eye, (dibbasota) divine ear, (para citta vijanana nana) knowing others' thoughts, (pubbenivasanussati nana) knowing previous places of birth and death, (iddhi vidha nana) science of working, what is popularly called, miracles. There are ten idhis, viz., adhitthana iddhi, vikubbana iddhi, manomaya iddhi, nanavipphara iddhi, samadhi vipphara iddhi, ariya iddhi, kamma vipakaja iddhi, punnavato iddhi, vijjamaya iddhi, tattha tattha sammappayoga paccaya ijjhatthena iddhi. 291

The foundation for building the superstructure of iddhi is called iddhipada,—they are (chanda) earnest desire, (viriya) strenuous activity, (cbittd) the development of such thoughts as are favourable for progress (vimamsa) investigation. By each of the four iddhipada the gain is (samadhi) realization and (ekagrata) absolute fixity. Lethargy, resdessness, desire for enjoyments in the sensuous plane, ill-will, and clinging to foolish unscientific theories are set aside when one is on the path of iddhi. By adhitthana iddhi the holy disciple can appear in manifold forms go through walls and obstacles, dive down into water, into the depths of the earth, walk on water, float in the astral regions like a bird, ascend into the worlds of the Brahma Gods by certain psychical processes. By vikubbana iddhi the holy disciple can ascend to the world of the Brahma God, and from there make himself heard in ten thousand worlds, make himself now visible, now invisible, assume whatever form he likes. By manomaya iddhi, the holy disciple, keeping his body in one place, can project his mind body to another place. By nana vipphara iddhi the holy disciple can realize by psychical processes the truths of the evolution of things. By samadhi vipphara iddhi the holy disciple can realize by stages the psychical illumination beginning from the first dhyana and gradually terminating in the arupa brahmaloka. By arya iddhi the holy disciple can by the practice of divine attributes of loving kindness, live in love, and also remain detached from things pleasant and unpleasant, in perfect consciousness nevertheless. Kamma vipakaja iddhi is nature's gift to all species of birds, to all celestial beings, to certain human beings, and to certain sub-human beings. Pannafato iddhi is a psychical gift only limited to certain very high personages whereby they reap phenomenal advantages due to their great merits. By vijjamqya iddhi certain magicians by necromantic methods float through the air, exhibit in space materialised figures of animals, & c . The last iddhi is obtained by an ethical process whereby the five obstacles are removed by the development of the five iUuminating principles, and by the path of Arhatshlp. This is the Uttari manussa dhamma which is Supra-normal and orily confined to the Brahmacharis, who have renounced the fetters of lay life. (MBJ Vol. 22, Sept. 1914.) 292

31. Evolution and Creation IN the Brahmajala sutta of the Digha nikaya, the Blessed One classified the religious beliefs current in ancient India. All people did not follow the theory of a cosmic creation, with Brahma as the chief. The fact that there were current in ancient India sixty-two different kinds of religious beliefs, shows that ancient Indian people were remarkably tolerant of each other's views. The Blessed One explained the variations of religious beliefs to His own disciples, and exhorted them to be neutral and to avoid religious disputations. He said that the Bhikkhus should not feel elated when the Tathagata is praised ; neither should they betray their feelings. They are in search of the great Gem, and petty tyrannies and worldly applause should not make them to deviate from the path for a second. The creator myth is condemned by the Buddha. Creation connotes a beginning. In the Buddha Dharma there is no known beginning. Before the beginning what was the Creator doing and where did he live? A condition of things where there is no water, earth, air, heat, light, and space is unthinkable. If God rested on the waters who created the water, and if God created the water, where did he live before? Uncultured people are always very credulous. Analysis of religious beliefs is only possible in a country where there exist more than one religion. In a country where the people hold to one view of religion, there could not be any kind, of conflict. Confusion of tongues creates differentiation. In the most primitive period there might have been one language in a country. The Buddha is called Tathaga ta, which connotes a successor of a former Buddha. Buddhas have in 293

the past appeared, and their number is innumerable. Instead of yugas and years, the Buddhas calculated time by kalpas, and the duration of a kalpa cannot be measured by arithmetical calculation. A mahakalpa has twenty minor kalpas, and a mahakalpa goes through four periods decay, destruction, suspended animation, and re-formation. The modern scientific view of a nebular hypothesies is in conflict with the creation theory. The Vedic Brahmans were not philosophers, they were priests and sacrificers to gods, and they were able to create gods whenever they were required. Hence the avatar theory. The tribe of Brah­ mans were exclusive, anc£they monopolised the priesdy profession to themselves. The scriptures which they read were their own property, and they interpreted them for their own advantage. In course of time the Puranas were compiled, suggesting thereby a historic foundation. The compiler of the Puranas was Veda Vyasa. He was a great seer and compiled a work which may be called the history of the ancients. There are eighteen Puranas which are as follows.— Brahmapurana, Padmapurana, Vishnupurana, Sivapurana, Bhagavatapurana, Naradiyapurana, Markandeyyapurana, Agnipurana, Bhavishyapurana, Brahmanvaivaratpurana, Lingapurana, Varahapurana, Skandhapurana, Vamanapurana, Kurmapurana, Matsyapurana, Garudapurana, Brahmandapurana. The Puranas give descriptions of meetings held by gods and to these meetings the rishis were admitted. Each god had his say, and the other listened attentively. There was no disputation and no conflict, and each purana gives the names of a number of gods who took part in the symposium. In the Brahmandapurana the following names appear as having taken part in advancing their v ews.— Saunaka, Suta, Suka, Lomaharsha, Vayu, Mahesvara, Bhagavan, Brahma, Daksha, Uma, Virabhadra, Mahadeva. 294

In the Vayu purana are found the


names of


locutors.— Suta, Suka, Lomaharsha, Vayu, Bhagavan, Brahma, Vishnu, Daksha, Rudra, Uma, Mahesvara, Sanatkumara, Narada, Brihaspati. In the Brahmavaivarta Purana the following names appear.— Saunaka, Sautira, Narayana, Mahadeva, Brahma, Sri Dharma, Mahalakshmi, Saraswati, Savitri, Sankara, Bhagwan, Narada, Siva, Daksha, Gopika, Surya, Brahman, Sri Krishana, Ganga, Radhika, Yama, Rati, Himalaya &c. In the Kurma purana the following names appear.— Romaharshana, Indradyumna, Bhagavan, Kurma, Suta, Rishi, Muni, Vishnu, Brahma, Menova, Pulastya, Himava, Srideva, Dahksha, Kanya, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Vasu, Vasishta, Bharajvada, Kasyapa, Sri Krishana, Brahmavishnu, Vyasa, Markandyyaand Isvara. The Aryan consciouness was elevated by the spirit of tolerance. Why should it not, when it had all the advantages for progress. The mighty Himalayas, and the majestic rivers, the great forests were the associates of the spiritual student. There was no jealousy and hatred in the Aryan consciouness. Dr. Lionel Barnett in his "Antiquities of India" says in the preface, "the record of Indian history is one of the deepest fascination, and the utmost imaginations of romance pale beside it. Indeed the civilization of India may be fitly compared to its marvellous temples, in which every emotion of the soul is expressed in plastic form with thrilling intensity." The Puranas give variations of the genesis story as understood by the compilers. The compilers divided the periods into yugas to show that at least they had some idea of the immensity of time, and how small the Semitic gods appear to the Aryan mind inasmuch as the very creators of the Semitic mythology were creations of yester­ day. The Puranic authors computed time by yugas, and the four yugas made one maha-yuga. The first of the four yugas was called 295

the satya-yuga. To a maha-yuga period there were 4,320,000 solar years. Seventy one maha-yugas make one manvantara, and a thousand maha-yugas make one kalpa. The Semitic gods were of small mind. They had no idea of the existence of other countries and other nations, and the rivers of Mesapotamia and Mount Ararat and the few races that occupied the Euphrates valley and the Sinai desert went to make up the world. The cross became the totem, and the flesh of certain animals were taboo. The blood was life and soul to the nomadic gods. The most devout had to eat the flesh of the god and drink his blood. Cannibal psychology could not go beyond. Folklore myths of animistic tribes were accepted as religious truths, and the world has deteriorated for nearly two thousand years, so great had been the demoralizing influence of Semitic animism. Before the birth of the Buddha Dharma, the ancient philosophers in India had speculated on every conceivable form of the divine. The rishis by their purity of life obtained knowledge to commune with the divine consciousness, and they formulated the belief in the arupa brahmaloka, where existence was prolonged to the extent of 84,000 kalpas. The Prince Siddhartha realized this divine state by means of purified knowledge, but He found that 84,000 kalpas was a drop in the ocean of Time. He wished for some thing to go beyond time and space, and the Doctrine of Nirvana was the result of His triumphant conquest over matter and mind. The interpretation of myths and the making of hymns to anthropo­ morphic gods were being done by the priests and prophets. Something new, something greater, was wanted to enlighten the world and the Tathagata enunciated the religion of Truths and the Wisdom of Nirvana. The birth and death of gods was a smaller matter. The world was created, and the world was resting on the back of the tortoise and the tortoise was resting on the elephant, and the elephant resting on nowhere : such were the kind of myths the people liked to hear. The spirit of God moved on the waters, and water was there before God. 296

The Tathagata said something new, and there was no mention of a creator and a beginning of the world in His Doctrine. The usual way to light a dark place was by burning a lamp. The lamp required a wick and oil. Some one arrives and tells the people who were accustomed to burn the oil and the wick that a light can be obtained without the use of the oil and wick. The light is shown, but the people refuse the radiant light because there is no oil and wick in the bulb. The Buddha similarly came to give the world a new light without the intermeddling of gods, priests and blood sacrifice. A clear consciousness is the one thing which must not be expected from animists. Blood, meat, intoxicating drinks, sensual orgism go hand in hand with a creator. The Creator myth is to be found in the Majjhima Nikaya in the Brahmanimantaniya and Maratajjaniya suttas. The brief account given in the Brahmajala is given below :— " Now there comes a time after a long period when the world goes into dissolution." At the time when it is going through the process of destruction the life wave ceases, and living beings transmigrate and are born in the heaven of the radiant gods called Abhassara. They are mind born eating the food of delight, with radiant bodies, travelling through space, and in this happy condition they exist for ages. And after a long period this world again begins to reintegrate, and in the re-evolution of the world the beings that were living in the Abhassara world cease to exist there and are reborn here. The first born then thinks to himself" I am Brahma, supreme, the mighty, the all seeing, the ruler, the Lord of all, the maker, the Creator, & c . These that are here are born from me, and I created them. " In the Kevadda sutta Digha Nikaya appear another version of the creator story, but with a sweet humour that makes every one smile. The Creator is to put to the test by a Bhikkhu, and Brahma 297

acknowledges his ignorance that he is not able to say when the creation will cease. The creator is unable to tell the end of his own creation ? In the Brahmanimantaniya sutta, the Buddha himself goes to the seat of Brahma, and says : " Brahma, in saying that all things are permanent thou dost only declare thine own ignorance ". In that story Mara stands near Brahma and pleads on the latter's behalf, and the Buddha asked Brahma to look back to some untold ages in the past and Brahma confess his inability to look back so far ? Neither the authors of the creator myths nor the people to whom these myths were proclaimed knew anything of the formation o f earth by slow degrees. Geology and astronomy they knew not. Muddle-headed they were ; and ignorant people were made victims of priestly selfishness. In the Maha Bodhi Jataka, No. 528, is also a refutation of the creator theory. In the Dhammadhaja Jataka, No. 220, the Brahman is made to d o the impossible. The Bodhisatta was in that life born in a Brahman family, and the king's captain is angry with him, and he makes the king to kill the Brahman by asking the Brahman to do what the captain himself thought was beyond the power of gods. T h e ancient Indian people believed that gods had power to create inorganic things, " not even a deity can make a man with all four virtues, and the four virtues are, not to envy, not to drink wine, to have no low desire, and no wrath. Section II—Aryadharma


of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 1 9 1 7 .


The Nidanas or the Law of Dependent Causation

T H E most complex of all the teachings of the Tathagato is the Paticca Samuppada Dhamma, which explains the cause of individual rebirth from any given birth. The Buddha found it was useless to go into the origin of things, in as much as there is no beginning known. The human mind is constitutionally incapable of finding out the origin of things. Palaeontologists and Geologists declare that the earth is many million years old, and astronomers are also of the same opinion. Unscientific myth makers of the Semitic family to satisfy the nomadic tribes that inhabited Arabia and Palestine, asserted that the earth was created by a Deity and that man was created from mud. N o wonder the people who accept this mud theory are half insane, and it is their desire that others also should enter the asylum which they occupy. Creation myths are many. In Buddhism we are advised not to speculate about the origin of things. And in place of the creation myth the Buddha enunciated the law of Enlightenment, that all tilings change, and that nothing is permanent. The law of evolution appears more rational than the muddle headed theory of the Semitic half savage nomads. Europe was in darkness for neatly 1900 years. In the papal times Medievalism swayed the minds of the people. Science was taboo. But thanks to the scientific spirit of the 18th century, things began to change, and with the French Revolution began the decline of Medievalism. With the enunciation of the Darwinian theory of Evolution a rapid change came, and with the acceptance of the law of the Conservation of Energy, Evolution met with general acceptance among the more enlightened. But why does man suffer ? Could he escape from suffering ? The Blessed Tathagato, for the first time, in the history of the world, proclaimed that man suffers through Ignorance of the law of Cause and Effect and of the law of Development and Decline. In his ignorance man does things which retard the law of develop­ ment, thereby helping to hasten the operation of the law of decline. The laws relating to Good and Evil were modified to suit the taste of dogmatic theologians whereby Good and Evil were symbolised and personified into a God and a Devil. The Laws relating to Good are obeyed by the man of enlightened views, and the muddle-headed dogmatist violate them. 299

T o emanicipate the mind from the fetters of egoism, scepticism, ceremonialism, and ill-will, the Buddha taught men to obey G o o d Law : and to make them thinking beings, He, in His great Com­ passion, gave them a problem to solve, whose solution will bring them into the path of Nibbana. This great problem is based on the Law of Dependent Causation. It works in a circle and is like a continuous chain linking the past with the present and the present with the future. The past, present and the future are One undivided Whole. The following is the Pali formula:— " Avijja paccaya sankhara, sankhara paccaya vinnanam, vinnana paccaya Nama-rupa, Namarupa paccaya Salayatana, Salayatana paccaya Phasso, Phassa paccaya Vedana, Vedena paccaya Tanha, Tanha paccaya Upadana, Upadana paccaya Bhavo, Bhava paccaya Jati, Jati paccaya Jaramarana, soka, parideva, Dukkha Domanassa, upayasa Sambhavanti." There is no metaphysical element associated with Ignorance as pro­ pounded by the Blessed One. The human being suffers because he violates the laws of cosmic morality. There are ten evils which he is expected to abstain from. The violation of these laws brings forth suffering either in the present life, or in the next. This life is a con­ tinuation of the past life. The enlightened man escapes while the muddle-headed gets himself entangled in fresh nets of sorrow. "Avoid evil: do good, if you wish to escape from the net of ignorance". Abstain from committing the ten evils, which are called the dasa akusalas, viz. sins of the body, sins committed by speech, and sins committed by the mind. Sins of the body are three : of speech four, and of the mind three. Ignorance is therefore ethical and psychical. The knowledge of the Aryan Middle path shows the way to destroy Ignorance and the knowledge of the 2 4 laws of Casuality explains the manifold variations of the cosmic process. By investigation into the Dependent laws of Casuality Ignorance is removed. Ignorance causes the human being to create Sanskharas, which are of three kinds, viz., punnabhi sankharas, meritorious thought forces; apunnabhi sankharas, demeritorious thought forces and anenjabhi sankharas, undifferentiated thought forces. Another category of sankharas consists of kaya sankharas, good and bad actions; vaci sankharas, good and bad speech; citta sankharas, good and bad thoughts. By abstaining from the three akusalas of the body, viz. killing, stealing, and sexual indulgence, meritorious sankharas of the body are reproduced : by abstaining from the four evils of speech, lying, slander, harsh speech, and idle talk, meritorious sankharas of the speech or word are reproduced : by abstaining from the three evils o f covetousness, hatred, and unscientific thinking meritoroius sankharas 300

of the mind, (chitta) are reproduced. Sankharas are the resultant effects of Ignorance, and Sankharas become the Cause of Vinnana (Consciousness) : Consciousness is coalesced with the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, reproducing impressions with objective forms, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touch, and mental impediments obstructing spiritual progress, which are sexual desires, hatred, lethargy, irritability, and acepticism. The aids to the development of Consciousness are renunciation of sexual desires, practicing of loving kindness, mental activity, serenity, and acquiring knowledge of the Pitakas. The sum totality of karma be reborn or reproduced in the next birth, which is called the pattisandhi chitta, or the conceving consciousness. It is here the psychological enigma of the nacaso naca anno (neither this one nor another) has to be solved. Only students of the Abhidhamma, with a practical knowledge of the Jhanas, can get glimpses of the psychical threshold. People given to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures can have no idea of the psychical associations coalesced with Consciousness. The purified Conscious­ ness is radiant : and Consciousness free from Sankharas realizes Nibbana. The Consciousness of the Arhat is not reborn but has entered the infinite Nibbana. " Cuti to pana patisandhi, patisandhi to pana bhavanganti, evam bhavagati, thiti nivasesum Samsaramanam sattanam avicchinnam cittasantanam pavattati eva. Y o panettha arahattam papunati tassa cuti citte niruddhe, niruddha meva hotiti"- Visuddhi Magga, Khandha Niddessa. Neither god nor man can isolate the consciousness of the Arhat. It has entered the asankhata condition, and has become infinite. It is identified with the abyakata dhatu. The consciousness of the ordinary man is reproduced or re-established according to the karma in different bhavas (realms) yonis (wombs) or sattavasas. Consciousness is reborn in accordance with the laws of sympathetic association in the field of name and form which consists of cetasikas mental faculties and rupa (material form) : The cetasikas are vedana, sanna, and sankhara. They are resul­ tants of the mind. Vedana (feeling) is of three kinds, viz., ill-feelings, pleasant feelings, and undifferentiated, which are neither pleasant nor unpleasant. Sanna is perception. Perception is associated with the six sense organs of eye, ear, &c. and is linked with feelings. In the cosmic universe consciousness is coalesced with sensations and per­ ceptions : and in the arupa Brahmaloka sensations and perceptions : are at work. In the nevsasannanasanna arupa loka, whose duration of consciousness is 84,000 kalpas, perceptions are potential. The Bodhisat ascetic as a pupil of Uddaka Ramaputto attained to the arupa dhyana and realized the vimokkha, but he was not satisfied with the result, in as much as he found that there was no absolute cessation 301

of the variations of sensations and perceptions. The sannavedayita nirodha, emancipation from feelings and apperceptions was what the Brahman ascetics could not reveal to the searching mind of the Prince Siddhartha. Consciouness purified of all sankharas lives in Nibbana. T h e Arhat is conscious of his own perfectibility, conscious that he is free from all desires, and in this freedom he lives without fear. This freedom, the householder, who lives enjoying the family life, who is yet in the midst of sensual desires, can never realize. The theologian, the ritualist, and the man of the world can never know of the higher bliss which the Arhat enjoys. The consciousness of the unemancipated individual never knows what is rest. The conscious­ ness of the emancipated is freed from noumena and phenomena. To the category of form belongs the four compounds, viz., earth (solids'), liquids, heat and air, Where there is Nama-Rupa there are the Salayatanas which are the six seats of consciouness : eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. These sense organs, being seats of consciousness, operate when objective forms come into ouch with them. It is the coming into contact of the eye with the form, the ear with sound, the nose with smells, tongue with tastes, body with body, and mind with phenomena that create the desire to cling to sensation. If there were no salayatanas there would be no P H A S S O , which is touch, and without contact there would be no V E D A N A , feeling or sensations. These feelings create desire, T A N H A : Tanha is associated with the sense organs or the salayatanas. Tanha binds the individual to the wheel of life. Tanha operates in one hundred and eight ways. Unsatisfied desires produce (Upadana) cling­ ing to (Bhava) Existence. Upadana is of four kinds, Dithi upadana, attavada upadana, Kama upadana, silabbata upadana. Clinging to one of the 18 kinds of heresies is ditthi upadana : attavada upadana is clinging to the "soul" heresy which holds that there is an eternal ego which is separate from the five skandhas : Kama upadana is the clinging to sense pleasures : silabbata upadana is the clinging either to ritual or to animalising asceticism. These variations o f clinging produce the field for rebirth in one of the three forms o f existence. The three forms of existence are Kamabhava, Rupabhava, and Arupabhava, viz., the world of sensual pleasures, the world o f materialized gods (Brahmalokas), and the immaterial world o f 302

apperceptive consciousness. In either of the three forms of Existence the individual according to his karma is re-individualized in a new form. This is called, Jati, birth. The individual that is reborn has to go through (Jara, Marana, &c.) Decay, Dissolution, Grief Lamentation, Sorrow, Anguish, &c. If there was no rebirth the individual would then be free from decay, dissolution, &c. There are three links in the twelve nidanas, the first link is Sankhara and Vinnana : the second is Vedana and Tanha : the third Bhava and Jati. The nidanas are also connected in a continuous chain, linking the past, present and the future together. The Avijja and Sankhara of the past : Vinnana, Namarupa, Salayatana, Phasso, Vedana of the Present, and the Jati, Jara, and Marana of the Future are in a way linked with each other. Again in the past avijja, sankhara, tanha, upadana, bhava were linked together and formed the karma of the past individual which brought into existence the fruit of Vinnana, Namarupa, Salayatana, Phasso, Vedana. The fruits of vinnana, Namarupa, Salayatana, Phasso, Vedana combined reproduce Tanha, Upadana, Bhava, Avijja and Sankhara and so on. In this connection it is instructive to note what the scientists, who are dealing with "radio-active process" have to say. Buddhism speaks of the continuous changes that are taking place without cessation in the atom, and it speaks of Sorrow, and suffering, depending on Change, and of the uselessness of clinging to things which are momentarily changing. This non-clinging to things connected with the skhandhas, is beyond the comprehension of materialists, pantheists deists, atheists, and monotheists. The muddle-headed believe that, at a certain period, many thousand years ago, a certain god took a fancy to create man, who like a potter, made man out of clay. The potter has got the sense not to bring into the market broken vessels, but the god who is supposed to have omniscience, and is all-powerful creates human beings in various shapes violating the principles of aesthetics. Some are created blind, deaf, dumb, some are creates, without hands, some without legs, some are created idiotic and some are made insane, &c. A god who creates a fresh soul each time certainly can make it good, and not dissipate the energy, which can be utilised for something better. A blind man is created, and to take care of him the services of another man, who is not blind, is 303

required. It is a waste of energy violating the principles o f germina 1 and sociological economics. But the Sankhara Vedantins explain that god is like a despotic monarch who does what he likes with h i s creatures. The Tathagato having found out the cause of human misery set t o work to relieve humanity from the demon of Ignorance by enlighte­ ning them. A creator god has no place in the scientific laboratory of evolution. Those who accept the disintegration theory as a working hypothesis tell us o f the changes occurring in the radio atoms, which involve an actual transformation o f the atoms through succesive changes. "This change is so slow in uranium and thorium that at last a million years would be required before the amount of change Could be measured by the balance. T o evolve 1.81 c.c. of helium the time required is about 140 milHon years." p. 486, Radio-activity If the blind monotheists and believers in a creator do not want to see Truth what can the Tathagato do ? ( M B / Vol. 19, March 1 9 1 1 )



The Philosophy of the Skandhas and the Nirvanic Doctrine

T H E Philosophy of the religion that was taught by the Buddha is deep, recondite, unable to comprehend by logic alone, exalted, and enunciates a life of saintliness. It is compared to the deep ocean, and has one taste the taste of emancipation. It has nothing to do with cosmic speculations concerning past, future or present. It is based on the immutable law of cause and effect. It recognises no god higher than Truth. Truth is absolutely supreme. Gods angels, human, and sub human beings, animals all come under the operation of the law of cause and effect ; they suffer or enjoy according to their individual karma. There is no exception to this rule. All things are in a state of becoming. The destructive process is visible in hells, heavens, higher and lower and everything is in a state of flux. Origination, growth and decay are the three aspects of evolution. There is continuity in the evolutionary process. Milk s changed into curd, and curd into butter, and butter into ghee. There is no permanent element in the physical world. Man is a compound of skandhas, and skandhas are five : Rupa, vedana, sanna, sankhara, vinnana. Rupa is the material portion of the skandhas, the other four are immaterial. The rupaskhandha is a upadhi rupa of the four mahabhutas, viz : earth, water, fire and air. Sense feelings, perceptions, volitions, or ideations, and the sum totality of conscious­ ness from the arupa skhandhas. The five skhandhas are called Nama-rupa. They depend mutually on each other, and according to the Karma generated the skhandhas come into being life after life in continuous succession. 1

Buddha taught 2500 years ago two principal doctrines :— 1. 2.

Yathabhutanana The Paticca samuppada. 305

Yathabhuta nana teaches us about the causes and effects at work ; the paticca samuppada teaches us about the dependent origination of psychic faculties. When Sariputta met the Buddha's disciple Assaji thero at Rajagir, the capital city of Magadha, the former asked Assaji to tell him about the doctrine that he has learnt, whereupon Assaji answered in a gatha :— Y e dhamma hetu pabhava. Tesam hetum tathagato, aha &c. All phenomena proceed from causes and the causes the Tathagato has explained. In brief the Dhamma was explained by Assaji to the ascetic Sariputta, who immediately became a disciple of the Arhat Doctrine. Sariputta's friend Moggallana learnt the doctrine from Sariputta. both came to the Buddha when He was at Rajagriha. They were admitted into the order by the Tathagato, and later on chosen as the right hand and left hand disciples of the Blessed One. The external and internal world is changing momentarily. Tidal waves, cataclysms, earthquakes, land submergences, upheavels, & c . are taking place bringing destruction to hunderd thousands. The very heavens and the Brahmalokas are utterly destroyed. During the destructive period it is said that all sentient life is born in a new world in the region of Brahma. In the karma doctrine unrewarded karma is called aparapariyavedeniya karma and there is no sentient being who is absolutely bankrupt of this especial beneficent karma. Hence the hopefulness of the Doctrine proclaimed by the Tathagato. There is no annihilation of life in the teaching of the Great Teacher. The sins of having committed the unpardonable crime of matricide, paricide and letting out blood from the body o f a Buddha, criminally assaulting or violating a holy nun, at the end of the kalpa, condone, and the sinner gets emancipation. Neither the existence of an eternalhell nor of an eternal heaven is acknowledged in Buddhism. Each individual being has to suffer according to the evil karma he had done, it may be for a kalpa, but at the end, cessation 306

o f suffering is the taw. Consciousness is at work day and night, whether one is asleep or awake. The immaterial khandhas which constitute feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousnesses by the jaw interdependence, coalesce with the rupaskhandha or the material skhandha. Where consciousness takes its last final impression at death there according to karma the new being, the new nama-rupa is formed. The present feelings, perceptions, volitions consciousnesses are the result of the experiences of the former skhandhas. One set of skhandhas succeeds another without break throughout the cosmic process. We don't remember what we do in our sleep, and death is like sleep. The connecting link between one life and another is snapped at death, and the pain of death is so terrific that memory receives such a shock as to forget the experiences of the past lives. T o revive the lost memory an effort has to be made by psychical training. In one life we may not succeed in recollecting the forgotten experiences. If the effort is made in this life in the next life the psychical training becomes easy. Our ways of living are injurious to psychical expansion. Passionate lusts and sinful longings and deeds are obstacles to psychical progress. The five impediments of development in the path of psychical progress are passionate desires, illwill, mental lethargy irritability, and psychical doubts. The desire for sensual enjoyment has to be controlled to enjoy the higher psychical gifts. To get the larger inheritance of psychical development the lower desires have to be sacrificed. The ten evils of killing, stealing, committing adultery, lying, slandering, using harsh language, taking intoxicating liquor, showing illwill, coveting others' things, holding unscientific views regarding the origin of life are hindrances in the path of psychical growth. Especial efforts have to be strenuously made to train the consciousness in order to strengthen the memory. A knowledge of physiology, anatomy, histology, embryology, and evolution is necessary before we begin the study of Nirvanic psychology. N o progress is possible for those who hold erroneous views regarding the origin of life. Dependence on a god or a saviour has no place in the psychology of Buddha. You have to use your own limbs in learning to swim and the strong man does not depend on another to cross the stream. 307

Buddhism is a kind of spiritual athleticism. It teaches you the way to develop your spiritual muscles and to strenghten your spiritual tendons. If another does your work where is the glory of your effort. Buddhism teaches that man suffers through his own ignorance and through his own egoistic passionate desires. That which one longs for and does not get causes suffering. Association with the unpleasant is misery. Separation from those to whom one is attached also produces suffering. Desires are of three kinds. Desire for continued personal eternal existence is called Bhava tanha ; desire for the enjoyment of sense pleasures is called kama tanha ; desire for personal annihilation is vibhava tanha. An eternal heaven is an im­ possibility. An unceasing enjoyment of the five sense pleasures is also an impossibility. T o foster such a desire is not Buddhistic. Everything is changing, and tending to decay. That which is continuously changing produces misery. Not to be attached is therefore wise. Attachment causes grief and sorrow. The common people not having heard the Aryan doctrine of change, misery, and detachment have no idea of the absolute condition of the Nirvana doctrine. Nirvana does not mean annihilation. Those who cling to an undying, separate E g o existing outside the skhandhas could never comprehend the concept of Nirvana. It is beyond their grasp. Only those who are earnest in the search after Truth are able to sacrifice their ego and their lustful passions. Nirvana is the antithesis of sense enjoyment. The passionate sensualist could never comprehend what Nirvana is. Where there is anger there is no Nirvana. Where there is no anger there is Nirvana. Where there is convetousness there is no Nirvana. Where there is no covetousness there is Nirvana. Where there is ignorance, there is no Nirvana. Where there is no ignorance no ego desires o f ' This is mine, this is I , ' there is Nirvana. Absence of evil, development of good, and purification of heart are what constitutes Nirvana. The extinction of passion, anger and foolishness is beyond the ken of ordinary human beings. The progressive development of all the highest virtues ultimately leads to Nirvana. Those who cling to sense pleasures are outside the pale of Nirvana. Renunciation of such sense pleasures as lead


to evil karma leads to progress. Covetousness, anger, pride, insolence, stubborness, malice, illwill, envy, sel-esteem, slander, revenge, &c. are called kleshas or contaminations. So long as the mind is under the influence of these contaminating evils so long Nirvana is beyond its grasp. Anger is bad, non anger is good. When a man is trying to destory anger he is trying to walk in the path of Nirvana. Perfect purity in word, deed and thought is necessary to realize Nirvana. Lustful thoughts are poison to those who wish to know what Nirvana is. Householders still in the enjoyment of sense pleasures are not able to realize Nirvana. Only the Brahmachari who leads the holy and pure life can realize Nirvana. The absolute fulfilment of the ten perfections leads to Nirvana. Right views, right aspirations, right speech, right activities, right kind of livelihood, right effort to abstain from evil, right recollections, right illumination based on wisdom constitute the eight stages of Nirvana. The desire to destroy all evil desires should be ever active in the mind. When all ego desires are abandoned Nirvana reveals itself to the mind. Absolute peace amidst the clanging of a million bells is only possible when the Nirvana consciousness unfolds itself. Praise, blame, prosperity, adversity, gain and loss, happiness and misery are the eight aspects of the cosmic law. H e who remains firm, unshakeable and uninfluenced by pain, pleasure and indifference may be said to have a conception of Nirvana. The Bodhisat Samedha for four asankhya and 100,000 kalpas went through the wheel of sansara, practising the paramitas to gain Nirvana. In the last birth the Bodhisat was born a prince, as the son of the Raja Suddhodana. Till his 29th. year the Prince experienced the sense pleasures of the subtlest kind. In his 29th year He made the great renunciation to obtain Nirvana. After full six years of the most terrific sufferings He by His own wisdom found the way to Nirvana. The opponent of holiness and Nirvana is Mara, who appeared before the Lord after He had obtained Nirvana, in the seventh week, and requested him to enter parinibbana. The Buddha rebuking Mara said that He would not enter Pariniravna until He sees His religion well established, and all His disciples, Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, Upasakas and Upasikas, are learned


in the principles of the Dhamma and able to defend the religion from foreign attacks. Mara then retired and for forty-five years the Lord went from place to place preaching to the people the gospel of compassion and wisdom. Nirvana the Lord declined for the fulfilment of duty to the many. ' Bahujana hitaya, bahujana sukhaya, lokanukampaya, atthaya hitaya' are the words expressed to show His all absorbing love to the world. Every living creature was the object of his tender solicitude. Greater than Nirvana is com­ passionate activity for the uplifting of the ignorant world leading them to enlightened happiness. (MBJ Vol. z), June-Dec. 1 9 1 5 )



The Doctrine of Nirvana*

T H E Blessed One, the Buddha Sakyamuni, proclaimed the Doctrine o f Nirvana for the happiness and welfare of human and divine beings, who had the qualifications to comprehend the lofty doctrine, which had been similarly proclaimed by the Buddhas of the past. T o comprehend the principles of the Nibbana Doctrine one has to walk in the Noble eightfold path, destroy the ten samyojana fetters, get rid of the five nivaranas which are obstacles for the attainment o mystic illumination which is called Dhyana or Jhana. Pragnaand Dhyana are inter related, as it is declared in the Dhammapada gatha. Natti Jhanam apannassa panna natthi ajhayato, which means that Dhyana is not for the man deficient in the higher wisdom, and to him who has not the attainment of jhana there can be no super-wisdom. When the two are combined in the devotee he stands on the threshold of Nirvana. The path of mortification of the body is traversed by ascetics in order to gain emanicipation from samsara. In ancient India asceticism which was a form of religion, practised until death.

The Prince

Siddhartha after he had made the Great Renunciation in his 29th. year practised the most oppressive form of bodily mortification in order to gain deliverance from samsaric sorrow. Ancient Indian sages knew of * A paper read at the first Buddhist Convention held in connection -with the Sarnath University.


metorments of samsara, and they made asceticism a vehicle in order to get out of the circle of samsara. The Prince Siddhartha followed the ancient method and continued the ascetic method for xis years in its most virulent form as detailed in the Bhaya bherava sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya. When he had realised that even the extremest form of asceti­ cism did not give an insight into the comprehension of truth he abandoned the tortuous path and discovered the Middle path which avoids the extremes of asceticism and sensuous pleasure. T o get an insight into the history of the evolution of the doctrine of Nirvana, the earnest student has to get a clear view of the life of the Blessed One. This means that he has to study the Pali texts as they contain authentic accounts of the life of the Blessed One. The first book that one should read is the Mahavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka to get an idea of the foundations of the Nirvana doctrine. There you read that the Prince ascetic sitting at the foot of the Bodhi Tree on the bank of the river Neranjara was enjoying the bliss of deliverance (yimuttisukha pati samvedi) and in that state He had discovered the law of inter-related causes and effects beginning with Ignorance as the immediate cause of all sorrows and sufferings in the world of cosmic phenomena. Why should man as such suffer was the question that he wished to solve. The cause of sorrow, misery, suffering, disappointment, despair, lamentation, anguish in the life of man was due to avidya (ignorance). Ignorance produces sankharic ideations in the mind, which giveth rising to Trishna, and the two elemental causes keep men and gods tied to the wheel of samsara, and they continue to whirl round and round until the two causes are destroyed. In the Anamatagga Samyutta, Samyutta Nikaya, the Blessed One declares — anamataggayam hhikkhave samsaro pubbakoti na pannayati, avijjanivarananam sattanam tanhasamyojana nama sandhavatam 312

samasaratam, which means; Beginingless is the circle of samsara, whose ultimate point is beyond knowledge. Under the glamour of ignorance, and fettered by unsatisfying sensuous desire the individual being (saffa) continues to run round the circle. It is said that the Bodhisatva before He gained the supreme enlighten­ ment of a perfect Buddha gained the divine insight to look back into the past and to the future. He saw by his divine knowledge that man was not a created being but had existed from a beginningless past, and that after death he was reborn according to karma he had done, that the karma of the past had brought him into the present existence, and that the karmic energy generated here in this life make him to be reborn in the next. He saw an infinite past, and an infinite future, and the law of cosmic change working in the universe, with numberless solar systems, world systems in their nebulous states, other habitable worlds also numberless. Birth, death and decay are the constituents of the endless samsara, and in this net He found men and Gods struggling and dying. Under the Bodhi Tree He discovered the panacea of Immorality, which brings relief to the suffering wayfarer. He arrived at the condition of supreme wisdom which gave Him power to keep the mind disentangled from sansaric reproductions, and cosmic desires. No more birth, no more death. He had won the state of Nirvana.

Nirvana is a state of positive realization free from ignorance, ignoble desires, hatred, illwiU, pride, covetousness, false beliefs, and full of faith, energy, vigilance, peace and wisdom. Love universal and supreme wisdom find their consummation in Nirvana. The path to reach the goal is the Noble eightfold path of Right insight freed from metaphysical aberrations, hallucinations, superstitions, heathen beliefs, dependence on ignoble rituals ; Right Yearnings 31$

generating thoughts of love, compassion, pity, harmlessness, and renunciation from ignoble sensuous pleasurs ; Right Deeds freed from destruction, dishonesty lustfulness, and intemperance ; Right livelihood wherein one gains ones hvelihood freed from cruelty, selling nothing that will cause suffering or pain to another ; Right Exertion whereby he makes strenuous effort to avoid evil and do good in word, deed and thought; Right Analysis whereby he purifies his mind from the impurities of the body, feelings, thoughts and acquires the right mind to follow the principles of enlightenment avoiding the obstacles which prevent his progress in the path of Nirvana. With the seven fold weapons in hand he prepares himself to enter into the right Samadhi which requires the wayfarer to practise, the four Jhanas, whose realization brings him into the realm of wisdom, which



into the




emancipation. All Ignorance is annihilated, ignoble desires are for ever abandoned, and He lives realizing Nirvana in perfect consciousness.

(MBJ Vol 31, Julj 192$)


V Buddhist Culture


India T w o Thousand Five Hundred Years A g o .


The Spread of Buddhism.


The Common Language of Ancient India.


The Development of Arts, Industries and Agriculture.


W o m a n in Ancient India.



India Two Thousand Five Hundred Years Ago *

T H E Pancattaya sutta of the Majhima Nikaya and the Brahmajala sutta of the Digha Nikaya describe the various theories held by different schools of metaphysics at the time that the Blessed One began to promulgate the noble Aryan Doctrine. The Malunkyaputta and the Vacchagotta suttas of the Majhima Nikaya and the Kevadda sutta of the Digha and two suttas of the Udana may be profitably studied by the student of Indian religions to get an idea of the philosophic atmosphere of ancient India. In fact the one hundred and fifty-two suttas of the Majhima Nikaya give a clear view of the Indian philosophic sky and no student of Aryan philosophic thought could afford to treat the contents thereof with indiference if he wishes to discover by his own effort what is Truth. There were certain Brahmans who went under the designations of Pacchabhumaka, Kamanduluka, Sevalamalika Udakarohaka, Aggiparicarika, who went about preaching that they had the power to send dead people to heaven, and the arguments they had used may be found in the Gamini Samyutta of Samyutta Nikaya. When the Blessed One began to turn the Wheel of Eternal Truth of Righteousness, there were six well-kiown religious teachers respected by the community, to wit,—Purana Kassapa, Makkhaali Gosala, Ajita Kesakambala, Pakuda Kachchayana, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, and Nirgrantha Nataputra. Purana Kassapa proclaimed his doctrine as follows There is no sin in killing, committing adultery, telling lies, or causing others to do these acts, inasmuch as there is neither merit in doing charitable deeds, nor is there any increase of merit in speaking truth, in self-control or mastery over the senses. Makkhali Gosala taught that without cause or reason human beings become depraved, without cause they become good. Effort has nothing to do with one's progress. There is no such thing as human effort. All human beings come into existence by fate. Man, animals, * Cf. Chapter 4 (iii) p. 47.


gods, aagas, mendicants, demons come into existence with no will of their own. Both fools and the wise all go through a course of transmigrations for 84,000 aeons, thereafter they cease to exist. Fools think they can alter the predestined course and do penance and practise virtues, but their effort is vain. Ajita Kesakambala taught that the human being is composed of four elements. When he dies the earth element in him goes to the earth, the fluid element goes to the water, the heat to the fire, the windy to the air, and his sense organs pass into space. The offering of gifts is the talk of fools. It is a lie when men say there is merit therein. Fools and the wise after death are annihilated. Pakuda Kachchayana taught that there are seven principles created. They remain permanent throughout, viz., earth, water, fire, air, the feelings of happiness and pain, and the soul. There is neither slayer nor slain, hearer or speaker, knower or explainer. When one with a sharp sword cleaves a head in twain, no one thereby deprived any one of life ; a sword has only entered space between the seven substances. Nirgrantha Nataputra taught that man is restrained with a four-fold restraint. He guards himself from drinking cold water, he avoids evil. Sanjaya Belatthiputta taught that by going to answer questions one commits sin. It only causes perplexity to the mind ; therefore silence is the best, and if any question is asked answer with a denial and say I do not know. Is it so ? I do not know. Is it not so ? I do not know. Are you sure you do not know. I do not know. Why sould I tell a lie ? Naked asceticism, metaphysical discussions, speculations about the future, past and present ; ritualistic observances, propitiating gods by bloody sacrifices of animals to avert danger by Brahmanical priests, water bathers, prayer makers, were religious institutions that were in vogue at the time. Among these different classes of ascetics the Jatilas alone, who kept the sacred fire in their agyagaras, accepted the doctrine of karma. The social doctrine of varna and clan claimed that the Brahman was the first among the four classes, the second class being the Kshatriya or the ruling class. The Vaishyas were given the third place, and the Sudra was the lowest, and he was expected to serve the three higher castes. Outside the social polity were the lower classes called Chandalas, Rathakaras, Nesadas, and Chammakaras. Inttx the arena of religious combatants the Sakya Prince in the garb of the holy Bhikkhu proclaiming the Doctrine of Immortality and Loving kindness, entered in the role of the physician and surgeon


to heal the suffering from the disease of sin and sorrow. He enunciated the Aryan Doctrine never before heard that man can obtain emancipation here, now, in perfect consciousness, not by sensual pleasure, and asceticism and wrangling, but by holy living according to the Noble Aryan Doctrine, of right views, right desires, right speech, right unity of consciousness. He proclaimed the despicableness of fatalism, nihilism and overlordism subjecting the will to an imaginary creator, who began life at some limited period. He proclaimed the eternity of life, the supremacy of the perfect life, above the social distinctions of rank and wealth, associated with the ethic of all embracing love to all living beings from the highest god to the meanest insect. He proclaimed the Immutable Law of Cause and Effect, operating in the universe, which no god or man can alter or violate, and that man can guide his life according to wisdom of finite gods. He enunciated that the atom as well as the universe is under the law of change, and that change must end in sorrow and that detachment from the changing objects, and fixing the mind on the infinite, uncreated, immaterial Nibbana can be gained in this life or in subsequent lives by a life of perfect chastity and selflessness. The Tathagata showed that whether in heaven or hell or in this world life must end in death and rebirth and that life is composed of the four elements and associated with sensations, perceptions, ideations and cognitions, and that these continue from birth to birth according to the karma of the individual; that nothing can be annihilated, and nothing can be maintained in one permanent con­ dition, and that when the mind is brought into a state of perfectedness by means of right activity and purity, that infinite happiness can be realized. He set aside metaphysics of the Whence, Whither and What am I, as not conducive to the discovery of Truth which showed that man had no known beginning, and that there is no end. The futility of a Creator was shown as there was nothing to create, and that if man would guide his life according to the law of righteousness and love, hating none, coveting nothing, and always on the search after the highest goal, no god can send him to hell or incur his dis­ pleasure. Where discord existed He introduced Peace and Harmony. The pride of birth was condemned and a super chivalrous ethic of forgiving patience was enunciated. Instead of naked asceticism converting man into a semi-conscious animal the Blessed One introduced a life of sanity, hygiene, aesthetic habits and moderation in diet, avoiding the poisons of alcoholism which changes the man into a lunatic or a beast. The Tathagata diverted the life of the luxurious from extravagance into temperance, and wealth was made an object of blessing to be spent for the well being of those who are in need, and to bring comforts of fife to one's parents, holy Brahmans and Sramanas and Teachers and workmen and servants.


Into the chaotic society of warring ascetics engaged in sectarian disputations, the Blessed One introduced His band of Bhikkhus, of clean habits, neatly clad in yellow robes, silent in demeanour fully contented in the performance of the lessor and the greater duties, bringing happiness to the world of gods and men ; delivering the message to the rich and the poor in the language of the people, not in high flown rhetoric ; earnest, strenuous, engaged in loving service for the uplifting of the masses, sunk in ignorance ; with love all pervading making no distinction between the rich and the poor, between woman and man, avoiding all disputations with dialectirians ; not trying to convert people by miracles or necromantic hallucinations, except by the purity of their own perfected life. The Blessed One' supreme above all in the beauty of His own complexion, of sweet voice equal to that of the Himalayan kuravika bird, unparalleled in the incomparableness of the renunciation that He had made in His twenty-ninth year, and in the strenuousness of his endeavours which lasted for six years in the forest of Uruwela, a descendant of the royal line of Ikshuvaku, by persuasive means He brought peace and love and happiness wherever He went. Destructiveness was replaced by Constructiveness, Dogmatism by Analysis, Indolence by Activity, Hatred by Love, Lying by Truthfullness, Unrighteousness by Righte­ ousness, Miserliness by Generosity. The Blessed One traced the root causes of anger, passion, hatred, unbrotherliness, undutifulness, to ignorance and unsatisfied lust. Why should king fight against king, the Brahman against the Brahman, father against the son, mother against daughter, brother against brother, sister against sister ? He discovered that it was all due to lustful desires. So long as man is under the monster of Ignorance and Lust so long he has to go through suffering here and hereafter. Until the root causes are destroyed He found that there was no emancipation for man or god, and there mere outward sacrifices of animals, rituals, prayer to erring and lustful gods, bathing in rivers to wash off sins, can give no relief to inward arisings of lust and passions. Instead of making an effort to cleanse the heart from sin, ignorant man seeks to gain happiness by outward purification. The appearance of the Blessed One in the arena of religion was proclaimed throughout the land by kings and princes, and by wandering religious mendicants. Whenever the Blessed One visited a town, village or township the people began to say that the Prince of the Sakya clan who had left the world to become a recluse has come to our town and " He is the Exalted One, the Holy One, of holy conduct, the most Excellent, the master of learning, incomparable, teacher of gods and men, controller of men, the Buddha. It is good to go and see Him, for His sight would bring happiness." The nobles and Brahmans of the place would visit the Blessed One with flowers in hand, and the chief of them would begin conversation with Him, 320

and then He would begin to preach to them on the g o o d effects of charity, on virtuous conduct, on the heavenly life, on the resultants of the life of sensual pleasure, and the blessings that would come by adopting the life of renunciation. The assembly is pleased and they would then invite the Lord to take meals the next day in the principal man's house along with His retinue of Bhikkhus. In the evening with His Bhikkhus He would preach to them, and the night is spent in a wood close by, and the next morning He would visit the place with the Bhikkhus for meals. The religious minded youths would come to Him, and He sees their previous Karma whether any of them are fit to lead the higher life of absolute renunciation, and to such He preaches the " Sanrukkansa dhamma. " viz., the Four Noble Truths. The ascetic Brahmans, some of them honoured by Kings and princes had their beautiful ashramas, and the Blessed One, would at the request of Ananda visit such places and engage in conversation with the president of the place. Toleration was the sine qua non of Indian Aryan religion. The sectarians argue and discuss, and each one tries to refute the arguments of the other, and the one defeated would become the disciple of the victor. Persecution and inquisition were never thought of in India. In the city of Sravasti the Congress Hall for the discussion of all religions was presented by the Queen of Kosala, Mallika Devi, wife of the King of Kosala. The Hall was called Ekasala. Here all kinds of religious views were discussed, and sometimes their vociferations would become intolerable. The Blessed One would never enter into discussion with any and if any of the wandering mendicants pestered Him with questions He would observe silence. He taught His disciples lessons of courtly behaviour, and condemned the shouting of wandering ascetics. Speaking to the Bhikkhus He would tell the story of the blind leading the blind, or the story of the blind men who at the request of the King were taken to the royal stables and shown the royal elephant, and the blind, each of them would feel a certain portion of the body of the elephant, and come to the conclusion that the elephant was like either a broom stick, or a pestle, or a mortar or a plough, or a winnowing fan. When they were brought before the king, each one was asked to describe the elephant, and the one who felt the trunk said that the elephant was like a plough, the one who felt the bristles of the tail said that the elephant was like a sweeping broom, and the one who felt the ear said the elephant was like a winnowing fan, &c. At the end the blind men began to quarrel saying to each other you do not know, I know because I am right. The Buddha declared that the ascetics who quarrel are like the blind men. not knowing what Truth is they fight and quarrel. Discipline was unknown among the ascetics. Each one did what he liked. The Buddha therefore organized the Bhikkhu Sangha, and laid down rules of conduct which are embodied in the five volumes 321

of the Vinaya Pitaka. The Vinaya rules as k i d down by the Blessed One show that He looked to the future that if the Rules are not laid down the Religion could not last long. He wished that the Bhikkhu Sangha should not feel His disappearance, and He exhorted the Bhikkhus that in the place of the Blessed Tathagata the Dharma and the Vinaya will be their Teacher. The disciplinary rules are wonder­ fully modern, and exhibit the spirit, which the Buddha wished that the Bhikkhus should observe. The Bhikkhus were to be like the fire brigade men ready at a moment's notice to start on a missionary campaign. He illustrated by the example of the man whose turban is on fire that he has no time to be fooling. The Bhikkhus were told that they should be not like the wandering ascetics shouting, quarreling and indolent, but to be active like the soldier (yodhajiva) and to hear the attacks of the opponents with sweet patience, like the royal war elephant that goes to the battle field notwithstanding the arrows shot at Him. Love was to be their armour. The Blessea One was the embodiment of strenuousness. He adopted as the motto of His religion the two words, Appamada and Viriya (non-delay and diligent activity). The people of His time were believers of hedonic living. The well-to-do would come to Him and say Excellent Gautama, we wish to enjoy the pleasures of this world and we also wish after death to be born in a happy state, and it would be to our welfare if the Excellent Gautama would preach to us the doctrine. The Blessed One would then say ; D o not kill; do not steal; do not live an impure life ; do not utter falsehood ; do not take intoxicants ; give in charity ; take care of parents and the holy Sramanas and Brahmans ; show hospitality to the guests and strangers ; show kindness to animals ; be kind to the servants ; teach your children arts and sciences ; see that they are suitably married according to the clan ; give sweet offerings to the gods ; remember the departed ones and do good in their name ; take care of the poor relatives, pay the taxes to the king, build alms houses, build roads ; build bridges ; set up lights ; observe the four principles of association ; always speak to each other in soft sweet words ; treat every one as if he was your brother, and always see that you do something good for the welfare of others. The anecdotes of His divine life of sweet blessedness extending over a period of forth-five years are full of pathos. Would that some Bhikkhu collect all the stores in connection with the daily life of the Blessed One scattered in the many commentaries. They are of absorbing interest showing that the Blessed One was foremost in leading the householders to do acts of civic duties. If only the Bhikkhus would stir themselves and follow the Holy Master, Buddhism would not be then called a religion of pessimism. (MB/., Vol. 27, January-March, 322


36. The Spread of Buddhism * T w o thousand four hundred and eighty-eight years ago there stepped forth from the Royal House of the Sakyas of Kapilavastu a Prince who, by his heroic devotion to Truth and a life of unparalled purity and compassion to all that lives, revolutionised the religious thought of the age, bringing the means of salvation within the reach of all suffering Humanity. The thought of the age which was either dualistic or materialistic ramified itself into sixty-two shades of belief - anthropomorphic deism with its ravious aspects of monotheism and polytheism ; and mate­ rialism from sensual epicureanism to a transcendental nihilism wherein the soul loses itself in the abyss of an " unconscious consciousness." Those who are living in this progressive country, and have witnessed the changes through which the human mind has had to pass within the last fifty years, would wonder if they were told that the world has not witnessed a greater upheavel in the domain of religion than that which had taken place in India twenty-five centuries ago. All the modern phases of thought which are known to us under the names of positivism, agnostism, materialism, monotheism, etc., have had their exponents whose polemical displays were exhibited in the religious arena of ancient India. Having studied these different systems the ascetic Prince of Kapilavastu discovered that the panacea for relieving human suffering could not be got in any of them ; and he then commenced by his own individual efforts to find the way to true enlightenment and peace of mind. Discarding all supersti­ tious ideas of divine aid and intervention and steering clear of the shoals of pessimistic asceticism and sensualising materialism he struck out a new path—the Noble Eight Fold Path of Perfect Harmony—through which imancipation could be attained. The dawning of this great idea is an event in the history of the human race inasmuch as it has influenced for twenty-four centuries the greater portion of the human family with the noblest lessons of tolerance, kindness, truth and justice.

For the first time in the history

* Lecture delivered at the Royal Library, Bangkok, Thailand.


of religion the world witnessed, instead of a never-ending conflict between man and man in the domain of thought, peace, and tolerance, purity of life, unselfishness and an unbounded compassion for all that lives. These were the teachings the great Teacher inculcated for the attainment of happiness here and hereafter. The subtle intellect of the metaphysical Aryan which had passed through the different stages of religious thought beginning from Monotheism and ending in positivism was prepared to grasp and appreciate his practical teachings. So long as the idea of self dominated the tendencies the mind, so long asbolute truth could not be perceived ; for, until one realises the changeability of objective and subjective phenomena, the idea of self will ever cling to the mind. The adherent of a creed could not be unselfish whether monotheist, polythiest, agnostic, nihilist, positivist or pantheist ; for the one ultimate idea is either annihilation or eternal happiness of self. Consequently, the teachers who promulgated these views were still far from truth. And the one truth that Buddha proclaimed was that emancipation from pain and suffering could only be achieved by absolute compassion for all that lives, perfect purity of life and perfect unselfishness. J u s t as the Darwinian law of evolution and the law of conservation of energy are sapping the foundations of dogmatism and theology of the present day, so twenty-five centuries ago Brahmanical theology and dog­ matism received a shock from Buddha, who, for the first time in history, proclaimed a psychophysical law of Evolution embracing all the Universe and the law of cause and effect in the domain of the seen and the unseen. The difference between the Darwinian and Buddhist theory of evolution is that while the former taught life commencing from protoplasm and ending in man, Buddha proclaimed a cyclic evolution embracing the Universe ; and a spiritual evolution of a progressive and retrogressive nature embracing not only this earth ; but bringing man, animal, angels and gods within its operation. T o speculate upon the theory of a special creation was considered useless and a waste of time inasmuch as the idea of a Personal Creator originated through ignorance of the laws of nature. Theology underwent a change ; the selfish Brahman who claimed to be the favoured child of God was brought down from his proud position and made to sit on the common platform of universal brother­ hood. Caste was ignored and in its stead a virtuous life reinstated. 324

Instead of an anthropomorphic capricious deity b r ^ g i n g disorder in the place of harmony an immutable law took the place which no G o d , Mara, Brahma or Brahman could alter, and interference with the law in disturbing the harmony of nature brought pain and suffering to the disturbed, whether God. Brahma or man. And the Buddha taught that on no account should man disturb this great law, which he nevertheless does through ignorance and selfish desire. J u s t as the Darwinian Law of evolution, with its concomitant L a w of Cause and Effect, is revolutionising all antiquated and illogical ideas of man and nature, so the spread of scepticism and the more rational ideas concerning the true nature of man twenty-five centuries a g o gave the greatest impulse for the dissemination of Buddha's teachings throughout India. Instead of dogmatic theologiance enchaining the human mind by prayers the great teacher for the first time instituted an association of holy men, untrammeled by ideas of prejudice and selfshenss, to wander forth and teach that life of compassion, purity and unselfishenss was better than the bliss which the gods themselves enjoyed. Selfish desire of any king whether for the enjoyment of pleasure here or hereafter, or the pessimistic desire to cease to exist, was not to be proclaimed as the consummation of man's life ; but the noble life which teaches man to guide his action according to the law of cause and effect as well as his thoughts, his speech, his profession, his energy his mindfulness and his concentration. This noble life " is the Middle Path which the Tathagata Buddha has discovered, and it is the path which opens the eyes, bastows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to perfect enlightenment, to Nirvana." Unlike the disciples of other religious teachers, before and after, the holy disciples of Buddha, clad in the garments of mendicants, with love on their shields went out into the wide world in obedience with the commands of the glorified Teacher, " without fear, foregoing no word disguising not the message, without ambiguity in what they said, and without anger " and they conquered the greater part of India within the life time of the Teacher. The secret of their success was that they showed no disrespect to other forms of religious faiths ; but only preached a life of compassion, unselfishness and purity. The people who heard them could see that a life of holiness was possible, and all joined. Anything that tendered to disturb the harmony was strictly avoided ; association to bring concord was enjoined and the greatest peace society the world had ever seen was for the first time organised. 325

Friend and foe, rich and poor were all alike to these Perfect ones—the one idea they had in view was to proclaim die absolute compassion of Buddha and his self sacrifice in renouncing the bliss of Nirvana, when he was born as the Brahman Sumedha ; the pleasures of heaven as Bodhisat, and the pleasures of a princely life as Siddhartha, and his sufferings as the ascetic mendicant ; and the final triumph under the sacred Bodhi Tree at Buddhagaya. The ambrosia of a pure life was all that they offered to those starving of spirituality and the life of activity that they lead in disseminating these ideas made them supreme masters of the intellectual arena of ancient India. This accounts for the fact of conversion to Buddhism of great Brahmanical scholars, and Prof: Benfey is right in saying " that the very bloom of the intellectual life of India proceeded substantially from Buddhism." T o thoughtful men of the present day who evince an interest in the study of religious belief, " Buddhism," says Dr. Hoey, " as the highest effort of pure intellect to solve the problem of being is attractive ;" and it had attractions also to the Brahmanical thinkers twenty-four centuries ago as the consummation of all religious thought. From the fifth century before Christ down to the eleventh century after Christ, Buddhism remained the prevailing religion in India and the countries to the West ; and during that long period India remained the Holy Land to the millions of Buddhists ; and Buddha's name brought pilgrims from China to visit the sacred sites ; Where now one sees desolation were then seen a ceaseless activity " when pious monks from all India and from the lands beyond the sea gave way to daily burst of song and praise." Prof. Peterson of Bombay gaves the translation of invocation made to Buddha by the Chinese pilgrim Itsing who visited India twenty-five years after the return to China of Hiouen Thsang, " The bliss he gives is greater than the world's maker ; in dispelling darkness he is better than the sun ; in drivingaway darkness he is better than the moon ; there is none to whom h e can be compared : Glory to Buddha ! " Under the fostering care of the enlightened sovereigns of India Buddhism flourished, and from Buddhistic sources literature, arts and sciences received the greatest impulses. It was in the Buddhist age that astronomy, medicine, poetry, painting and art in India reached their perfection. 326

Contemporaneous with the birth of Christ began the spread of Buddhism in China. The first three centuries before Christ Buddhist missionaries had penetrated into the countries of Greece, Bactriana, Persia and the countries within the limits of the Phoenician Empire. Buddhist ideas influenced the thought of Greece and the result was the founding of the school of Stoics. The Essenes were also active in spreading them in the provinces in and near Syria and it has been conjectured that the ethical teachings of Christ had their inspiration f r o m Essenic sources. Whether the original teachings of Christ had their inspiration from Essenic sources, whether the original teach­ ings of Christ were uninfluenced Buddhistic thought or not one cannot but wonder at the strange similarity in the ethics of the two systems. From the tenth to the sixteenth century after Christ the Mohamme­ dans held sway over a greater portion of India and the outlying countries, and within this period they were successful in destroying every vestige of Buddhism in the land of its birth. Prof. Seeley is of opinion that a barbarous power could destroy a high civilization and it was easy enough for the Mohammedans with their destructive tendencies to ruthless iconoclasm to extirpate the inoffensive Buddhist monks at the point of the sword. Not only Buddhism but Christia­ nity and the Mazdeanism of Persia suffered extirpation from their native soils. The historian of Islam could concur with Sir William Muir who says in his " Caliphate : Its Rise, Decline and Fall, " " thus had Islam extinguished pity and implanted in the breasts of women and even of little children savage and cold-blooded cruelty ". The present world-wide impulse for the study of Buddhism, it must be said, was given by the European Orientalists whose researches in the field of Buddhist thought have had a marked effect in liberali­ sing the bigoted tendencies of those who held the erroneous idea that there was no truth to be found in Buddhism. Thanks to the researches o f the Huxleys, Darwins, Haeckels and Spencers in the domain of science and philosophy Buddhists have the satisfaction of knowing that the religion they profess is not a superstitious theology or demon worship, but one which is in strict accordance with the latest scientific thought of the day. We have every reason to deplore that in our camp there is to be seen a listless apathy and a fatalistic submission Quite in contrast with the active spirit and individualism of Buddhism. 327

The religion of Buddha had since its promulgation found patrons in reigning sovereigns, and it was to the glorious spirit of Asoka that the propagation of Buddhism was due. The world has not yet seen a greater sovereign than this Buddhist potentate, whose rock-cut edicts, deciphered by Prinsep in 1837, after they had lain buried for over ten centuries, showed to the world the basis on which the Buddhist polity had been constructed. The same spirit that we now see among the Christians to spread abroad the religion of Christ, the zeal of the missionary to convert the heathen, was exhibited by the Indian Buddhist monks five centuries before the birth of Christianity and that spirit was retained by them until the destructive forces of Mohammedanism appeared on the Buddhist horizon. " The Musulman conquest", says Prof. Barth, " which extended permanently over a great portion of the territory, must have accelerated this decadence by drying up in vast provinces the spring of these princely liberalities, and it is probably to this epoch we must assign the dis­ appearance of important texts which were still in existence in the middle age, and which have since been lost ". With the spread of knowledge in Europe and America there is a growing reaction in favour of Buddhism and if we are only alive to the situation we could again not only re-stablish Buddhism in the land of its birth ; but gain a permanent footing in European and American soils. Buddhism exists today in Japan, China, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, Cambodia, Siam, Burma, Ceylon, Nepal, Arakan and Chittagong in a comatose state ; but ready to be galvanised at any moment by any outside impulse. It is living by its own energy and unless the custodians show more activity in infusing life into it there is no hope of its expansion. In all Buddhist countries the Bhikshus (monks) with a few exceptions, have failed to inflence the people. That spirit of activity, that desire to spread abroad the compassionate teachings of the great Master, which was to be found in the Indian Buddhist monk is sadly wanting in the present day priest. What is the cause ? In the palmy days of Buddhism the Order was composed of illustrious persons who were the luminaries of the age Sons of noble families entered the Order and underwent every selfsacrifice to proclaim the teachings of Buddha. There was no mountain, desert or sea that they did not cross in their onward march of propaganda, and backed up by royal influence these devoted enthusiasts were zealous in spreading Buddhism. 328

The religion that holds altruism and unselfishness as the highest ideals of life under an indolent priesthood has become the refuge o f the self and the ignorant, and unless a radical change be effected in the constitution of the Sangria -we shall see the superstructure of Buddhism falling down incapable of bearing its own superstitious accretions added by a well meaning but inactive body of priests. The world today wants the true teachings of Buddha, for they alone teach the emancipation of the human mind from the bonds of selfish­ ness. A religion that has a theology as its basis could not give universal satisfaction. The bent of thought of the day is drifting towards Buddhism, and there is nor other religion which offers at the same time a philosophy, religion and psychology as Buddhism. Looking at the state of religious society in India to-day, I find that it is the same as it was twenty-five centuries ago. During the three years that I have spent in India since 1891 I have seen the religious life of the people and it is indeed startling to find to-day the successive followers of some of the contemporary ascetics of Buddha. To-day you see the naked Achelakas, the Ajivakas, the Nigantas, the Kapilas, the Agnohoris, the Jatilas— whose predecessors were subdued by the powerful wand of Buddha's love. You love Buddha the more after having once seen these ignorant fanatics who in the hope of getting salvation in a future life practise the most revolting asceticism, for it was Buddha that showed the uselessness of giving pain to the body to gain salvation. The story of Sigala which every Buddhist knows is being enacted day after day in India by the followers of Brahma who early in the morning greet the rising sun, standing up to their waists in the flowing Ganges, and worshipping the six directions. To the devoted disciple of Buddha there is a rich field in India to sow the seeds of Buddha's doctrine. Prince Damrong only the other day remarked that he understands and admires Buddhism better since his visit to India and he thought that every true Buddhist priest should visit that Holy Land of the Buddhists. The object of my visit to Siam is to tell my Siamese brothers about the present state of the sacred sites which are full of imperishable associations for the followers of the great Teacher. Subject to the most painful neglect and desecration at the hands of the outcaste 329

Chandalas, the hallowed place at Buddhagaya remains in the hands of Saivites. This spot which is sacred to four hundred and seventyfive millions of Buddhists, says Dr. Rajendralal Mittra " rose to high distinction as the hermitage of one of the greatest religious reformers of the world, of one who exercised the most influence on the mind of man. For over 1 , 6 0 0 years it was held to be the most sacred spot on earth by at least one-fifth of the human race. For centuries the stream of pilgrims flowed towards it without intermission. Princes from all parts vied with one another in enriching it with the highest treasures of art that they could command." This spot which was once guardianed by the greatest Buddhist monarch whose royal hands even would not touch the sacred Tree thereon lest it should be desecrated, is to the unfeigned sorrow of the Buddhist now in alien hands. Though Buddhist priests, princes and people have forgotten the sacred site there are others who still love and revere the memory of the Great Teacher and their wish is that the Buddhists should not allow aliens to desecrate the hallowed spot.. Even Sir Monier Williams, no friend of Buddhism, says "indeed the present appearance of the square is one of the most striking sights in all India, and must be seen to be appreciated. In truth, Buddhagaya is a kind of Buddhist Jerusalem, abounding in associa­ tions of thrilling interest not only to the followers of Buddha, but to all who see in that spot the central focus whence radiated a system which for centuries has permeated the religious thought of the most populous regions of Eastern Asia, and influenced the creed of a majority of the human race." The idea of restoring this Buddhist Jerusalem into Buddhist hands originated with Sir Edwin Arnold, after having visited the sacred spot in 1886. It was he who gave me the impulse to visit the shrine, and since 1 8 9 1 1 have done all I could to make the Buddhists of all countries interested in the scheme of restoration. Sir Edwin writes : " if you waked in that spot which all these scores of millions of our race love so dearly, you would observe with shame and grief in the mango groves to the east of the Neranjara statues plastered, to the walls of an irrigating well. I have seen 3 ft. high statues in an excellent state of preservation buried under rubbish to the East of the Mahant's Baradari; and the Asoka pillars, the most ancient relics of the site—indeed the most antique memorials of all India, which graced the temple pavement, are now used as posts in the Mahant's kitchen ! " 330

Should not the Buddhists venerate this and the other three sites associated with the life of our blessed Lord who made these places memorable by the last words he addressed to Ananda ? In the Maha Parinibbana Sutta Buddha says, " Ananda, there ate four places which the Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, Upasakas and Upasikas should visit; the place where the Tathagata was born, the place where he gained supreme enlightenment, the place where he set the Wheel of the Law in motion, and the place where he attained Nirvana. Not only his immediate followers but also the religiously inclined sons of noble families should visit these sacred places." In the Anguttara Nikaya Buddha addressing the Bhikshus says, " the site where the Tathagata attained supreme enlightenment should be seen by some of noble families who have faith in their hearts." The Mohammedans and the Christians have not forgotten their sacred sites in Mecca and Jerusalem. T o restore the Holy Sepulchre the Christians in their devotion to Christ sacrificed not only gold but blood which is more than gold, and life which is more than blood. Two hundred thousand human beings perished in their attempt to restore the sacred site. After seven hundred years we are called upon to restore the site sacred to the Buddhists, and we want not blood ; but only fifty thousand dollars. To our unutter­ able grief the Buddhists are not allowed to even sojourn in the place dearest to us, and unless we purchase the land which belongs to the temple there is no hope of our ever getting back the guardianship of the holy spot. For the first time in the history of modern Buddhism an attempt is being made by the Maha Bodhi Society to bring about the religious unification of the Buddhist countries of Asia, and to re-establish Buddhism in India. So far the movement has received the sympathy of all Buddhist nations. Ceylon and Burma are subject countries and here are no wealthy Buddhists there who love Buddha to contribute generously to redeem this sacred land. In Japan too the Buddhists are poor but the good people there have promised to raise necessary funds. And this last appeal is made to the illustrious Sovereign and enlightened Princes of Siam—redeem the sacred land. Once we acquire a permanent footing in the land sacred to the Buddhists, the success 331

of our cause is assured. India belongs by right to Buddha and his disciples. At the foot of the tree, in the mountain cave, in the forest he lived during his blessed career of usefulness and taught the people the way to escape from the bonds of sorrow. The exist­ ing religions of India have no history to make them appear venerable but to the Buddhist every Indian city of fame has a historic association in connection with the life of our glorified Lord. Again I say that India belongs to Buddha and one-hundred-sixty millions of Hindus ignorandy worship him as the avatar of Vishnu ! If we succeed in getting possession of the land attached to the Temple it would be a silent religious revolution and the twentieth century will see Buddhism in the land of its birth, Buddhist mission­ aries preaching Buddha and his compassionate doctrines in India,, Europe and America, and the historian would record this triumphant success which was accomplished in the illustrious reign of His Gracious Majesty Chulalongkorn, King of Siam. From Bangkok Times—reprinted

in the Buddhist Vol. VI, March, 1894.


The Common Language of Ancient India

W H E N the Blessed One, Lord Buddha began His mission of Love and Freedom the Gangetic Valley had one common language. The great University at Taxila was on the border province of Gandahar. The people of Gandahar were in touch with the people of the Gangetic valley. In the commentary of the Dhatuvibhanga sutta, Majjhima nikaya, is found the story of the young prince Pukkusati who having renounced his principality came to Magadha in search of the Blessed One, and the Blessed One preached to him the discourse on the Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Elements. In the Commentary of the Vinaya Pitaka the story is given o f the Gandahar merchants and traders coming over to the kingdom of Magadha and meeting King Bimbisara, contemporary of the Blessed One. The King sent an epistle engraved on gold plates and written on silk cloth and enclosed in a lacquer box wrapped in costly silks to the King of Gandahar. It was written in Magadhi. In the commentary of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, it is mentioned that the Vajjians had their laws written in a book. It was called Pavenipotthaka. In Kosala Magadhi was spoken. Gandahar was the seat of learning, and there is evidence to show that at that period both Sanskrit and Magadhi were spoken. Salatur a city in Gandahar was the birth place of the great Sanskrit Grammarian, Panini, and the University of Taxila was famous throughout India. There Greek and Indian Aryan met and exchanged ideas. The exchange of ideas ceased after the invasion of the Cabul valley by the followers of Mahammad. The Edicts of the great Emperor Asoka who lived 200 years after the parinibbana of the Buddha show that he carried his victorious arms from sea to sea, and the west extreme of his empire was at Taxila. East, west, north, south, the good emperor carried his gracious message of the Law of Righteousness by means of his wonderful edicts, and also by his ambassadors, and accentuated by the self-sacrificing labours of the noble army of yellow robed Bhikkhus, members of the Sangha of the Blessed One. There was one common language used which was called Magadhi, the lingua franca of India. Naturally the army of the yellow robed Bhikkhus went all over India and founded schools and colleges with hundreds and thousands of students who were taught, Pali, the language of the Buddha. The Buddha did not wish that the ornate language of Sanskrit should be used to convey His message to the people. His mission was to elevate the people, and the language o f the Brahmans being Sanskrit the people could not be taupht through 333

that language, and the Blessed One therefore insisted that the message of the Blessed One should reach the people in their own dialect, that is Magadhi, which the Buddha used ; and to suit the subject it was neces­ sary that the language should be purified, and in the purified form it was known as Pali. The edicts of Asoka are not in Sanskrit but in the dialect of the province wherein each edict was written. In the extreme south of India and in the Island of Ceylon where the Bhikkhus of Buddha had their monasteris, Pali and pure Magadhi were studied. This is but natural. When the Arabs won their vic­ torious battles on foreign soil, they ordered their language should be taught to the new converts. Wherever a victorious nation goes their language is taught to the people brought under subjection. The progress of the Magadhi language, in India was stopped after the invasion of India by the Arabs. The inscription found on the Relic Box at Piprawa, about twenty years ago, was in Magadhi, and Piprawa is in the Nepal valley. In Ceylon the whole of the Three Pitakas was handed down from gene­ ration to generation by word of mouth for nearly two hundred years, and in the reign of Wattagamini Abhaya the three Pitakas were reduced to writing, a hundred years before the birth of Christ. Happily for the world this occured before the birth of Christianity. The Pali scholars of the West, especially in Germay have been ransacking their brains to find out the birth place of Pali. Oldenburg is of opinion that Pali had for its home the country south of the Vindhya mountains. Another noted critic of Pali is Dr. Franke. Dr. Franke has not accepted Oldenburg's view. His view is that the home of Pali may be found between the middle and western Vindhya mountains. There is another critic Dr. Windisch. He differs in his conclusions with Franke and Oldenburg and says that the Buddha used the language of Magadha. These Oriental scholars are fighting for the husk. The Blessed One wished that the language used to convey the message of Buddha should be the language of the people, and not Sanskrit. Why dog­ matise and mislead ignorant people in the West. Magadhi, Suraseni, Paisachi, Maharashtri, Prakrit were the dialects spoken by the people at the time, and the Blessed One beautified the vernacular by inventing expressions and terms to expound His wonderful Doctrine of the Bodhi pakkhiya Dhamma. Pali may be called the middle language which was used by the Blessed One to expound the Doctrine of the Middle Path. The ornate and embellished Sanskrit and the vulgar Paisachi Prakrit, he avoided, and made a classic of purified Magadhi, which 334

was called Pali to designate the language that He used as different from existing dialects. Pali is the language of the Buddha which could easily be understood by the natives of Magadha, Kosala, Sauraseni, Kasi, and Gandahar. Sir George Grierson, at one time Collector of Gaya, the best linguist of Hindi dialects, has contributed an essay to the Memorial volume of Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar under the title "Home of Pali". It has useful information which he has collected from various sources. Sten Konow in his article on the " Home of Paisaci" has shown the resemblances that exist between Pali words and the Paisaci Prakrit, Dr. Grierson in his interesting Essay gives a list of the places where the Paisaci dialects were spoken. They are : Kancidesiya, Pandya, Pancala, Gauda, Magadha, Vracad, Dakshinatya, Saurasena, Kaikeya Sahara, Dravida. This list is taken from Markandeya. Dr. Grierson following Lakshmidhara gives another list wherein Paisaci was spoken; viz., Pandya, Kekaya, Bahlika, Simhala, Nepala, Kuntala, Sudhesna, Bota, Gandhara, Haiva and Kannonjana. Says Dr. Grierson. " " The first thing that strikes one about these three lists is the great extent of country that they cover. If we are to accept them in their entirety, Paisaci Prakrit was spoken over nearly the whole of India and also in Tibet. " Since the time of the Blessed One the Pali language began spreading not only in India, but beyond which may be called the Greater India. Wherever the Buddhist Bhikkhus went there arose centres of literary culture, and they transplanted Indian art, agriculture, gardening, flori­ culture, architecture, &c. and the countries which accepted the Message of Peace and Love looked to India as their motherland. For a thousand years India was the spiritual home of the nations beyond. Java, Cambodia, Korea, Japan, Siam, Burma, Tibet, Gandahar, Bah­ lika, were Buddhist centres, and the scholars of these countries naturally had to study Pali and other Prakrit dialects. Gandahar, Bahlika, Java, and the countries, to the west of Gandahar were brought under the dominion of Koran, and Aryan culture ceased. India is no more the home of Buddhism. After a period of nearly seven hundred years the study of Pali has again been taken up by a number of the students in the uui-v-iouy of Calcutta. The Maha Bodhi Society published the first u U i u m e r in the month of October 1901, edited by Dr. Satis Cuaiiara viayabhusana of the Calcutta University. Since then a little has been done to encourage Pali studies in Bengal and Maharashtra. With the development of the vernaculars in India the time may come when Pali would be studied. Without the illuminating doctrine of the Buddha India is engulfed in darkness. To elevate the people the


study of their own vernaculars is most necessary, and when the verna­ culars are encouaged, Pali might be easly introduced, and through Pali the millions will then again come to know of the redeeming love of the Blessed One. Oh for a good Buddhist king today to help the diffusion of Buddha knowledge among the dumb millions of India. The few wealthy Buddhists of Japan, Siam, China, Burma could help the spread of Buddhism in India, but as they are of the Mongolian race India is to them a kind of forbidden land. But a gleam of light is visilble in the little community of Buddhists in Chittagong. Already a few young men have taken up Pali. One of the young Chittagong Buddhist, Beni Madhav Barua, a graduate of the Calcutta University, has been awarded the degree of Doctor of Literature by the London University. The Buddhists of Chittagong speak Bengalee, and through Bengalee literature their progress is sure to come. But they are as a community not endowed with wealth. The Buddhists of Siam, Japan, Burma, Ceylon and China may help them ; but in the heart of the modern Buddhist love is little visible. Selfishness has taken deep root in the modern Buddhist heart. But for the compassionateness of early Aryan Bhikkhus of India, the culture which the people of these countries enjoy could never have been possible. We hope that the Buddhist of Asia will make every effort to foster the spirit of unselfish love and help the diffusion of the sun light of Truth in non-Buddhist lands. The Buddhist Bhikkhus of ancient India imbued with the spirit of compassion and inspired by the teachings of the Blessed One went to various countries in Asia and preached the Dharma to non-Aryan races. We expect to see the forgotten spirt of Buddha's compassion revived in Buddhist countries. Section II—Aryadharma


of Sakyamuni


Buddha, 1 9 1 7 .


The Development of Arts, Industries and Agriculture

T H E Lord Buddha made indolence a sin producing evil karma. Activity in arts, literature, service, agriculture was commended as righteous and productive of good karma. Karma is action, either good or bad. Results productive of good were called the fruits of good karma (karmaphala). T o sweep the place and keep it clean was a good act and producing good karma. T o allow dirt to accumulate and not have it removed after having seen it, is productive of bad karma. T o please the aesthetic feelings of others is good, and is productive of good karma. T o build a rest house for the public good, to build a bridge, to put up lights in a place for the benefit of others, to help the poor, to take care of parents, and holy men, yellow-robed Ascetics and Brahmans, to show hospitality to strangers, to nurse the sick, to be courteous to elders, to take care of orphans, to establish free hospitals, and rest-houses to preach the good law, to hear the good law, to keep the mind upright in accordance with the law of righteousness, to show kindness to all living beings, to prevent cruelty to animals, to take care of the aged animals, to disseminate the good law, all these are productive of good karma. To be indifferent to the sufferings of others, to live untidily, and to allow dirt and filth to accumulate and not have them removed, to be indolent and postpone work that requires immediate attention are productive of evil karma. It is called gehasita upekkha, domestic indifference leading to misery. A kind thought, a good word spoken, a deed of charity however small produce good karma. Man is like a karma producting dynamo. Indifference leads to stagnation of mind, and evil deeds lead to degeneration and arrest the development of consciousness leading towards animality. Man has behind him a storage of karma which is called aparapariya vedaniya karma, which is a kind of potentia karma waiting to come into operation whenever the opportunity occurs. 337

Many are the similes used by the Blessed One to expound His teachings, Kammam khettam, vinnanam bijam. Here the word khettam connotes field, and bija is seed. Karma is like unto a field, and vinnana (consciousness) is like the seed ; architectural phrases are also used to illustrate the teachings. Activity in the field of arts, industries and agriculture lead to the accumulation of good karma, and they are classified under the category of right livelihood (Samma ajivo). One Bhikkhu while superintending the building of a vihara became an arhat. He was before he joined the Holy Order an architect. Cullapantha became an arhat by contemplating on the lotus flower, and in his last birth he was a goldsmith, and the Blessed One saw by His divine eye as to the kind of upanissya kamma of Cullapantha, and he found it out, and gave him the lesson to contemplate on aesthetic art represented in the lotus flower. Four requisites which the Blessed One ordained for a Bhikkhu are robes, food, seats and residences, and medicaments. Everything in domestic and social economics are included in the four categories. Garments to wear, how to produce them ? Cotton is required, and to obtain yarn cotton has to be cultivated. Millions of robes were required yearly for the Bhikkhus when Buddhism was a living religion in India. The Bhikkhu required an antaravasa, uttarasangha, a sanghati, a nisidana, a vassasataka and nana-sataka. Hand-loom weaving was an industry greatly fostered during the Buddhist period. To make a katina civara, the cotton had to be twisted into yarn, and the cloth woven on the same day, and dyed and sewn. To feed the thousands and thousands of Bhikkhus rice was necessary, and large tracts of land were set apart by the kings to be brought under cultivation to plant paddy, and along with agriculture cattle keeping was greatly encouraged, and dairying was a great industry in the Buddhist period, for milk, butter and butter oil were largely used by the Bhikkhus as food. The construction of viharas, bhojanasalas, gilana-salas, vaccakuti, passavakuti, mandapas, cloisters, divasthanas, ratristhanas, udakasalas, parivenas, uposatha halls, upasthana-halls, tanks, helped to advance the science of architecture and the walls were painted with scenes and this helped the development of painting. The Blessed One did not believe in driving out devils when His Bhikkhus fell sick. He inculcated the use of medicine, and the science of medicine was cultivated by the Bhikkhus for their own use. Every Vihara had a gilana sala where the sick Bhikkhus were treated. The Buddha Himself attended on the sick Bhikkhus. Medical science in the Buddhist period was very progressive. The Bhikkhus had to study the dead body in their meditations in various phases of de­ composition. Wherever the Bhikkhus went they carried culture along with them. 338

When the great mission headed by the Princess missionary Sanghamitta was sent by the great Emperor Ashoka to Ceylon, the good Emperor sent experts in all kinds of arts and industries, as part of the mission. Eighteen kinds of arts and industries were represented in the mission to Ceylon. Sculpture, horticulture, floriculture, weaving, & c , were introduced into Ceylon by the good emperor 2 2 2 0 years ago. But for Buddhism today there would be nothing ancient and aesthetic in the world, except the mummies and Egyptian and Babylonian archaeological remnants. Where Buddhism went there was diffused culture. Painting, architecture, agriculture, textile industries, temperance flourished in Buddhist countries. Other religions destroy culture and spread intemperance. Destruction is the law of other religions. The scriptures of Monotheistic religions inculcate destruction and desuetude. The Vedas are only for the high caste, and the Sudra is to be robbed of whatever good things he has, according to the Brahmanical laws of Manu, Apastamba Yajnavlkya, Narada and Gautama. Two thousand years ago the great Emperor Ashoka caused the viharas to be built in various parts of India, and today the archaeological scholar, admires and writes monographs. In Ceylon, Burma, China, Tibet and Japan art flourished extensively under Buddhism. The following quotation from a work brought out by the erudite scholar Dr. M. Anesaki of Japan will show to what extent Art and Buddhism go together : " Curiously there prevails in the West an impression that Buddhism is a religion of mere negation and pure abstraction. Here I shall not argue. I simply wish to point out that he will never understand Buddhist art who does not free his mind from such a preconception. Buddhism exhorts its followers to overstep the bounds of self and enter the ideal community of spiritual life. This teaching is, to be a sure, a negation of the bondage of individual limitations ; but it is equally an affirmation of a life broader than the individual. It may be called withdrawal from the material world, but it is also an entrance into the larger world of ideals. It was this breadth of mental vista and depth of sympathy that made Buddhism a universal religion and gave inspiration to artistic genius. The ideal of the Buddhist faith consists in realizing, through spiritual experience and in moral acts, the continuity of life in man and nature and the fellowship of all beings. This ideal was the soil which nourished the stem of the Buddhist religion and the flowers of Buddhist art. The Buddha became the fountain head of an inexhaustible inspiration in religion and morals, in art and poetry . . . . perceived in man and nature the vital and sympathetic tie which bound them to his own soul. Nothing is left outside the bounds of his sympathy ; all is vivified by the touch of personal relation. This is the process of idealization, the secret of artistic creation ; and Buddha grasped this secret in his conception of universal communion and through his training in the transformed life . . . . Buddhism is by no means 339

religion of mere ecstacy. Its meditative training, together with the practice of charity in various ways, results in a total transformation of life through the realization first in idea and then in acts, of one's spiritual connextion and sympathetic accord with mankind and surrounding nature. " The realization of a universal spiritual communion is the fundamental ideal of the Buddhist religion. It was this ideal that gave Buddhism the power of expansion beyond the boundaries of nations fired its adherents with missionary zeal, and inspired the imagination of its artists and poets. One who can appreciate this ideal will understand Buddhist art, and will discover in the hearts of the Japanese a tone of tenderness and a depth o f sympathy which are the essential conditions of artistic creation and enjoyment, (p. 30). Buddhist temples were places not only o f worship but also of learning, where philosophy and music were taught and moral discipline was inculcated. Moreover charitable institutions, such as hospitals, infirmaries and dispensaries, were attached to them, as means of putting the Buddhist ideal of universal love into actual practice. The whole foundation thus served as a focus of the Buddhist religion, morality, and art which now became integral parts of the national life (p. 21). The Buddhist gospel of an all-embracing spiritual communion which could be realized in human life, was preached to the East and West, imbuing its converts everywhere with an aspiration for universal communion. . . . p. 1 9 " Buddhist Art in Its Relation to Buddhist Ideas." London : John Murray. Section II—Aryadbarma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddba, 1917,



Woman in Ancient India

WOMAN in ancient India was free. India is the home of the spiritual ascetic and the devotee of sensual pleasure. Works on Kamasastra written in Sanskrit are an indication of the bacchanalian orgies which were current in ancient days. The ascetic worked up wrath against woman, for she was to him the one obstacle to spiritual progress. The gods sent celestial virgins to tempt the saint, and as he had invariably succumbed, woman appeared to him as a she demon, and the only way to success in the spiritual path was to avoid her company. The conflict arose between sensual pleasure and the saintly life. Those who had triumphed in the path found the happiness of the Brahmaloka gods, which was above sensual pleasure. This led the ascetics to persevere in the path of Yoga and Brahmachariya. The happiness of the lower heavens was within the easy reach of the good householder. The good wife, chaste, active, attentive to household duties, obedient, loving her husband and willing to die for him was praised, and her reward for her womanly qualities was birth in heaven. Indian poets painted woman in the most brilliant colours describing her loveliness to an extravagant degree. The erotic literature was abundantly large. The poets sang hymns in her praise, and the ascetics found in her the embodiment of evil. Indian woman lost her individuality after the Moslem invasion of India. Woman was not considered sacred by the Semitic races. The story of Adam and Eve had made woman degraded for ever . By her was sin introduced to the world, and she must be guarded to prevent her from doing more mischief. The ancient Persians also it appears had their women guarded and veiled. The Arabian women before the time of Mahammad it seems had the freedom to choose her own husband. The story of Khadija shows how business-like she was in her dealings with the young overseer, whom she took as her husband. 341

That Polygamy was current in Arabia and in Mesopotamia we learn from the story of Abraham. Sarah herself suggested to her husband to take the servant woman Hagar. The Biblical heroes of the Old Testament were veteran polygamists. India being almost a continent evidence shows that the institutions of polygamy, polyandry and monogamy had existed in the remotest times. The Pandava brothers had one wife in common. The gods were monogamous. Indra, Shiva and Vishnu had each only one wife. The war god Kartika was a bachelor. It is said that when Brahma was making the body of the woman that he shut his eyes lest he may fall. Shiva was tempted and came out triumphant at first, but again fell. Indian-Aryan women were always free. Today she is free in the provinces of Bombay. Madras and other provinces where the Moslem influence did not penetrate. The Semitic story degrades woman, but in India the mother is worshipped. Bengal is specially devoted to the adoration of Durga and Kali. The Bengalee invokes the aid of the mother Kali. In the United Provinces and in places where Krishna and Rama are worshipped, their names are associated with that of their wives. The Earth is represented in the form of a Goddess. In the great conflict under the Bodhi Tree with Mara and his hosts the Blessed One called the Earth to witness that He was the conqueror. When the Lord Buddha began His mission it was not to man alone that He proclaimed the Dharma, previous to the time that He began to preach already women had left their homes to lead the life of the homeless. The Nirgrantas had their women ascetics. The Theri Gatha a Pali work belonging to the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, contains the poetical Gathas composed by the Bhikkhunis who wore the yelow robe. It has been translated into English by Mrs. Rhys Davids under the title of " Psalms of the Sisters ". The Bhikkhunis were addressed as Sisters by t he Bhikkhus. .They were preachers and teachers, and some of the great Bhikkhunis belong to the highest families in Magadha. The wife of King Bimbisara by name Khema, the most beautiful among women, became a Bhikkhuni seeing the changing nature of things. She was so beautiful that she never cared to visit the Blessed One, as she heard that the Buddha speaks against beauty. The Buddha one day went and sat in the 342

royal garden, and the King wishing to take her to hear the doctrine of the Blessed One, without telling her of the Blessed One's visit, simply expressed his desire that she might accompany him to the pleasure garden. The queen loves flowers exceedingly, and she at once got ready and went with the King to the garden. At the time the Buddha was seated at the foot of a tree, and the Blessed One knowing that the Queen Khema was in the garden, created miracul­ ously two beautiful young women standing on each side of the Blessed One fanning Him. Queen Khema at a distance saw the two beautiful figures, and was astounded at their ravishing beauty, that she forgot to think of her own self. Entranced by the charming sight of the Buddha and the two women she was unconciously drawn towards them, and the nearer she approached, she witnessed the two young women gradually become old, and fell down dead, and she realized that she was standing before the Blessed One. She saw that beauty is only skin deep, and she fell down at the feet of the Blessed One and solicited ordination as a Bhikkhuni, and with the consent of the King she joined the Holy Order, and became the chief woman disciple in the Bhikkhuni sasana. She was appointed as the right hand woman disciple of the Blessed One, an office as great as the right-hand disciple-ship which was held by the great Sariputra. The famous simile of the chariot used by Nagasena to convince King Menander (Milinda) of the non egoistic nature of the five skhandhas was used first by the Bhikkhuni Vajira in a discussion she had with the King of Kosala. The famous sutta called the " Culla vedalla sutta ", in the Majjhima nikaya, was preached by the Bhikkhuni Dhammadinna to her husband, who was less advanced than herself in the comprehension of the psycholigical mysteries of the royal patronage and the Kings remained Buddhists, so long the Bhikkhuni Order existed in India. We read in the " Sri Harsha Charita ", that the sister of King Sri Harsha after the death of her husband joined the Bhikkhuni Order. |The most learned of the Brahmans at the time was the great Divakara, and he became a Buddhist Bhikkhu. The great lay woman Visakha, the daughter of a banker was chief among lay women in the religion of the Buddha. She built the great Vihara to the east of Jetavana at Savatthi. The widow, and the fallen woman, the courtezan, the young lady who did not want to marry, all found a refuge in the Order of the Bhikkhunis. The story of the young mother Kisagotami, who lost 343

her first born son shows how useful was the Bhikkhuni Order at the time. The little boy was stung by a serpent and lay dead, but she did not believe it and taking the dead body was going from house to house asking people to cure the boy. The people who saw the dead child, said " go to the great physician, who is staying at Jetawna, He will cure your child ", and the weeping mother taking the dead child, went to the Blessed One, and showing the child said, " Great physician I have my sick child, cure him ", and the Blessed One, said " go, bring a handful of mustard seeds to cure the child and the weeping mother, glad at heart, started to go, and the Blessed One said " see that you get the mustard seed from a house, where no one had died ", and she went from house to house, asking for mustard seed, and when the handful was given, she would ask, did any body die in this house ? and the answer was, " yes and she would then return the handful of mustard seed, and go to another house, and she went from street to street, through the city, asking for mustard seed where no death had taken place, and at last she found that in the whole city of Savatthi there was not one house where there had not been a case of death. And her eyes were opened to the truth that nothing is permanent, and she threw away the dead body, and with a heart full of joy in having realized the truth, she came to the Blessed One, and said, Lord, I have found Truth, accept me as a disciple. This beautiful and touching story hath comforted millions of mothers in Buddhist lands since the occurrence of the event. Here in this story is the truth of the resurrection from death, not the regalvanizing of the dead body. A magician could galvanize a dead body and deceive the weeping mother. But he can give her no wisdom. The Blessed One gave ambrosia to the weeping mother, and she saw Truth. She received the Eye of Truth (Dhamma cakkhu). Magicians give life to dead bodies, but they die again. Two hundred years after the Parinibbana of the Blessed One, the great and righteous Emperor Asoka, sent his daughter Sanghamitta to Ceylon to preach the Dharma and to found the Bhikkhuni Order. For nearly a thousand years it existed, and after that it ceased to exist. Woman as well as man can attain the perfection of Arhatship, in the power of grasping truth they are both equal. But in a woman's body no Buddha, no universal emperor, no Brahma nor Indra appears. Once a certain lay follower asked the great Arhat Sariputra whether his wife, who was then pregnant, would bring forth a male child, and Sariputra replied in the affirmative, but when the time came for her 344

to deliver, she brought forth a female child ; and the discontented man went to the Blessed One and said that Sariputra was wrong in his prophesy. The Buddha said that Sariputra when he looked to foretell of the future child did not look far enough. At the time that he was asked the embryo had not reached the stage of differentiation, and Sariputra, without looking to the full period of development gave the answer. The Buddha thereupon laid down the law that Bhikkhus should not go to foretell about child-births. The duty of the woman is clearly laid down in the 8th Nipata of the Auguttara Nikaya. She has her duties at home. She has to learn to be a help to her husband, she is expected to be clever in some kind of art or craft. The wife who is kind, and chaste and looks after the welfare of the husband after death is born in heaven. The cruel unchaste, spendthrift of a wife after death is born in a place o f suffering. The clever, well behaved, learned woman, the Blessed One said may become the mother of a great King and also of a Buddha. There­ fore no girl born should be despised said the Lord to the King o f Kosala, who felt sorry when he heard that his wife the queen Mallika gave birth to a daughter. The Buddha comforted the King. Educate the daughter in arts and moral, in religion, and in domestic science (patibbata, silavati, medhavini) and she will give birth to good children. This is the law of Buddha. Princess Yasodhara, the wife of the future Buddha, realised pari Nirvana, a year before the parinibbana of the Lord. For many million incarnations she was the wife of the Bodhisat life after life. Their love was not born in one life. The last life was the consummation of the deep desire that she had cherished for one asankheyya kalpa. The horrid doctrine that man should abandon his father and mother and cling to his wife is abominably repulsive to the Aryan mind. The Aryan husband trains his wife to take care of his parents, and attend on holy men, on his friends and relations. The glory o f woman is in her chastity, in the performance of household duties and obedience to her husband. This is the Aryan ideal wife. Husband and wife should be equal in their understanding and wisdom, both should be chaste. In the Maha Janaka Jataka (Vol. IV) the princess receives a visit from a suitor, after the death of her father whose last dying words to her that she should marry a fit person, who will be able to manage 345

the kingdom ; and this personage was sent for and when he came she told him to kneel down, and he knelt down, at her feet, and the princess thereupon thought this fool is not fit to be my husband, and she ordered her maids to have the man kicked out of her presence. She wanted a person who had some kind of self respect and not fall down at her feet. The Jatakas contain about fifty stories about the characteristics of woman, showing her good nature as well as her evil nature. Aryan women have always held a supreme place in the domestic economy of social progress. She was called the " lady of the house" (gharasamini). The ascetics did not like woman, but the poets sang of her beauty, and men of the world went mad after her. In the history of religion there is only one faith that gave woman power to preach and to disseminate the faith, and that is the religion of the Blessed One. Other religions kept woman in the background. They were prohibited to speak before man. Section II—Aryadbarma of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddba, 1917.


VI Comparative Religion 40. Buddhism in its Relationship with Hinduism. 41. The Kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism. 42. The Constructive Optimism of Buddhism. 43. The Repenting God of Horeb. 44. The Ancient Story of Genesis as known to the Primitive Aryans of India. 45. Evolution from the Stand-point of Buddhism. 46. Buddhism, Science and Christianity. 47. An Appreciation of Christianity. 48. Buddhism and Christianity. 49.

Christianity in Europe.

50. East and


51. Buddhism and 52.



Western Thought.

my Diary. 347


Buddhism in its Relationship with Hinduism*

The first lecture in English delivered by the Anagarika Dharmapala on 25 th October, 1891.

DEDICATION As a tribute of sincere love I dedicate this first of my lectures delivered in English to an Indian audience, to the beloved memory of the late Rai Bahadur Sri Norendra Nath Sen, Editor of the Indian Mirror, and President of the Literary Section of the Mah Bodhi Society, a true hearted friend of the Buddhists, who oftentimes expressed his spiritual conviction that the sufferings of India will not be removed until the long forgotten teachings of the Lord of Compassion are again assimilated by her children. The Anagarika Brabtnacbari H. DHARMAPALA.

Maha Bodhi Society Headquarters, 4-A, College Square, Calcutta, 8th April, 2461/1981.

FOREWORD Brother Anagarika Dharmapala has asked me to write a foreword to the pamphlet which he proposes to publish as a loving tribute to the memory of my late revered father and I gladly accede to his reqest. Any narrative of the revival of Buddhism in India during the latter end of the Nineteenth Century which did not contain a reference to the memorable part taken therein by the late Rai Bahadur Norendro Nath Sen would not only be incomplete and inaccurate * This book is reproduced here with the Foreword by 8. N. 8 en. 349

but unjust and unfair to his memory in view of the rare courage and conviction with which he espoused the cause of Buddhism in India at a time when Buddhists had so few friends in this country. " In Buddhism lies unity " he used to say and although his labours were heavy and his activities many sided, the sacred cause of Buddhism was ever foremost in his heart. He was always ready to extend the hand of Brotherhood to individual labourers in the field as well as to the propaganda itself. Buddhist pilgrims who passed through Calcutta on their way to holy shrines blessed Norendro Nath Sen for the encouragement and help they received from him. H e befriended Buddhism with unflinching and unwavering earnestness so that there was never an endeavour in the Buddhist field in India that did not receive his whole hearted support. The Mahabodhi Society had no truer friend ; undaunted by the jeers and gibes of his more orthodox countrymen he lent the whole weight of his influential support in popularising that movement amongst his Hindu Country­ men. Since the inauguration of the sacred Wysaka day in Calcutta under the auspices of the Society he did not allow a single occasion to pass without taking a prominent part in its celebrations. The columns of his Journal, the Indian Mirror, were freely thrown open to all who desired to say a good word for Buddhism and Buddhists. He wrote powerful leaders in its columns advocating the union of Hinduism and Buddhism and never concealed his conviction that in the final fusion of the two great faiths lay the future salvation of India. The fact that Buddhism has gained a firm footing in Bengal today is in no small measure due to his earnest, able and powerful advocacy. A most influential Hindu nobleman of unimpeachable orthodoxy was so highly impressed by his annual untterances that he wrote to express his admiration for the new light in which he had presented the religion of Goutama Buddha to the Hindu public. Norendro Nath Sen's interest in Buddhism was not academical. He made daily homage to the great Tathagato using for the purpose a small bronze image which had been given him by the Rev. Anagarika Dharmapala. Placing the image above his head he made a daily confession of his allegiance to the great Cause and consecrated himself anew to its service. One of the dreams of his life was to see a large and beautiful temple erected in Calcutta but unfortunately he did not live to see it realized. But such whole hearted and untiring devotion could not remain without result and if the Mahabodhi Society has at last been successful in arranging for the construction of a beautiful Vihara for enshrining the Taxila relic of the Great Teacher it is undoubtedly due to the blessings of one of its greatest friends and benefactors who has not forgoten his work on earth but still directs it with his strong will. SAYEENDRA N A T H SEN,

Editor, Indian Mirror. Dated the 13th April, 1918. Bengali New Year's Day. 350




On Sunday the 25th October, 1 8 9 1 , at 6 p.m., a lecture on the above subject was delivered by Mr. Dharmapala Hevavitarna, a Singhalese gendeman of note, at the Albert Hall, before a fairly large audience. Babu Norendra Nath Sen was in the chair. The chairman said he had great pleasure to introduce to the audience the lecturer of the evening, Mr. Dharmapala Hevavitarna. He was a leading representative of the Buddhists of Ceylon. He had come to India as their chosen delegate for the express purpose of seeing that Buddha Gaya was made over again to the legitimate claimants, the Buddhists, and that Buddhism might once more flourish in India, its ancient home. So earnest were the Sinhalese Buddhists in their desire in this respect that they had established a society at Colombo, called " the Buddha Gaya Mahabodhi Society, " of which their High Priest Sumangala, was the president, and the lecturer was the Secretary. The chief object of this Society was to take every practical step for restoring Buddha Gaya to the Buddhists. . The Society had the sympathy and support not only of the Buddhists of Ceylon, but also of those of China, Japan, Burmah and Siam. A Conference of delegates from different Buddhistic countries was to take place very shortly at Buddha Gaya itself, and these delegates proposed to meet His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal on the subject at Gaya, during his present tour in Behar. The earnestness of spirit, which animated the Buddhists in this matter, was a most significant sign of the times, and one worthy of note by the thinking portion of the Community. The wave of Indian progress had begun to roll on in its course. N o earthly power was capable of resisting it. The lecturer brought a message of love and peace to them from his Buddhistic brethren. They should remember that they were once members of the same happy family.. India, which was the birth-place of Lord Buddha, and the original home of Buddhism, was looked upon by all Buddhists with such sanctity that nothing was so near their hearts as to be able to lay down their bones on the soil on which their Master lived, preached, and died. Mr. Dharmapala Hevavitarna lecture :—





Nineteen centuries ago, St. Paul, the Christian Initiate, speaking to the cultured Athenians, said, " that they worshipped him whom they knew not—the unknown God. " The Athenians listened to his interpretation, and St. Paul preached Christ to them. Six centuries previous to this, for the first time in the history of the world, a Greater Reformer—nay the Greatest the world has ever seen, preached to the Indian Aryan, not an abstract principle, but a realistic doctrine and promulgated a system of religion, free from all super­ human agencies, and devoid of all anthropomorphic conceptions. 351

The message that I bring to you is one of love, of purity and of self control a simple re-echoing of the idealistic doctrine that was preached twenty five centuries ago in the Deer park, at Rishipatana in Benares to a company of five Ascetic Brahmans. It was Prince Siddhartha who, after acquiring the stored wisdom of ages by deep and careful study, and examining asceticism in all its phases for six long years, discovered the law of Truth for the attainment of beautitude by liberating the human being from his own acts. The day in which this grand discovery was made, opened a new era in the history of man and thought. The doctrine of supreme purifi­ cation and intelligence, the panacea, which was revealed to this world, has given relief to hundreds of millions of human beings, converted many of them into sageSs and saints, and has given a thorough moral tone to the religions of the world. T o many of you, the subject may not appear new, but there is a novelty in the delivery of it. It is nearly after seven centuries of silence that the tocsin is to be struck, and there­ fore I say that this message has significance to the spiritual-minded. Some of you may not care to listen ; but the time has come to clear away the misconceptions that exist in the minds of the educated regar­ ding Buddhism. Those who attach an importance to the theory of cycles, may better understand and realize the significance of what I shall have to say. Buddhism has been forgotten during the last seven centuries by the people of India, not a vestige if it is to be found in Buddhistic shape in the length and breadth of this great country, though it existed and flourished for centuries. It is a problem that has not been yet satisfactorily solved and the strangest miscon­ ceptions prevail about the disappearance of Buddhism from India. A religion, that moulded the destinies of the Indian nation in its brightest, palmiest and most glorious days to have been so absolutely forgotten, every vestige of it effaced,—this seems the more strange the more we think of it. The other fact is that during the past centuries India never progressed, but retrograded intellectually and spiritually. The best historians and the most impartial writers of India have admitted that at no time was India more in her glory than when the Buddhistic system was prevailing, and the startling fact remains that with the loss of Buddhism a reign of inanition set in. The darkest days of India were during the Mahomedan period, and the religion of enlightenment was nowhere to be found. Bigotry, intole­ rance, persecution worked heavily during this period, and this lasted till the advent of a more humane and tolerant nation. The past one hundred years had been a kind of filing off the rust which had accu­ mulated during the dark period, and we see now a spirit of tolerance setting in. Education is spreading and with it the expansion of intellect. With the progress of thought man aspires to independence to grapple with the mighty problems to which theology gives no consistent and satisfactory answer. Looking back we find that in the unprogressive and undeveloped state of the mind of man, he always 352

looks for extraneous help. The powers of nature seem to him so grand and awe-inspiring that in his poverty of intellect to solve them, he apotheosises and commences adoring them. Hence we find poly­ theism in the early days. With the gradual expansion of the intellect he soars high and finds that the gods are not outside the laws of nature. Polytheism gives place to monotheism which again gives place to crude pantheism. This gradual evolution of thought we find in the Vedas and the Upanishads. An ideal pantheism next enters the arena of thought whose philosophy we find in the Bhagavat Gita depicted here and there in its perfectness. The metaphysic of the Upanishads seems contradictory, because we see there in the gradual evolution of thought as exhibited by different writers. The Vedas, however sublime, were unsatisfactory for the solution of deeper problems hence we see the monotheistic conceptions giving way to pantheism as emobdied in the Upanishads. The older the Upanishads, stronger is the colouring of monotheism, until we see a gradual disappearance of that theistic con­ ception in the later Upanishads. From this monotheistic pantheism was developed the more idealistic phase of thought culminating in the promulgation of the highest system of philosphy " which has in it the eternity of a universal hope, the immortality of a boundless love, an indestructible element of faith in final good and the proudest assertion ever made of human freedom " (Sir Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia.) " The object to Upanishads was to show the utter uselessness, nay the mischievousness of all ritual performances, to condemn every sacrificial act which has for its motive a desire of hope of reward, to deny, if not the existence at least the exceptional and exalted character of the Devas and to teach that there is no hope of salvation and deliver­ ance except by the individual self recognising the true and universal self. " This is what Max Muller said in his Hibbert Lectures on the Upanishads. •*

It is almost generally admitted that the Bhagavat Gita contains a Philosophy more comprehensive and compact than the Philosophy of the Upanishads. Now it will appear strange to those who take Buddhism as a system of materialism to be pointed out the remarkable identity of doctrines in the Buddhist Books and the Gita. But Buddhism goes deeper into the mysteries of life. N o better authority can be quoted than that erudite scholar the translator of the Bhagavat Gita, Mr. Justice Telang of Bombay. He says : " Buddhism is perfectly intelligible as an outcome of that play of thought on high spiritual topics which—in its other and, as we may say, less t h o r o u g h g o i n g manifestations we see in the Upanishads and the Gita The Upanishads with the Gita and the Precepts of Buddha appear to me to be the successive embodiments of the spiritual thought of the age. " 353 1 4—B 4147

The absurd idea that Buddhism is Nastika was first started by Professor H. H. Wilson. The key note was struck by him, and other Orientalists, who followed him, simply reiterated the assertion, until it was contradicted by Mr. Telang. Allusion was made in the Gita to the Charvakas ; and Professor Wilson in his ignorance of the doctrines of Buddhism had taken it for granted that the Charvakas were Buddhists. The Charvakas were the sensual materialists of India. I am of opi­ nion that Professor Wilson got the idea from his Sanskrit teachers who were likewise ignorant of the philosophy of Buddhism. If there ever was a teacher who systematically combatted the views of materialists, it was the Buddha. Even to-day Brahmin scholars have put down in the most careless way Buddhism as a nastika system. They may as well condemn the Upanishads and the Gita wherein the uselessness of ritual performances is demonstrated. Buddhism is the highest expression of philosophic thought. The hightest spiritual conceptions are to be found therein. " Its moral code is one of the most perfect the world has ever known, " says Max Muller. And in the opinion of the late Professor Kunte " the Buddhi­ stic Yoga Philosophy is more transcendental than the yoga system of Patanjali. In its comprehensiveness in ethics, transcendental meta­ physics and yoga, no system can compare with the Buddhistic one, becasue it is the highest aspect or rather the climax of Aryan Philosophy." Some of the more sympathetic writers on Buddhism have attempted to shew that it is a system of agnostic philosophy, others take it as a pessimistic doctrine, while still others find in it nothing but a doctrine of blank negation and annihilation ! That distnguished Pali Scholar, Dr. Rhys Davids, calls Buddha the agnostic philosopher of India. He says : " There has always arisen at Jast a school to whom theological discussions have lost their interest, and who have sought for a new solution in a new system in which man was to work out here, on earth, his own salavation. It is their place in the progress of thought that helps to understand how it is that there is so much in common between the agnostic philosopher of India, the Stoics of Greece and Rome, and some of the newest schools in France, in Germany and among our­ selves. " Because the first of the four truths which Buddha taught was based on the idea that existence is misery Buddhism was condemned as a pessimistic system. But Buddhists are in safe company both ways : Spencer and his school on the one hand, Schopenhaur and his school on the other. Buddha was never an agnostic, neither did he preach a pessi­ mistic doctrine. The former idea is based on the silence that Buddha observed when Malunkya questioned Him as to the origin of the universe. Where is the pessimism in a system which teaches a realist idealism ? Where is the pessimism of the Nirvanee swimming in the sea of calmness and delight as exemplified in the life of Buddha and the Arhats ? That Buddhism is materialistic and nihilistic is also the cry of the superficial Orientalist. Max Muller has exploded this theory, 354

still the cry is continued that Nirvana is annihilation. Time and a better knowledge of the doctrines of Buddhism will alone remove this misconception. With the progress of education and development of intellect, the barriers raised by priestcraft and selfishness, between man and man, will be removed ; and man breathing a purer air of love, will see that it is far better that a spirit of brotherliness should be fostered for the elevation of humanity. Then and then alone, will Buddhism be appreciated. What did the Tathagata Buddha promulgate as the basic doctrines of Buddhism ? The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eight-fold Path. He began : " There are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, the one of sensua­ lity, and the other of asceticism. The one low, ignoble, sensual, unworthy and unprofitable for the attainment of spiritual happiness ; the other painful, unworthy and unprofitable. There is a middle Path (Majjhima Patipada) discovered by the Tathagata—a path which leads to peace of mind, to the (higher wisdom) to full enlightenment, to Nirvana." Before proceeding any further, I wish to lay stress on the fact that the Buhhsists of Ceylon have come to the conclusion that the time has arrived for them to revive the relationship, that existed a long time ago, between Ceylon and India. In an evil hour, India passed into the hands of the Moslems, and with it the friendly feeling that existed between the Buddhists of other countries and Indian was forgotten. I shall presently shew you with what bigotry the Mussulman Con­ querors destroyed the Buddhist as well as the Hindu shrines. The best of the former were destroyed nevertheless, some were utilized or rather altered to suit their own purposes. Dr. Sherring, in one of his elaborate papers, contributed to the " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, " has shown the number of Buddhist shrines, destroyed by the Mahomedans in Benares, whilst he mentions how a few were converted into Musjids. Mahomedan writers themselves have commented on the work of destruction, initiated by Mahammad of Ghazni and others. The late Dr. R. L . Mitter, in his " Orissa Antiquities " wrote thus. " The belief is pretty common that a general persecution headed by Sankaracharya was the main cause of its (Buddhism) disappearance, and that a long and protracted war was carried on to effect that object. There is nothing however in the records of the Buddhists and Hindus to support it. Volumes upon volumes have been read and analysed, but as yet without affording a single trace of any thing like a protracted war between the two sects. The two fives, extant of Sankara are perfectly silent on the subject, and nowhere show that great Vedantist and reformer ever used other than legitimate polemical weapons to overcome his opponents, and his character of a mendicant afforded him but scant opportunities to persecute rival sects. " Professor Wilson is of opinion " that it is popular to ascribe to Sankara the work of perse-


cution ; he does not appear at all, occupied in that odious task, nor is engaged in particular controversy with any of the Bauddhas, the most prominent objects of his opposition are the Mimansakas, as represented by Madana Misra, with whom he holds a long and rather acrimonious discussion, and the Nyayakas and Sankhyas ; and the vulgar sects of Vaishnavas and Saivas ; he is especially hostile to the latter and parti­ cularly to the Kapalikas, a class of Siva worshippers, who again are his most active enemies, and on one occasion assail his existence. " It is generally admitted that Sankaracharya lived in the early part of the ninth century, and in his time Buddhism had a living existence in Bahlika country, a region identified by name and geographical position with the modern Balkh, and in Cashmere, also in Magadha, Bengal, and other provinces. Alberuni, who lived in the early part of the eleventh century, says : " The Mahomedans utterly ruined their prosperity and performed those wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust, scattered in all directions. This is the reason why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places where our hand cannot yet reach—to Cashmere, Benares and other places. In Elliot's "History of the Mahomedan Period" we read that the Buddhist religion was evidently the one prevailing in Sindh, when the Musulman first came in contact with Indian superstition. There are several indications of the Buddhist religion prevailing at that period in the Valley of the Indus, not only from the specific announcement of the Chinese Travellers, and the declaration of Ibn Khurdeba to the effect, but from certain incidental allusions of the Arabic writers made without any particular reference to the opposite factions of Brahmins and Pandits. To this may be added the negative evidence, afforded by the evidence of any mention of priestcraft or other pontifical assumption, of widow burning, of burnt sacrifice, of cow-worship, of ablutions, of penances or of other observances and ceremonies peculiar to the tenets of Brahminical faith." Al Biladeru, the Mohamedan historian, who lived in the middle of the ninth century, says Mohamed, destroyed the water courses, destroyed the men capable of bearing arms, but the ministers of the temple to the number of 6000 were taken captive." In the eleventh century Buddhism was still flourishing in Cashmere, Magadha, and other places in India. Our authorities are the Tibetan records or rather the Indian records, now lying in the temple archives of the Bod Yul (Tibet). "Isolated among inaccessible mountains, the convents of Thibet have remained unregarded and almost unvisited by the scholar and the traveller. In complete preservation the volumes of Buddhist faith, in their original Sanskrit as well as in faithful translations which might be sought in vain on the continent of India, are to be found in Thibet," said the great Hungarian traveller Korosi. 356

In the beautiful life of Srijnana Dipankara, the great Buddhis hierarch of Magadha, translated from the Thibetan by Babu Sarat Chandra Das, and published in the "Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society," it is written that the "King Lama Yesehed of Tibet sent seventeen young monks to Cashmere, Magadha and other places of India where pure Buddhism still prevailed." This was in 1025. Srijnana was born of a royal family in Bengal, and was known through­ out Siam, Burmah, Thibet and Ceylon for his great learning and holiness. At the repeated requests of the king of Thibet, he visited that country in 1038 A. C , and during his residence of 13 years there; he wrote several works on the Mahayana Buddhism. He died in 1053 near Lhassa at the age of 73. He is remembered with deep veneration all over high Asia. Bogle, who visited Thibet in 1779, ° f hi interviews, heard the Grand Lama making the following observation :—"The Lama had temples in Benares and Gaya, and at other places that their priests used to travel there to study the Shastras and the religion of the Brahmins, that about eight hundred years ago, Bengal was invaded and conquered by the Mussalmans who destroyed and pillaged the temples and plundered the people, so that such as escaped returned to these mountains along with some Brahmins, who fled from persecutions, since which time the inhabitants of Thibet have had little connection with Bengal or Southern countries." The last massacre took place in 1202 A. C., at Odentapuri where two thousand Buddhist monks were put to death by Bakhtiyar Khilji. After this "event, Buddhism disappeared from the land of its birth. Though efforts were made one or two centuries later to plant colonies Of Buddhist Bhikshus at the central shrine of Buddha Gaya, all of them failed. You will, therefore, see that it was the iconoclastic Mahomedan that destroyed Buddhism in India. The spread of education naturally liberalizes the mind of man and, as a matter of fact we see the results. The seed of Buddhism takes root only on the healthy soil of a freed intellect. Buddhism is for the thoughtful alone. After an exile of nearly seven centuries, Buddhism has been brought again back to its home. Whether it will flourish in the modern soil of young India, remains to be seen. It was in January last in the company of a Japanese Buddhist priest that I visited Buddha Gaya. As ordinary pilgrims we visited the sacred site; but seeing the place neglected and uncared for, we decided to remain, pledging ourselves not to leave the place, until we saw that it was put under the care of its legitimate custodians— the Buddhist Bhikshus. I opened up communication with some of the most eminent Hindus, asking their sympathy, and one and all sent me the most sympathetic letters, wishing us all success in the work. My friend, the Japanese priest, and I sent a joint letter to the Buddhists of Japan, and I wrote to the Buddhists of Siam, Burmah and Ceylon. A few European officials, to whom I wrote sent sympathetic replies. Newspaper editors promised us help. m






The opportunity once lost never comes again. I therefore started off to Ceylon, and on the 31st May last, the Buddha Gaya Mahabodhi Society, under the presidency of the Maha Nayaka Sumangala, the High Priest, was organised. On the 17th of July, four Bhikshus were sent from Ceylon to permanently reside at Buddha Gaya. A plot of ground was purchased near the sacred shrine for the erection of a monastery for their residence. At present the shrine at Buddha Gaya is neglected, and it is painful to see the desecration that is daily going on without a protest from any body. The legal custodians are the professors of the faith- but so long as they are not allowed to hold guardianship over the shrine, desecration will continue on. I appeal to you whether it is right that the most "antiaue memorials" of India should be allowed to rot and decay. Some of the most graceful statues of Buddha are lying under rubbish. Asoka columns depicting the life and manners of the people of India 2,000 years ago, have been utilised by the Mahant to build his kitchen. As Buddha is held at least by the Hindus as an Avatar there should be no hostility shown to the Buddhists in their attempt to re-occupy the place. For nearly seventeen centuries, Buddhism flourished in this sacred soil and the peaceful civilization that she enjoyed under the Buddhist kings helped to develop her arts, sciences and commerce. The Greek historian and the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims have described in their works what they saw in ancient India. Megasthenes, Hwen Thsang, Fa-Hian and others who visited India in the early centuries have all testified to what they had found in Buddhistic India. That contentment, that simplicity, that gentleness which were the character­ istics of the ancient Aryan were observed even by the Mahomedans. Alidrisi writing in the 12th century about the Indians says : "They are naturally inclined to justice, and never depart from it in their actions." The noble edicts of Asoka the great, show with what ardent devotion he promulgated that spirit of gentleness and tolerance. The Buddhist sculptures at Sanchi and Ajanta Cave paintings bring before us the panorama of a genlte, peaceful people in the Buddhist •times. A more joyous, contented race, it is impossible to imagine. The Aryan Buddhists in that spirit of altruism to spread humane precepts of the Master, penetrated to the then known regions of China, Tibet, Burmah, Cashmere, Graeco-Bactriana, and other Countr­ ies. Wherever they went they gave the impulse for the development of science and literature. Dr. Edkins says; "That the Hindu Buddhists should have taught the Chinese how to write the sounds of the language by an artifice which required nothing but their own hieroglyphics, and rendered unnecessary the introduction of new symbols, is sufficient evidence of their ingenuity, and is not the least of the services they have done to the sons of Han. Tibetans and probably the Coreans also owe their aplhabets, which are both arranged in the Sanskrit, to the Buddhists." Mr. Basil Hall Chamber­ lain, the eminent sinologist, says :—"The oldest Japanese books 358

were written after the introduction of Buddhism. Japan owes her formation as a nation to Buddhism. It was in the train of priests that all arts were introduced." For nearly seventeen centuries, this religion of love had a home in this land, and the Aryan nation was then still a living nation, developing its arts, sciences and literature. "It is to Buddhist impulses that Indian architecture owes its development. Medicine studied at its best in the centres of Buddhist learning. Public hospitals, which the Buddhist Princes established in every city, were probably the ttue schools of Indian medicine. On the decline of Buddhism, public hospitals were abolished and every thing that tended to further progress came to an end. All arts declined with the decline of Buddhism. Much of what was achieved was also under Buddhist influences, and bore the mark of Buddhism," (Dr. Hunter). In that splendid " History of the Civilisation of Ancient India" Mr. R. C. Dutt says:—"It was in the Buddhist age that the most brilliant results were achieved in Astronomy for six centuries after 1 2 0 0 A.D., the history of the Hindus is a blank." It was Korosi, the great Hungarian traveller, who wrote the prophetic words that in the Temples of Tibet were to be found in a state of complete preservation the volumes of Buddhist faith in their original Sanskrit. The gems of Indian literature now lost may yet be obtained, if the long lost religion is again welcomed by the sons of India. The Milton of India, Kshemendra, who lived in Kasmir, whose incompara­ ble epic on the life of Buddha which for its sublimity and expression has no rival, was a Buddhist. His unique poem, " Avadana Kalpalata " is now being published under the orders of the Government of Bengal. Babu Sarat Chandra Das calls it the ' Lost Gem of India.' It will be for the good of India, and the world, if her educated sons welcome back their ancient faith, which teaches the grandest, noblest, and the most elevating doctrines. The characteristics of the teacher are given in the Tevijja Sutta of the Digha Nikaya thus : " Know, Vasettha, that a Tathagata is born into the world a fully enlightened one, blessed and worthy, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, a teacher of gods and men, a Blessed Buddha. He by himself, thoroughly understands, and sees, as it were, face to face this univesse—the world below with all its spirits and the world above, of Mara and of Brahma—and all creatures, Samanas and Brahmanas, gods and men, and' he then makes his knowledge known to the others. The truth doth He proclaim, both in its letter and in its spirit, lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, the higher life doth he make known, in all its purity, and in all its perfectness ". ( Rhys Davids.) For the first time in the history of the world, Buddha proclaimed a salvation, which each man could gain for himself and by himself in this world during this life, without the least help from personal 359

God or Gods. He strongly inculcated the doctrines of selfreliance, of purity, of courtesy, of enlightenment of peace and of universal love. He strongly urged the necessity of knowledge, for without the wisdom psychic insight could not be got in this life. Desire not to be re-born again and again ; nor for a cessation of existence in this one life ; desire not for the enjoyment of sensuality. Lead a life of purity, seek only the fruits of the Fourfold Path of Holiness which lead to Nirvana. These were the teachings of Buddha. A system, so pre-eminendy practical and anti-ritualistic, had never been promulgated before by any religious reformer. Metaphysical speculation, hair splitting discourses, the Buddha condemned as useless and profitless. Having found out that happiness consists in the realization of Truth and working for the welfare of others, He preached that a life of acitve altruism was the best and noblest which a man could lead. He taught that good should be done for its own sake, and for the sake of others, and by his example of absolute self-sacrifice, he showed his followers what they should do. The most exalted virtue was the ideal that Buddha held up before the world. The Four Noble Truths that He promulgated were— 1. Corporeal Existence is misery. 2. Desire is the producing cause of sorrow. 3. Happiness consists in the extinction of all egoistic desires. 4. The way to get that happiness lies in the noble eightfold Path. Buddhism is a causative philosophy in that it discourages vain search after a Creator, or the origin of the world and of Man. " A s to the origin of the Universe with all its unceasing changes, Buddha, taught men to stand before this overpowering problem in silence. This doctrine of a continuous change has, moreover, within the last fifty years, received the sanction of Science, under the name of conservation of energy." In the Pratitya Samutpada dharma, the law of causation, the Buddha showed that every thing is subject to the law of cause and effect, And that every thing is constantly and yet imperceptibly changing. The whole cosmos is subject to this law, and Gods and men from no exception. The highest point in the scale of evolution is Man, according to Buddhism. So long as man yearns to enjoy pleasure yearns for continued birth, yearns to cease to exist, so long shall he continue to suffer. T o emancipate oneself, he has to tread the noble eight-fold Path, viz. (1) Samyak Drishti—He has to believe the Law of Moral Retribution (karma) that every cause has its corresponding effect; and the Law of Reincarnation. (2) Samyak Sankalpana—Leading a religious life in the forgetfulness of Self, and benefiting Humanity ; and loving all beings as one's self. (3) Samyak Vachana—Speaking truth regardless of consequences ; to abstain from slander, abusive language, vain and idle talk. 360

(4) Samyak Karmanta—Abstention from taking life, stealing, committing adultery, and taking intoxicating liquors. (5) Samyak Ajiva—Avoiding vicious professions, dealing in murderous weapons, poisons, flesh of animals and human begins. (6) Samyak Vyayama—To engender good thoughts; deeds and words, and to develop and foster them. To extinguish bad thoughts, etc., already developed. To abstain from engendering them. (7) Samyak Sati—Right thoughts consist in meditating upon the impermanence of matter, of sensations, of volition of the mind, and keeping the mind free from impure thoughts. (8) Samyak Samadhi—Right concentration of the thinking principle. This is the goal of the Buddhist. In the state of Samadhi, the Yogi realises the bliss of Nirvana. The follwing virtues must necessarily be cultivated :— Dana—Charity. Sila—Altruism and living a pure life. Naiskrammya—Renunciation of self. Pragna— Wisdom. Virya—Dauntless energy that fights one's way to Nirvana. Kshanti—Untiring patience, under the most trying persecution. Satya—Truth under all trials and difficulties. Adhisthana—Will power to create, and carry out one's pledges in the upward path. Maitri—Universal love and kindness to all living beings. Upeksha—All tranquil perfect indifference to pain and pleasure, praise or blame. The cultivation of these ten virtues is absolutely necessary for the attainment of Nirvana. The highest Brahmaloka—the " Nevasanna Nasannayatana "—though its duration is for numberless kalpas, yet the Buddhist is asked to shun it, for woe be to him who is born there, for after the termination of that long, long period, he has to begin life again, probably from the lowest state. He who treads the Noble Eight fold Path, Nirvana is his. The upward path is not difficult to him who observes the precepts. Self-control and purity of life are the essential qualifications, required of him who walks in the path. In ancient Buddhistic India, the highest form of freedom was enjoyed by woman equally with man. The highest path of spirituality was open to her. The history of Buddhism gives a beautiful picture of the state of women in that glorious era. The hymns composed by Buddhist nuns, show the wonderful insight, they had into human nature. The beautiful stories of Visakha, the noble woman and lay devotee of Buddha, affords no parallel in modern times. The philosophic learning and the exalted life of Prajapati Gotami, Khema, Uppalavanna, Dharmadinna, Nanda, Sona, Yasodhara and a host of 361

other pure-minded women, were the index to the state of womanhood in those days. Here is an extract from the Tibetan Dulva, (the Book of disciplinary rules) and I ask you whether the ideas conveyed therein may not compare with the best utterances of the intellectual woman of today. The words were spoken by Yasodhara, the wife of Prince Siddhartha :—" Sitting, standing and walking, those that are venerable are pleasing when not concealed. A bright gem will give more lustre, if put on the top of the standard. The man, excellent in virtue is pleasing when he speaks. As an example, does not the Kuravika bird appear more beautiful when she chanteth her lovely song. They who have put off all vices are venerable. Fools committing vices, howmuch soever they be adorned, are never pleasing. Fraught with bliss is the gift of men who have renounced the company of the wicked. They that have a cunning heart are impudent and shameless, and having not the required qualities do not speak the truth :—though they should cover their body even with thousand clothes, they would go about in the world more naked than the unclothed. They that subjugate their passions, and are chaste and are contented with their own husbands, and think not of any other, such women, when not concealed by a veil shine forth like the sun and moon, for such to what purpose is the veling of the face." In the Sigalowada Sutta the duties of a wife are set forth. She is taught to show her affection to her husband, to look after the household affairs, to entertain kinsmen and friends, who visit her husband and show them hospitality. The child was taught to obey the parents and to be tender to all animal life ; the man to love his neighbour as himself; to be true and just in all his dealings, and to look beyond the vain shows of the world for true happiness. Every shade of vice was guarded by special precepts. Dr. Beal in bis " Chinese Buddhism " says : " Buddhism tended to promote a love of morality and a healthy state of society by guarding it against vice of profligacy, and it has helped to raise the mind to a love of the beautiful in nature, and assisted in the advancement of art and literature. Buddhism not only supplemented the national faith, but it added to the strength of the morality of the people, raised and elevated their conceptions." The civilization that India enjoyed before the Mohamedan con­ quest was suited to her nature, and Mr. Seeley in his " Expansion of England " thinks rightly that a " Native Government, like that which preceded the Mohamedan invasion, not the threatened Mahratta domination, would suit India better." Then it must be based on a Buddhistic polity, and then alone will India be united into a compact whole. Then the doors of Tibet, closed for the last 800 years, will be again opened to India, and the blessings of 475 millions of Buddhists will descend on her. " If there is anything


in the itellectual, religious and moral legacies of our ancient fore­ fathers, of which we can feel proud, it is that sublime, pure and simple conception of a religious and moral system, which the world owes to Buddha. Educated Hindus need not hesitate in helping Buddhism to find a commanding and permanent footing once more in their midst, and to live in invigorating and mutually purifying amity with Hinduism itself." With these thoughtful words, which appeared in the Hindu of June 16th last, I conclude this address in the hope that educated India will work in sympathy with their Sinhalese Aryan brothers of Ceylon. A cordial vote of thanks to the lecturer was given.—From the Indian Mirror, zyth October, 1891. The following leading article on the above speech appeared in the Indian Mirror on 3rd November, 1891 :— Future of the Hindu R a c e Our Readers will, we trust, forgive us for reverting over and over again to the qeustion of the future of the Hindu race. This is a question of such magnitude, and so many important issues are invol­ ved in its solution, that we should be doing less than our duty, if we keep ourselves quiet after what we had already said on the subject. As one of the Hindu people, their prosperity, happiness, and advancement are very near our heart, for we, a small unit, cannot separate ourselves from the whole body, without infinite misery. But our sorrow, as it is, is great enough to find the Hindu people come to a pass, when they must either go forward or drop down by the wayside of human progress, unable to carry them­ selves where they should lead. The Hindus have been their own greatest enemies. Discord, jealousy, hatred, and social and religious feuds have made them what they are. They have long deserted their best and highest ideals, and the ancient altruistic faith has been replaced by the worship of self. It is this besetting sin, we cannot point out too often, which has consummated the complete degrada­ tion of the Hindus. But the turning point may come to every one, the lost chance is given to all, and, we think, the turning point has come for the Hindus ; and we also believe, they are just now being given a last chance for reform and advancement. That has been our conviction for some considerable time, and many subse­ quent signs and events have confirmed the belief. All of us must have noticed a revival of religious and spiritual activity among the Hindus, and not only among them, but in almost every part of the civilised world. The most careless watcher of contemporary events cannot but have been struck with the fact that the religion of Lord Buddha, the ninth Avatar of Hinduism, is being more widely studied, and finds greater acceptance not only among the more cultured and houghtful classes in India, but also everywhere in the West. And this is only natural. Hinduism of itself is a religion and any body, 363

the highest, would be proud to call himself one of its followers. But it is not the Hinduism as is being understood and practised by the Hindus of the present generation. Time has wronged true Hinduism, it has encumbered it with superstructures of unwise and superstitious doctrines. Even the Upanishads that embody the best and highest Vedic teachings, are not entirely free from the reproach, as was pointed out by Mr. Dharmapala the other day in his lecture on Buddhism. But the religion preached by Buddha, containing the best that ever was in Hinduism, has on the whole survived the ravages of time, and to-day it is as potent for human salvation as when Buddha preached the doctrine of Law and the Path. It is impossible to believe that the Hindus could have driven Buddhism out of India. On the contrary, Buddhism was accepted most largely in the land of its birth, and it was Buddhist missionaries from India that went forth East and West to preach the faith of their Master. India was never so civilised, prosperous, and happy as during the Buddhistic period. It was not the Hindus, then, that drove Buddhism out of India. As Mr. Dharmapala pointed out in his recent lecture, the Vandal's work was done by the Moslem. If the Hindus then, at no time had any animosity with the Buddhists it may be accepted that they will welcome a colony of them that proposes to settle itself at Buddha Gaya, the holy place where the Master became the Buddha. It is strange and remarkable that the Buddhists should have turned wistful eyes to India at the present time. India dates her misfortunes since the date of the disappearance of Buddhism. Why should not this unlooked for return of Buddhism in the form of a Buddhistic colony at Buddha Gaya bring back with it the hope that the Hindus will recover their place among the great nations of the world ? This is not a mere vague undefined hope ; it is one which we expect to realise before long. The Buddhists form a very large portion of the world's population. The Hindus have kept themselves long aloof from the millions upon millions of Buddhists of China, Japan, Burmah, Siam, Tibet and Ceylon. With the people of Ceylon, the people of Bengal have many things, in common. Their languages resemble each other in many respects, and a continued line of Bengali Kings for nearly a thousand years once reigned over the Sinhalese. Why should we, then, hesitate to take the hand which the Buddhists now proffer us in right, pure friendship ? It was India that gave them their saving faith. Should she not take them to her arms ? And in that case her sons will not be found only between the limited area, between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin, but her millions upon millions of sons outside and beyond will work for her with all the zeal and ardency of sons that had been disowned, but are now restored to their long lost mother's affections. Will the Hindus dare thus impede this noblest work of modern times ? We have better faith than that. We confidently look forward to a time of reunion, happiness and prosperity.


41. The Kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism * Editor's Introductory Note It may be as well to condense from the reports of the Calcutta papers the circ*mstances which led to the delivery of the very instructive lecture which is reported with approximate accuracy in the following pages. What is now called the Buddhist Revival dates from the year 1880 when Colonel Olcott and the late Mme. Blavatsky first visited Ceylon, and the former delivered a series of addresses to the Sinhalese people upon the subject of their religion which profoundly moved their hearts and awakened their enthusiasm. The movement was followed up by a lecturing tour the next year through the Western Province, and by another through the Southern Province in the following one. Buddhist branches of the Theosophical Society were organized, a weekly Buddhist vernacular journal established, the Buddhist Catechism and other books written and published, correspondence opened with Japan, Siam, Burma and other Buddhistic countries, and the close ties of religious unity gradually formed between the co-religionists of all those nations. The two most important recent steps towards unity have been the drafting of a consensus of Buddhistic belief in both the Northern and Southern schools, which has been authoritatively accepted by the greatest Bhikkhus of Burma, Ceylon and Japan, and may, therefore, be declared a condensed statement of fundamental Buddhistic orthodoxy ; and the organization of the Maha-Bodhi Society, under the presidentship of H. Sumangala, Pradhana Nayaka Sthavira, of Ceylon. *Though the bulk of this booklet consists of Colonel Olcott's lecture, delivered in October 1892, it is reproduced in this volume to give an idea of the early literary activities of Anagarike Dharmapala—Ed. 365

So long as the activities of the leaders of the Buddhist Reformation were confined to fields outside India, the Hindus made no great objection, but the establishment of the Maha-Bodhi Society's Head­ quarters at Calcutta and the announcement of its aim to recover for the Buddhist world, after an interregnum of seven centuries, the custody of its most famous and holiest shrines, viz., Kapilavastu, Buddha Gaya, Isipatana and Kusinara, stirred up ignorant prejudices and bigoted protests among a small section of the Hindu community. As the objects of the Maha-Bodhi Society were both peaceable and un­ objectionable in every way, and as it would have been imprudent to suffer the anti-Buddhist discussion to go unchecked, Colonel Olcott was asked by some enlightened Hindus of Bengal to make a plain public statement of the actual relationship and mutual sympathies between the Hindu and Buddhist religious systems. Having the love and confidence of both parties, and his instinct of impartial justice being beyond dispute, the announcement of his intended lecture filled the Calcutta Town Hall with an audience comprising the most cultured and thoughtful class of Bengal, and his discourse was followed throughout with breathless attention. He spoke as usual, extemporaneously, from a few notes on a scrap of paper, but by urgent request has tried to recall his line of argument and the supporting facts in the following report, which he dictated to me at leisure moments while we were at Akyab, in November last, and which he has since revised at Madras.

The chair at the Town Hall Meeting was occupied by Babu Narendranath Sen, the well-known and respected President of the Bengal Branch of the Theosophical Society, who, in opening the proceedings of the meeting, said that the lecturer needed no introduction from him. Colonel Olcott's name was world-famous as the most sincere and the most indefatigable of workers in the cause of the spiritual progress of humanity, and certainly by far and away the most unselfish and self-sacrificing of them all. He (the Chairman) was not there to speak words of praise and homage to Colonel Olcott to his face. His entire life had shown that he was equally impervious to praise or blame, caring only to do his duty, and, to quote the language of their 366

great and revered departed Teacher, to do his duty by every duty. But this much he would tell Colonel Olcott before the large audience that had there assembled, that his (Colonel Olcott's) appearance that day on the platform of the Town Hall had given the Bengal Theosophists a pleasure as intense as it was unexpected. For it was only a short while ago that they were asked to reconcile themselves to losing Colonel Olcott from the presidency of the Theosophical Society. They could scarcely make up their minds to do so, for, search where they would, where could they find a fit successor for such a man as he, the long-tried pilot, that had successfully brought the Society out of every gale and fierce storm ? But happily for them all, Theosophists and laymen alike, the remonstrances and entreaties of his colleagues in India and across the seas had prevailed. Nature herself had come to the rescue, and restored his impaired health, and they had Colonel Olcott once again as their own, as their beloved President-Founder of the Theosophical Society. His retirement would not only have been a heavy blow to the Society, but also a serious loss to all India, for whatever of religious or spiritual progress, and, reflexively, progress in other directions this country had made in recent years, was mainly, if not solely, due to Colonel Olcott's untiring efforts. He had for the last twelve years, been the standard-bearer of light and life for the Hindus ; and where was the Hindu in this wide land, who had worked for the uplifting of his own co-religionists as Colonel Olcott had been doing ? As for the subject of that evening's lecture, no one was more qualified to deal with the respective creeds of Hindus and Buddhists than Colonel Olcott. He knew both peoples intimately and had made a thorough study of their religions, and his views regarding them would be heard with every respect, even if some might have occasion to differ from them. The Chairman then requested Colonel Olcott to proceed with his address.

The lecturer, whose rising was greeted with a burst of applause that showed his great popularity, then spoke as reported in the following pages :—



The Kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism* M R . PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,

It is now twelve years since the Bengalees and I first came face to face, and, if I am not mistaken, since I found my way to the Bengalee heart. It was then I first came to know experientially the brightness and flexibility of that Bengalee intellect which goes so far towards moulding contemporary Hindu opinion. During this whole time, though I have sometimes spoken to you very plainly, I think I may say we have been excellent friends. If any proof were lacking the size of this audience and the kindness of its greeting to me would have placed the matter beyond doubt. I have been asked to discourse this evening upon a very important subject, and you know me too well to doubt that I shall treat it with perfect candour, regardless of the prejudices of any portion of my audience. I shall discuss it in the spirit of the philosopher, not in that of the sectarian. I shall not make the futile attempt to prove that Hinduism and Buddhism are identical, for, however much they may be akin as regards certain broad principles, they are totally different in certain others, as for instance, the infallibility of the Vedas, the all-sufficiency of Bhakti Marga, the perfect efficacy of sacrifices, and the divine origin of caste. But I need not tell you that the great Hindu sects differ between themselves as much, and hate each other even more bitterly than Hinduism, as a whole, differ from Buddhism, as a whole, and as Hindus hate Buddhists ; while within what is called Buddhism, there are very great, and sometimes hostile, sectarian differences and disputes. With all such subjects of controversy I have no part whatever, my search being for points of resemblance alone. Twelve years is a large portion of a man's life, and who can say, when looking at my " frosty pow " and remembering my more than sixty years, that I shall have another twelve years in which to address you ? So, as there are strong prejudices, bitter feelings and lamentable misconceptions to be uprooted, I must say what is in my mind now, this very evening, for fear I might die with the word unspoken. The first thing I must do before proceeding with my argument is to compare the present state of Hindu religious opinion with that of 1880, the date of my first visit to Calcutta. At that time the belief of the educated class in your religion was at the lowest ebb, and its respect for it almost destroyed. Under the influence of Western education and the stimulus of Western or Western-trained teachers, the educated Hindu was two parts materialist, one part agnostic, and one part orthodox. True, there were many exceptions, but this was, we might almost say, the prevailing tone of thought among the educated class throughout India. Throughout Ceylon *A lecture delivered at the Town Hall, Calcutta, Monday, October z 4, 1892. Dictated and revised for this publication by the author. 368

and other Buddhist countries as well.: for identical influences were at work among them as among Hindus. The ancient scriptures of India were lying unread upon the shelves of libraries and almirahs, unsold in book-shops, and some thrown away or cluttered together in dark attics and left at the mercy of destructive vermin. I appeal to every well-informed Hindu gentleman in this audience to say whether the retrospect is unwarranted or inaccurate. What do we see to-day ? The old books are being read and deeply studied ; many of the best have been printed and reprinted ; many translated into English and vernaculars, and commented upon in the light of modern research. In the former time educated Hindus were taunt­ ed with superstitious credulity if they affirmed their belief in their national religion, and few had the courage to declare their ortho­ doxy to the face of Europeans. But now all that is changed ; a majority of educated Hindus are believers in their religion, and not ashamed to defend it in any company. The sentiment of pat­ riotism, then paralysed, is now active and working as a leaven in the whole body of Indian thought, to thrill through all hearts the feeling of kinship and brotherhood ; Madras is linked with Bengal, Bombay with Nothern India ; the National Congress has sprung into existence, and the first step is taken towards the general uni­ fication of all the races of the great Indian Peninsula. How much of these noble results are due to the agency of the Theosophical Society it is for you, not for me, to say. Assuredly friends of India have cause for rejoicing at the present outlook, and I believe the time has arrived to avail of this deeper religious interest, more tolerant spirit, and growing sentiment of brotherliness to put an end, for one thing, to the baseless antagonism and inexcusable prejudice that are felt by a part of the Hindu community towards Buddhism and Buddhists. The recent establishment at Calcutta of the head office of the Maha-Bodhi Society by Mr. Dharmapala, with my concurrence, has aggravated this feeling, and no time should be lost in coming to a mutual understanding. Now the object of the Maha-Bodhi Society is primarily to recover possession for the Buddhists of the most sacred of all Buddhist shrines, Buddha Gaya, where the LORD GAUTAMA BUDDHA acquired Sambadhi, or the divine knowledge. The place is hallowed by the memory of his supreme struggle against the powers of darkness and ignorance and his attain­ ment of the light of spiritual truth. It awakens also the recollec­ tion of the thousands of saintly men who have dwelt there and whose ashes have been preserved in the mortuary d&gobas that surround the central fane. It has been protected, worshipped and enriched by many Emperors and Kings, and from it, as from a centre of evolutionery energy, has gone forth the religious impulse which carried Aryan philosophical ideas, and a message of human hope and brother­ hood to the remotest countries of the world. By the extirpation of Buddhism and the slaughter or enforced exile of its Bhikshus,


his holiest of shrines was left, like all the others throughout India, to fall into decay, and Buddha Gaa was forgotten. For more than six centuries there was no worhsipping there, no Bhikshus to recite the Panca Sila, no incense was burnt, no pilgrims knelt or offered flowers ; the cry of the jackal and the roar of the beast of prey alone disturbed the silence, and the place where fifty genera­ tions of worshippers had testified to their faith had become invaded by the all-covering tropical jungle. As the buildings crumbled, their dust and that of the adjacent fields was piled by the winds upon the platform of the stupa, and the ruined cells and ambulatories of the monks of old were finally buried under thirty feet of sand and dirt. But, although Buddhism had disappeared from it« native land, the memory of its sublime FOUNDER survived among the Buddhist nations, that is to say, among four-tenths of the estimated population of the globe. As Europeans were brought by degrees into contact with those peoples, the Pali, Sanskrit and Chinese literatures were explored by the new school of Oriental research that has sprung up, and the principles of BUDDHA'S Arya Dharma, becoming known, excited the admiration of the whole educated West. The Govern­ ment of India, moved thereunto by a spirit of courtesy towards the Burmese King, and by the reports of General Cunningham and his colleagues of the Archaeological Survey, reclaimed the holy place from its desolation, and restored the gigantic stupa to something like its pristine magnificence. About a century ago, a poor Indian ascetic, wandering through the jungle, settled himself a little way from the ruined stupa and his disciple and successor obtained from the then Musulman sovereign of Behar, Shah Alum, a firman giving him as a %amin (lease­ hold estate) a tract of land of some 8,000 acres, which is claimed by his descendant to include the ruins and modern village of Buddha Gay4. Neither he nor his successors, however, made any repairs to the shrine, nor did any of them take the least interest in it until its restoration, begun by the late King of Burma, Mindoon Min, and finished by the Government of India, made it again a place of pilgrimage, hence a source of profit to the titular landlord, the Mahant of the Saivite Temple and baradari, which adjoins the stupa and was built out of material taken from its ruins. To recover this shrine and reconsecrate it is the first object of the Maha-Bodhi Society, as above stated. In addition to this it is contemplated to recover possession of other Buddhist shrines, to erect or purchase a dharmasd'a, or pilgrims' rest-house, in Calcutta, and a building for a Normal College, at which Buddhist students from Japan, China, Tibet and other Buddhist countries may be taught Sanskrit and Pah. This, together with an organised propaganda of Bhddhist 370

literature and ideas, largely in Western countries, and the unification of the various schools of Buddhism in Buddhist nations, is the scheme of the Society, in full and without reservation. Surely no broadminded person could take exception to it, since its aim is righteous­ ness and peace, and no thought of sectarian hatred is entertained. You must bear me witness that, although I have lived in India thirteen years, and have been known as a professed Buddhist since the year 1875, three years earlier, T have never yet lectured once on Buddhism in India : all my time and efforts have been devoted to promulgating and defending Hindu religion with the help of Hindus. What I have done for Buddhism has been done in Buddhist and European countries. I do not believe it a good thing to persuade people to change their religion before they have fully mastered its details, and found that no worthy ideal is embodied in them, and as there is such a noble ideal in Hinduism, I have thought it my duty to help the Hindus in some small way to discover, and per­ suade them, if possible, to live up to it. I should not now be dis­ cussing Buddhism but for two things : firstly, that the grossest misconceptions and slanders about it are current ; and, secondly, because some bigoted Hindus, both members and non-members of the Theosophical Society, have almost commanded me not to broach the subject. That was quite enough to determine me to speak and to tell the whole truth. I have not a single drop of slaveblood in my veins, and I abhor any attempt to curtail a freeman's rights to free thinking. I ask no Hindu to give up his religion, and, I believe that religion to be so noble in its concepts and so elevating in its moral influence, that I say that he who is carried away by the petty spite of sectarian bigotry into trying to make it intolerant, is a false Hindu, a traitor to its in-dwelhng spirit. The Theosophical Society has tolerance and brotherhood for its corner­ stone ; it is an angel of peace and good-will among men ; it offers a free platform for the study and elucidation of all religions ; itself as a body preserving a strict neutrality and professing no sectarian dogma. As its President, I have helped the Hindus, the Parsees and the Mohammedans, of India, and the Buddhists of other countries, to understand their respective creeds, and so long as I am compelled to retain office shall that impartiality be strictly preserved. The Hindu members of the Society who have wished me to abstain from discussing Buddhism in India, have virtually wished me to act in a spirit of cowardly selfishness and to dishonor my official pledge. After all, what is the cause of this Hindu prejudice against Buddhism ? It all lies upon the surface, and is all based upon igno­ rance. The ill-feeling is largely traceable to two books, the S'ankara vijaya and the S'ankara digvijaya, of which the one is unmistakably spurious and the other worthless as an historical authority. In these 371

opinions all learned Orientalists and all Indian Pandits who have g o n e deeply into the subject, concur. The first-named book pretends to be by Anandagiri, a pupil of S'ankarachrya, yet speaks of things of long subsequent date; and the latter jumbles into a tangled mess dates, events and sectarian beliefs. Of the S'ankara vijqya, Professor Barth, the emi­ nent Orientalist, says : "it is enough to compare it with the authentic polemic of S'ankara, especially with his commentary on the second book of the Veddnfasdra, to feel satisfied that it is only an apocryphal romance of no worth." (Religions of India, p. 180). In the same book, referring to the pretended refutations by S'ankara of the alleged arguments of the "Bauddhas," Barth says : "but it is difficult to say whether these arguments are addressed to real opponents, or whether they are not mere scholastic exercises" (p. 132). Barth's opinion of the spuriousness of S'ankata vijaya is shared by a number of the best Pandits. Those who have personally expressed this opinion to me, are the late Pandit N. Bashyacharya, and the late T. Subba Row, a great Vedantin scholar, both of Madras, and Pand Hara Prasad Shastri, of the Bengal Government Library, Pandit Hari Mohan Vidyabhusan, of the Bengal Asiatic Society, and Babu Sarat Chandra D a s , C. I. E . , the intrepid Tibetan explorer. T h e Sdbdakalpadruma of Rajah Sir Radha Kanta Deva, defines the ten classes of "Bauddhas" on the authority of the work known as Atmaprakdsa They are : 1, those who say that a man's son is dtma; 2, those who say that the body (sthula dehd) is dtma; 3, those who say that the indriya, or organs of sense, are dtma; 4, those who say that the prdna, or vital airs, are dtma; 5, those who say that manas, the mind, is dtma; 6, those who say that buddhi, the spiritual intelligence, is dtma; 7, those who say that sunya, or vacuum, is dtma; 8, those who say that sarvagna, BUDDHA, is dtma; etc., etc. Now I ask any intelligent man in this audience who has the least familiarity with the doctrines of Buddhism, whether a single one of these classes represents Buddhistic beliefs. You know that not one of them is included in the Arya Dharma. Stress has been laid by the opponents of Buddhism upon the passages in Skandha, I Adhyaya 3, of the Srimad Bhdgavat, in which occurs the following prophecy : "At the beginning of Kali Yuga, to throw a moha (illusion) upon the enemies (dsuras) of the Suras (gods), BUDDHA, son of Anjana, will take birth at Gaya." Whatever else this might refer to, it evidently had no reference at all to Buddhism, for GAUTAMA BUDDHA was not born at the beginning, but in the

2478th year of Kali Yuga; was not the son of Anjana, but of K i n g Suddhodana; was not born at Gaya, but at Kapilavastu; and was not named BUDDHA, but Siddhartha ! Remembering that the term BUDDHA and the sectarian designation Bauddha existed in India long before the advent of the historical GAUTAMA BUDDHA, you will observe that if there was any ancient prophecy such as the above, it may have referred to some other personage who may have appeared about the beginning of the present Kali Yuga. 372

. Happily for the information of scholars, the Vishnu Purana (Book III, 18) contains a description of the maya moha or deceptive appearance assumed by Vishnu when he appeared as BUDDHA, and in which he is described as "a naked mendicant, digambara, with his head shaven and carrying a brush of peaco*ck feathers." Did any one ever see any Buddhist sculptured image which represented the Lord BUDDHA as either naked or carrying a bunch of peaco*ck feathers ; or can such a description be found in any Buddhist book? Certainly not : the teacher is always represented as clothed in the ample robes of a Bhikshu, and carrying nothing in his hand save his begging-bowl. Why, in the Mahavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka, he forbids his Bhikshus to even speak to a naked ascetic. If not to GAUTAMA BUDDHA, then to whom would this description apply ? To a Digambara of course, that is, to a Jaina ascetic. I have in my possession a copy of a panelled picture that is on the wall of the sacred tank in the Hindu temple at Madura, in which are depicted, in a series of panels, the contests ordered by a certain Raja, between the Jaina priests and a Saivite sanyasi, to test the divinity of their respective books, by the ordeals of faith-healing, of fire and of water. The painter having been an orthodox Hindu, or, at any rate, having done his work for orthodox people, he has depicted the overthrow of the unfortunate "Bauddhas," and the brutal punish­ ments visited upon them. Some of them were impaled and leftfor birds of prey to pick out their eyes; others ground into mince-meat in huge oil mills; others put to the sword. These defeated Bauddhas agree in appearance with the descriptions of Bauddhas given in the denunciatory passages of the Srimad Bhdgavat and the Vishnu Purana, in being half naked and carrying peaco*ck plumes in their hands. The invectives of all good Hindus are directed against the "Daityas," with whom the Bauddhas are confounded in the Vishnu Purana. Now, the Daityas are not men at all, but "evil demons who, like the Titans of Greek mythology, are always at war with the gods. They dwell under the foundations of Mount Meru, as far underneath the surface of the earth as their great enemy, Indra, is above it." (Sir Monier Williams' Buddhism, p. 219). The daityas and the suras, or gods, were the opposing evil and good spirits, the latter assisting the pious to make effective their sacrifices, the former using all their diabolical power to destroy their efficacy. In the figurative sense, all enemies of Hinduism who would prevent the ceremonial obser­ vances are called Daityas. Thus Christians, Muhammedans, Parsees and Jews might be classed as undoubted opponents of Hindu Karmakanda, although the Jews themselves have their animal sacrifices. But BUDDHA protested only against the sacrifice of life as an offence against the law of Karma : with the homa, agnihotra, and all other innocent forms of puja observed by the laity, he did not interfere; on the contrary, in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, addressing the Vajjian community, he advises them to stick to the old customs as tending to promote unity. 373

"Meanwhile," said Bodhisatva, "follow out your system taught by the old Rishis, and by your religious practices may you obtain your desire and be born in Heaven," (Beal's "Sakya Buddha," p. 1 6 1 ) . His sweet tolerance is further shewn in these utterances of his, taken from the Sutta Nipdta ) " He who is thoughtful, blameless, settled, dutiful, without passions, and who has attained the highest end, him I indeed call a Brahmana." " N o one should attack a Brahmana; woe be to him who strikes a Brahmana : more woe to him who flies at the aggressor." "Him I call indeed a Brahmana, who utters true speech, instructive and free from harshness,, so that he offends no one." This was a noble tribute to the high ideal of a Brahman as he should be, and is practically identical with that given in the story of the Pativrata woman and the angry Brahman, that Rishi Markandya told to Yudishthara (Mahdbhardta, Aranyaparva, cap. 206, 24 to 47). The Bhikshus of his order, having cast off civic life, and taken what Hindus would call sanydsin, were, of course, taught that they had passed beyond the Umitations of ceremonialism, and should find in religious meditation (samadhi), purity of life (sila), and the acquisition of higher knowledge (prdgna), their all-sufficient helps to the attainment of Nirvana. It would be most unfair, therefore, to apply the opprobrious term Daitya, to the followers of GAUTAMA BUDDHA. With equal, if not greater, reason might the Madhavas be so classified by the author of Vishnu Purana, for they do not sacrifice nor, I am told, do they admit the common interpretation of the Vedas upon that point. If GAUTAMA BUDDHA is to be blamed for denouncing the crueller forms of Vedic worship, what is to be said of that passage in Gita Govinda (sloka ix), beginning with Nindashi yagha vidherahaha, etc. ? "You (Vishnu) preached against the animal sacrifices of the Vedas because your heart melted at seeing the slaughter of animals. You incarnated as BUDDHA. O Keshava, victory be yours ! " This of course refers to the ninth incarnation of Vishnu, vitr., in the form of BUDDHA. And let me say most distinctly that I de­ nounce as unworthy of the noble and altruistic spirit of Hinduism— that spirit which made all mankind alike the sharers in the divine element of Atma and the potential conquerors of Moksha—the diabolical suggestion that Vishnu had incarnated under the benignant form of the Prince of Peace to deceive and send to hell the "Bauddhas," who by the strict performance of Vedic rites were said to be attaining heaven. That is a hypothesis too cruel to have emanated from the brain of any holy sage, and the passages embodying it must have been written by some remorseless bigot. Remember, please, that as there are many spurious books of other religions, many false prophecies and 374

pretended revelations, so the great body of Sanskrit literature is befouled by similar frauds and deceptions. When the spirit of a religion is once thoroughly understoo d, one may safely apply that knowledge as a test in judging of the genuineness of any utterances made in its name; and it is by applying the test of what I love to believe the true spirit of Hinduism, that I declare the sentiment above embodied to be a libel upon the religion of the Aryan Rishis. I must now notice one of the silliest popular delusions with respect of the disappearance of Buddhism from India, vi%., that it was driven out by S'ankaracharya. The latest researches show that Buddhism disappeared from the land of its birth at the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century A.D. the coup-de-grace being given in the massacre of 2000 Bhikkhus at Odentapura, the capital of Bihar, in the year 1 2 0 2 . Until the Moslem General, Mahmud of Ghazni, began the slaughter of its innocent monks, deluged its flowerstrewn altars with blood, and burnt the palm-leaf books, Buddhism had lived in peace with its sister (or mother, if you like) Hinduism, and the religions of both had been held by Buddhists in equal repect. Of course, I speak of the friendly relations between Buddhism and monistic Hinduism as sister cults, taking no account of the occasional wars and reprisals between individual hot-tempered and intolerant princes which may have occurred. In fact, history tells us that Sasanka, the Hindu King of western Bengal (Kirana Suvarna,) made war upon Purna Varma, Buddhist King of Magadha, and that, to protect the Bodhi tree from the former's violence, the latter surrounded it with a strong wall. We also read of persecutions of Buddhists by King Vikramaditya, of Ujjain, and by Pushpa Mitra, King of Kashmir and his son, Agni Mitra. But all these and the others recorded in history were, I think, dynastic and political, not provoked by the teachings or spirit of Arya Dharma. Moreover, I find no case where a Buddhist sovereign was the aggressor. It is not possible to say what treatment Buddhism received in India after the time of Asoka and before that of the visit of Hiouen Thsang ( 6 2 9 — 6 4 5 A. G ) . If existing coins and monuments should be believed, Indian kings appear to have patronised Buddhism to some extent. The coins of Kanishka, and other Turanian princes are indifferently Saivite and Buddhistic. The Andhrabhritya Kings, who reigned from 3 1 B.C. to 4 2 9 A.C., and were Hindus by religion, appear from their inscriptions at Nasik and Ajanta, as patronizing Buddhists with gifts. The Guptas ( 3 1 9 to 540 A.C.) or, at any rate, Chandragupta II, one of them, was a protector of Buddhists and of Buddhism, as appears from the inscriptions at Sanchi (400 A.C.) The Kings of Vallabhi (about 3 2 8 A.C.) were sometimes Saivities and Vaishnavas, and we learn that they made, for nearly a century, donat­ ions to a Buddhist monastery founded by a princess of their family (Burgess' Reports of the Archaological Survey of Western India, Journal 375

of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. XI, p. 361. Indian Antiquary, vol. IV., 1 0 5 , 1 7 5 ; vol. VI, 15 ; VII, 67.) The Buddhist missionaries, obeying the injunction of their MASTER, had preached the Dharma in all parts of the world and, as Sir Monier Williams (Buddhism, p. 221), after comparing the mytho­ logy, demonology and symbology of Buddhism with, those of Hinduism, tells us : " All this proves the close connection of Buddhism with the Hinduism which, like Buddhism, grew out of Brahmanism. In short, the one mythology is so interpenetrated with the other, that Buddhism in making proselytes throughout Eastern Asia could not avoid propagating Hindu mythological doctrines along with its own ". Now I take it for granted that S'ankaracharya could not have extir­ pated Buddhism save during his lifetime, and as the most competent authorities fix his era not later than the eighth century A. D.,* and Buddhism flourished exceedingly till the close of the twelfth, it is hard to see how he could have influenced its fortunes for good or ill during those succeeding five hundred years. There is, fortunately, an unimpeachable witness for the truth in this matter. The Chinese pilgrim Hiouen Thsang has minutely recorded for us the history of Buddhism at the time of his Indian pilgrimage, which happens to have been contemporary with S'ankaracharya. Like the Book of Ser Marco Polo—so splendidly edited by Sir Henry Yule—the Travels of Hiouen Thsang has been found so accurate that it serves as a perfect guide-book to archaeologists, even to details of measurements, distances and emplacements of historic Budhistic buildings. Now he records the fact that in merely the principal temples that he visited there were 1,68,000 Bhikshus. If we apply the same rule of proportion as the census of Ceylon shows to exist between the number of Bhikshus and the total Buddhist population, vi\., i in 100, we should have repre­ sented by the number of monks in the comparatively few temples under his observation, the equivalent of a Buddhist population of 33,600,000. I adopt the Ceylon computation for mere convenience, not because it gives us an adequate idea of the actual number of Indian Buddhists at that early epoch ; for Hiouen Thsang tells us that he found at Anuradhapura (Ceylon) alone, 10,000 Bhishus, whereas now there are about 9,800 in the whole island. He also adds the significant fact that in India, for every 500 Brahmans there were 1,000 Bhikshus. The legend we are discussing is probably of recent origin and a blunt weapon cought up by sectarian hands. But leaving aside historical facts, let us consider the legend on its own merits. Vaishnavas and all other dualistic sects show theie hatred Professor Max Muller, Dr. Tiele, Professors Pathak and Barth concur in assigning him to the 8th century; Telang says he was "before -the jth century; " but the late Pandit N. Bashyacharya decides for the fifth. 376

of the Vedantins by taunting them with being " concealed Buddhists " (pracchanna Bauddha). The author of the Padma Purana puts into the mouth of Mahadeva the following absurdly improbable statement : " O goddess! I have myself made the false books on Vendanta, which are secretly Buddhistic, by incarnating myself into a Brahmin ". How plainly we see the finger-marks of the theologian polemic in all this ; and what a striking resemblance there is between this pretended incarna­ tion of Siva as a Brahmin to deceive the unwary by fraudulent teachings calculated to insure damnation, and the pretended incarnation of Vishnu as a naked Digambara, carrying a feather brush and telling specious lies to lead the Daityas down to hell f The one story offsets the other, and the two mutually destroy each other. The late Swami Dayananda Saraswati affirms, in his Satydrtha Prakdsa, that Sankara contended against the Jainas, and to refute their doctrines preached the Advaita. Orthodox pandits, however, suggest to me that, since S'ankara's polemics were turned against the Nyaya, Sankhya, Vaisheshika, and all other schools which opposed his own doctrine of Advaita —Jaina and Bauddha included—it is transparently silly to say that, out of all these hostile schools, he expelled from India only one-—Buddhism —and that the strongest of all, the most tolerant, and most sympathetic to the Vedantins. The bitterest denunciators of Buddhism in our day represent sects which could never have had any quarrel with it, since they all date from periods subsequent to its extirpation in India ; since which time no missionary propaganda of any moment had been made to revive it. Sri Ramanujacharya, founder of the Visishtadvita school, flourished in the twelfth century ; S'ri Madhavacharya, founder of the Dvaita school, in the 14th century; S'ri Vallabhacharya in the 16th century, and Srimat Chaitanya, the holy preacher and ideal representative of Bhaktimdrga—alleged by his followers to have been the latest incarnation of Vishnu—in the 16th century. As regards S'ankara, we have seen that his epoch precedes the fall of Indian Buddhism by perhaps five centuries, perhaps six. Now, evidently, Buddhism was a dead issue during the whole period which includes the rise of the four great schools of its now mosy hostie opponents. It is, therefore, highly improbable that, whatever was said by either of the four sages, their disciples and immediate followers, refers to the Arya Dharma of BUDDHA GAUTAMA. On the other hand, jainism survived as a living issue and, in some parts of India, notably the South, was a very potent influence. Moreover, their speakers and writers were not at all complimentary to orthodox Hindus, but called them by such soothing epithets as " dogs ". They let no opportunity slip for abuse, and it is quite natural that the attacked party should pay them out in their own coin. Professor Max Mailer says : " They treated their opponents, the Brahmans, with marked disrespect just at a time when the Brahmans were re-establishing their hierarchical sway". S'ri Madhavacharya mentions that in the fourteenth cen377

tury a South Indian Prince, Sudhanwan, "commanded his ser­ vants to put to death the old men and children of the Bauddhas from the bridge of Rama to the Snowy Mountains, and let him who slays not, be slain ". Buchanan says " They appear to have undergone several persecutions by the Brahmans in the South of India. " The wall-painting of the Madura temple, above referred to, is probably historical, and actually depicts some of these sanguinary persecutions. The invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni, which began that work of Buddhist extirpation that was completed, 184 years later, by Bhaktiar Khilji, the Moslem conqueror of Bengal, occurred in 1016 A . D . and set the pattern of fiendish cruelty that was so faithfully copied by the last-named general. Here, again, I protest against the religion of Islam being sweepingly condemned because of the monstrous cruelty of some of its generals. Under some of the Khalifs a kindly tolerant spirit prevailed, the Musulman capitals were the refuge of scholars, artists and authors, and while the dark cloud of ignorance hung over Christendom, the lamp of knowledge was kept brightly burning in their colleges and schools. Sir W. W. Hunter says : " The borderland between Afghanistan and India lay silent and waste, indeed districts far within the frontier, which had once been densely inhabited, were swept bare of inhabitants. Thus Gujranwala, the seat of the ancient capital of the Punjab in Buddhist times, was utterly depopulated. In Delhi, in one day, 8,000 men, women and children were hacked to pieces. They took special delight in sacking the holy places and mur­ dering the defenceless votaries at the shrines ". As Mr. Dharma­ pala justly observes (Journal of the Maha-Bodhi Society, No. 2, p. IT,) " the Christian persecutions instigated by the Jesuitical monks and conducted by Troquemade were cruel enough, but the systematic vandalism of destroying the shrines sacred to the Buddhists, hacking to pieces thousands of Bhikshus, members of the gentle brotherhood, and burning their sacred literature, have had no equal indeed ". With the besom of destruction the soldiers of Islam swept Buddhism from the natal soil, and the surviving members of the gentle fraternity took refuge to Tibet with their precious literature, to the infinite profit of that country. That intrepid Bengalee explorer, Sarat Chandra Das, C.I.E., whose courage and modest heroism vindicate his race from the slurs of Macaulay and the euphuistic Billingsgate of Sir Lepel Griffin, saw in the Dalai Lama's library at Lhasa, some of the lost literature of India. He thus confirms the conjecture of Ksoma Corosi that " in the undisturbed shelter of this region, in a climate proof against decay and the destructive influences of the tropical plains, were to be found, in complete preservation, the volumes of the Buddhist faith, in their original Sanskrit, as well as in faithful translations, which might be sought in vain on the continent of India. " Part of the task which the Maha-Bodhi Society has set to itself, is to try to recover, for the world's benefit, with the benevolent help of the holy Dalai Lama, at least a portion of these priceless ancient books. 378

Having thus traced the existing prejudice among badly informed Hindus against Buddhism to its evident source, having shewn the non-identity of the persecuted Jaina Bauddhas with the followers of GAUTAMA BUDDHA, and demonstrated by dates and inferences how illogical is the popular legend that S'ankaraclmrya is to be credited with the extinction of Indian Buddhism, I may now cite the available proofs of a marked kinship between that religion and Hinduism. We have seen the denunciatory passages in some of the Puranas against what is wrongly supposed to be Buddhism. And now if we turn to those great Sanskrit dramas, Sriharsha's Nagananda, of the 7th century, Bhavabhuti's Malatitmadbava, of the 8 th century and the Prabodha chandrodaya, which is ascribed to the 12th century—all orthodox Hindu compositions we shall find the Arya Dharma spoken of in kind, sometimes in friendly, trems. If we turn to Buddhistic works such as the Jataka Mala we shall find the kindest feeling exhibited. In fact, the brotherly spirit towards, and high appreciation of, true Brahmanism which breathe through the utterances of the BUDDHA, in the Sutta Nipata, give the keynote to the early Buddhist spirit. Contrast the treatment of Hindu and Buddhist shrines by fanatical Moslem invaders with that given to Hindu temples by the Buddhist emperors of India. Nowhere can one find a matam torn down for the rebuilding of the material into Buddhist viharas and dagabas. In the Asoka edicts reverence to Brahmans and Bhikshus is equally enjoined, and this brotherliness survived until the Buddhists were actually driven out of the country by the foriegn sword. Mr. Dharmapala notes (Journal of the MahdrBodhi Society, No. 3, p. 5), the translation by Dr. ho*rnle and Professor Kielhorn of Gottingen, of the Amgachchi copper-plate grant of Vigrahapala Deva, King of Bengal. " It is written in Sanskrit. Vigrahapala Deva is a devout worshipper of Sugata, or BUDDHA. In the prose portion of the inscription, the king informs the people and officials concerned that, in order to please the holy BUDDHA, after bathing in the Ganges on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, he has granted to a Brahman some land in the Kotivarsha vishaya of the Pundra Vardana Bhukti." Professor Kielhorn adds " that all these kings undoubtedly were Buddhists, and that the figures prove the Amgachchi plate of Vigrahapala Deva III to have been issued after A. D . 105 3 ". The BUDDHA was no respector of hypocrites, whether Brahmans or others ; but as I have shown above, he was a great respecter of the ideal man who was classified in ancient times by the honourable title of Brahman. I wish you, Brahmans, to remember this. His definitions of the true Brahman, sprinkled throughout all his sermons, agree in showing, his inclination to expose and denounce those who used the sacred thread as a cover for vicious tendencies and moral 379

foulness. " A man does not become a Brahmana, " says he, in the Sutta Nipdta, " by his platted hair, by his family or birth ; in whom there is truth and righteousness, he is blessed—he is a Brahmana. " I tell you once more, O ye Hindus ! that this is the identical discrimination made between the true and the pretended Brahman in the Hindu orthodox scriptures. If anything were lacking to prove the close kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism, the want is supplied by a discovery brought to my notice only yesterday by Mr. Dharmapala. I do not mean to say he is the first who observed the fact I am about to mention, but so far as I know he is the first to appreciate its significance. I spent half of yesterday in the sculpture galleries of the Calcutta Museum, and this is what I found : I found a number of statues of Hindu deities, taken by the Government archaeologists from ancient temples, Hindu as well as Buddhist, and many photographs of others still in situ, which have carved upon their foreheads or on their head-dresses the conven­ tional figure of the sitting BUDDHA—sitting in the state of Samadhi, or abstraction. Upon searching through Messrs. Bourne and Shepherd's collection of photographs of the Brahmanical caves of Ellora, I found several more, among them statues of Indra and IndrSni. Here they are. Now if these effigies of the Buddha were in bas-relief, it might be said that the original statues of the Hindu deities had been subsequently mutilated by the Buddhist zealots ; but they are in highrelief, carved out of the same blocks as the statues, and evidently at the same time. Here is a fact calculated to startle my bigoted friends, and I shall not allow it to pass without demanding of them an explanation. Let them tell me if they can that it means anything less than the declaration of a close kinship and friendly relation between the two religions. These figures, mind you, are not merely taken from Buddhist caves and temples, but also from Brahmanical ones : hence they must have been placed there by the Brahmans themselves. How strange it is that, of the multitudes of educated Hindus who have walked through the Museum galleries, not a single one has given the public any sign of his having noticed this pregnant fact. Now what does this blending of the Buddhist and Hindu symbols mean, what common-sense interpretation is to be given it ? I hunted up the unpublished MSS. catalogue of the Behar collection made by Babu P. C. Mookerjee of the Archaeological Survey, and found that a many-armed female figure waving her sword over her head and having the figure of the sitting BUDDHA carved above her, was entered as " a Bodhisatva ;" which is about the same as though a portrait of the Queen had been catalogued as Hercules ! I have put the 380

question today to some of your cleverest Pandits, but without getting any adequate explanation.* So you must allow me to tentatively offer my own. I think (a) that the composite figures effectually dispose of the theory of necessary antagonism between the two religions ; (b) that the position of the BUDDHA figure on the foreheads of the devatas may bear either one of two interpretations : it may mean either that the BUDDHA by his arrival at the state of full Enlightenment, hence of power, had become supreme over all the devatas, or it may mean that whoever would attain to full Enlightenment must first pass through and subjugate the several kingdoms of devatas. I think there is no conflict with orthodox Hindu ideas in this latter theory. You all know the Puranic story of the fright of Indra lest his throne should be upset by the sage Visvamitra, who had by an infinitely extended course of asceticism and meditation, made himself more powerful than the gods themselves ; and you also remember that certain kings and other men had similarly arrived at a gods-compelling power. The theory is, then, that by virtue of the divine potentiality of A'tma a man may raise himself to the highest measures of spiritual supremacy. I put forward these views with all decent reserve, and for the purpose merely of provoking discussion which ought to put an end to this senseless clamour of a necessary enmity between Hinduism and Buddhism. I shall now, Mr. Chairman, ask your attention to a brief but authori tative summary, of the fundamental principles of the Arya Dharma by modern Western people miscalled " Buddhism ;" and I particularly request this Hindu audience to listen attentively to the several paragraphs, that they may see whether these beliefs of Buddhists are not in close harmony with the principles of Hindu religion. The paper in my hand is a copy of a digest called " Fourteen Fundamental Buddhist Beliefs ", which was drafted by me last year, and personally su bmitted for criticism to Councils of the most venerable and learned chief priests of Burma, Ceylon, Japan and Chittagong. The acceptance by those Councils is authenticated by the signatures of those Buddhist elder Bhikkhus, and they may therefore be regarded as thoroughly orthodox and authoritative. D o not for a single moment imagine that they represent all the beliefs of the Buddhist schools of theology in the Northern and Southern branches of the Buddhist Sangha. In making my tentative draft, I aimed only to define some of the elementary propositions which are commonly accepted throughout the whole Buddhist world ; and I purposely omitted questions about which there exist conflicting opinions. The object in view was to begin a unification of Buddhist nations in the interest of Buddhism. So * See page 386 for reference.


while the whole body of Buddhism is not contained in this paper, yet so far as the summary goes it is undeniably orthodox Buddhism. The lecturer then read the following paper :— FUNDAMENTAL BUDDHISTIC BELIEFS


" Buddhists are taught to show the same tolerance, forbear­ ance, and brotherly love to all men, without distinction ; and an unswerving kindness towards the members of the animal kingdom.


" The universe was evolved, not created ; and it functions according to law, not according to the caprice of any god.


" The truths upon which Buddhism is founded are natural. They have, we believe, been taught in successive kalpas, or world-periods, by certain illuminated beings called BUDDHAS ; the name BUDDHA meaning ' Enlightened '.


" The fourth Teacher in the present Kalpa was Sakya Muni, or GAUTAMA BUDDHA, who was born in a royal family of India about 2,500 years ago. He is an historical personage and his name was Siddartha Gautama.


" Sakya Muni taught that ignorance produces desire, unsatisfied desire is the cause of rebirth, and rebirth the cause of sorrow. To get rid of sorrow, therefore, it is necessary to escape rebirth ; to escape rebirth, it is necessary to extinguish desire ; and to extinguish desire, it is necessary to destroy ignorance.


" Ignorance fosters the belief that rebirth is a necessary thing. When ignorance is destroyed, the worthlessness of every such rebirth, considered as an end in itself, is perceived, as well as the paramount need of adopting a course of life by which the necessity for such repeated rebirths can be abolished. Ignorance also begets the illusive and illogical idea that there is only one existence for man, and the other illusion that this one life is followed by states of unchangeable pleasure or torment.


" The dispersion of all this ignorance can be attained by the persevering practice of an all-embracing altruism in conduct, development of intelligence, wisdom in thought, and destruction of desire for the lower personal pleasures.


" The desire to live being the cause of rebirth, when that is extinguished, rebirths cease, and the perfected individual attains by meditation that highest state of peace called Nirvana.



" Sakya Muni taught that ignorance can be dispelled and sorrow removed by the knowledge of the four Noble Truths, viz. :— 1.

" The miseries of existence ;


" The cause productive of misery, which is the desire ever renewed, of satisfying oneself without being able ever to secure that end ;


" The destruction of that desire, or the estranging of oneself from it ;


" The means of obtaining this destruction of desire. The means which he pointed out is called the Noble Eightfold Path ; viz., Right Belief ; Right Thought ; Right Speech ; Right Action ; Right Means of Liveli­ hood ; Right Exertion ; Right Remembrance ; Right Meditation.


" Right Meditation leads to spiritual enlightenment, or the development of that Buddha-like faculty which is latent in every man.


" The essence of Buddhism as summed up by the Tathagata (Buddha) himself, is ; ' To cease from all sin, ' To get virtue, * To purify the heart. '




" The universe is subject to a natural causation known as ' Karma'. The merits and demerits of a being in past existences determine his condition in the present one. Each man, therefore, has prepared the causes of the effects which he now experiences. " " The obstacles to the attainment of good karma may be removed by the observance of the following precepts, which are embraced in the moral code of Buddhism : viz., ( 1 ) Kill not ; (2) Steal n o t ; ( 3 ) Indulge in no forbidden sexual pleasure ; (4) Lie not ; (5) Take no intoxicating or stupefying drug or liquor. Five other precepts which need not be here enumerated should be observed by bhikshus and all those who would attain, more quickly than the average layman, the release from misery, and rebirth. " Buddhism discourages superstitious credulity. GAUTAMA BUDDHA taught it to be the duty of a Parent to have his child educated in science and literature. He also taught 383

that no one should believe what is spoken by any sage, written in any book, or affirmed by tradition, unless it accord with reason. "

" Drafted as a common platform upon which all Buddhists can agree. (Sd.) H . S. OLCOTT, P. T. S.

" Respectfully submitted for the approval of the High Priests of the nations which we severally represent in the Buddhist Conference, held at Adyar, Madras, on the 8th, 9th, 10th, n t h , and 12th of January, 1891 (A. B. 2434). " Japan Burmah Ceylon The Maghs of Chittagong..

Kozen Gunaratana Chiezo Tokuzawa U. Hmoay Tha Aung Dharmapala Hevavitarna

Krishna Chandra Chowdry, by bis appointed Proxy, Maung Tha Dwe Hinduism, and in fact, every other religion may be synthesised in the same way, and if this were done sectarians would then have the chance to see how nearly alike all the world's great creeds are in certain important basic ideas. Between no other two systems, however, does synthesis bring out so close a kinship as it does in the cases of monistic Hinduism and Buddhism. They are substantially alike in their ideals of man, of his essential supremacy over the kingdoms of the devatas (elemental spirits), and of his ultimate perfectibility. They are alike in their theories of natural evolution and of the summum bonum of Nirvana-Moksha ; both inculcate the idea of the existence of great latent psychical powers in man, but regard them as only halting stages on the way to attainment of that supreme unfolding of consciousness, gnydnan or divine wisdom ; both warn their ascetics against idle displays of psychical phenomena and of interested intercourse with the elemental races. In the Bhagavat Gita S'ri Krishna says that they who worship the devatas will (after death) go to the devatas ; those who worship the bhutas (human elementaries, or souls in astral life) will go to their realm ; while those who select the " Higher Walk "—or the purely spiritual existence—will have escaped out of the wheel of rebirth and not return. That incomparable Buddhist treatise on transcendental philosophy—the Visuddhi Marga—essentially reiterates S'ri Krishna's warning by saying that the ascetic should not even aspire to be born in the Brahma or any other loka, as that is a degration of the Nirvanic aspiration. The Buddhist books teem with stories


showing how the great gods of the Hindu mythology made obeisance to Buddha and the Arhats, and desired their instructions. While the Puranas tell us—as I have above remarked—that the throne of Indra was shaken and his fears aroused by the psychical powers acquired by Visvamitra Rishi, King Nahusha, King Mandata and others, by their tapas (spiritual exercises). Buddhism is essentially a form of gvanamarga, i. e., a search after the highest knowledge by the scientific development of the mental and transcendental faculties ; in this resembling the Hindu system of the same name. Parenthetically, for the information of my European hearers, let me say that the other system of gaining the highest knowledge is by following the path of love and faith, called Bhakti Marga ; a system of exalted yearning after God, of jubilant song and devout prayer. This characterises Christianity, approaching to blind faith, and thus appeals to the intelligent rather than to the emotional man. It is pure Gyana Marga, hence not at all congenial to the emotional temperament. One of the strongest and most striking resemblances between Hinduism and Buddhism is in the doctrine of Karma, with its correlative theory of rebirth. It is needless for me to enter here into an analysis of this theory ; but I may say that to me, as to thousands more of thinking Western people, it is a highly reasonable and philosophical solution of many of the deepest problems of human life ; gives a reasonable explanation of the nature and origin of evil; when understood, exerts a powerful restraining influence, and makes one cheerfully and courageously bear present trouble. For many years, I have been prophesying on Eastern lecture-platforms that this doctrine would find great acceptance in the West, and already my prognostic has been fulfilled. The subjects of Karma and Re-incarnation are being discussed in the press and are influencing contemporary Western literature. I wish you to take note of a very important fact in this connection, viz., that the Hindu ideas we have been considering are being carried throughout the world by the Theosophical Society, as the agent, and through Buddhism, as the vehicle. It is universally conceded that Hinduism is a national, not a cosmopolitan religion, although its transcendental philosophy discusses man as a human being and not merely as a Hindu. Hinduism entirely lacks the missionary character ; in fact, there is scarcely any possibility of a non-Hindu being admitted into Hindu orthodoxy. But under the form of Buddhism, one of its most attractive and philosophical differentiations, it becomes as free as air to circulate throughout the world, and carry the blessed doctrines of Karma and Nirvana to all sorrowing hearts and minds. The theory of Karma is a powerful regenerating force, if clearly presented and made comprehensible ; 385; 15

B 4147

it is a Hindu theory, hallowed by time, and the one sufficient equipoise and substitute for the antithetical doctrine of vicarious atonement. In spreading a knowledge of it beyond the boundaries of India and making it known among the most distant and most powerful nations, my colleagues and I are earning the benevolent sympathy of all orthodox pandits and laymen. If you will not admit foreigners into Hindu castes and cults, you ought to be glad that we, Theosophists, are helping to make multitudes of religiously-minded people familiar with your most excellent, most ennobling ancestral doctrine and showing them the straight road to salvation. Cling to your religions by all means, if you will, but remember that, but for the sword of the Moslem conqueror, Buddhism would still be flourishing throughout India, as it did for seventeen centuries, in neighbourly reciprocity with Hinduism. And do not try by angry talk to stop its spread throughout the world. If it is true it is scientific, is congenial to the enlightened spirit of the age, and must win its way in spite of all opposition. If it is false it must succumb to criticism, and no amount of blind faith among its advocates can save it. I have shown above that it was formerly blended with Hinduism, adducing the Tantrika-Buddhist statue of the eight-armed Durga and the Ellora Indra and Indrani in proof of my assertion. It was only after the massacre of the Buddhist monks that the two cults became divorced. In fact, at this very day orthodox Hindus of all sects flock to Puri to worship the Buddhist image of Jagganath, and while within the temple compound, eat freely together in the brotherly fashion of Buddhist pilgrims. For my part, while a Buddhist I am no sectarian, and I would ten times rather see my religion— if it can be called a religion—disappear from among men than that its vitality should be eked out by the least dishonesty or misrepresen­ tation. I fully, heartily, unreservedly accept and hold to that orthodox Hindu text of the Upanishad which says that " There is no religion higher than Truth " ; I ask you to join me in so doing.

The venerable speaker—as the Indian Mirror tells us—" closed with a brilliant peroration which aroused the enthusiasm of his audience and, referring to the declaration of Mary I. of England, that if her breast should be opened after her death, the name " Calais " would be found written on her heart, said that if a like test should be applied in his own case, his heart would be found inscribed with the name most dear to him, the name of India." H. D .



INDIA was very civilised and very happy during the ancient Vedic period, when the religion of the Aryan Hindus was observed in a pure and undefiled form. This was followed by a period of deca­ dence, and Hinduism or Brahmanism became dogmatic, arrogant, and corrupt. It was at that time that Prince Siddhartha felt the longing to solve the mystery of life and death, and, after a search of many years, became the BUDDHA. His doctrines of brother­ hood and universal compassion were eagerly accepted by the Hindus, who were anxious to be relieved from Brahmanical tyranny, and the Arya Dharma, or Buddhism as it is now called, spread from one end of the country to the other, the Princess and the Kings taking to it no less eagerly than the masses. Now, this Arya Dharma, preached by Lord BUDDHA, became so immediately acceptable to all Hindus because it was the revival with certain important modi­ fications and additions, of Hinduism itself in its purer form. Budd­ hism retained and amplified the ancient Hindu doctrines of Karma and re-incarnation, according to which BUDDHA was himself the ninth Avatar. With the spread of Buddhism, India regained her civilization and greatness, and attained to the highest pinnacle of glory during the rule of the great Buddhistic Emperor Asoka. It had been well for this country if Buddhism had continued to be the prevailing religion of its people. But nations have their Karma to serve out as well as individuals, and the Hindus and their beliefs and temples were soon to be ravished at the hands of Moslem con­ querors. There exists a difference of opinion as to who it was that stamped Buddhism out of India. But historical evidences and the highest authorities on the subject go to prove that it was Mahomedan sword and fire that lay Buddhism low, and drove the Buddhists to foreign lands, and that the work of ruthless vandalism was not that of the followers of S'ri Sankaracharya. It is a supreme pity 387

that the merciful religion of BUDDHA should have been so swept out of India, for all the subsequent degradation of the Hindus is due chiefly to that fact. It was because Buddhism had ceased to exist as the prevailing religion that the Brahmo Somaj was brought into being in Bengal, for educated Hindus wanted something better and purer to hold and follow as an ideal than the grotesque rites and doctrines which came to be substituted for the pure Hinduism of ancient times. But better times have come, and the period for a re-adjustment of things has arrived. There has been a revival of Hinduism and a revival of Buddhism, both in their ancient pure forms. The sublime truths of ancient Hinduism are being studied and grasped, not only in India by the Hindus, but also by the professing Christian nations of the West, though those truths are being conveyed to Euro­ peans and Americans through the medium of Buddhism. If the sublime doctrines of Karma and Re-incarnation come to be accept­ ed as axiomatic truths by the highly advanced nations of the West, that is a triumph not only for the Buddhists, but also for all Hindus, for Buddhism is essentially the same as Vedantism or Advaitism ; it is a system of ethics, based on Hinduism, and found­ ed by a Hindu, and was at one time the dominant and State religion in India. The kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism could be further and still more firmly established, but that mate­ rials for such a task are outside India, and in the possession of the monasteries of Thibet and other Buddhistic countries, whither they were transferred at the time of the Mahomedan inroads. We might have had these materials before now, but that the Hindus have somehow come to regard the Buddhists as aliens, and it has come to pass that this apathy has been repaid, and Thibet has been closed even to the Hindus. All the civilisation of China, Japan and Thibet, their religion and philosophy, are of Hindu origin, but instead of taking pride in that fact, some Hindus, at the present time, owing, we suppose, to their ignorance, are trying to keep their Buddhist brothers at a distance, as if Buddhism was hostile to Hinduism, and no near kinship existed between them. Such Hindus will oppose the modern Buddhistic movement and put what obstacles they can in the way of the Buddhist


regaining possession of the temple at Buddha Gaya. But the opposi­ tion will crumble away in time, and there are many among us wise enough to foresee that the future prosperity and happiness of India depend in a large measure on the restoration of the old intimacy be­ tween her people and those of the Buddhistic countries. The lecture, delivered on Monday evening last at the Town Hall by Colonel Olcott, on the " Kinship between Hinduism and Buddhism, " was, we think, very opportune, and his arguments will have furnished food for reflection to the more thoughtful of his Hindu audience. The newspapers have very badly reported the lecture, our own report, which appears this morning, being only a skeleton of what was actually said by Colonel Olcott during his long 'discourse. Such a learned, eloquent, and valuable lecture on a subject of such supreme importance ought not to be lost. Colonel Olcott, as usual, spoke extempore, but it is to be hoped that he will recaE his utterances, and put them together in writing, and publish the lecture in a pamphlet form, for it deserves to be widely read both in India and abroad. The thanks of both Hindus and Buddhists are due to Colonel Olcott for the efforts he is making to re-establish the old kinship between them.



The Constructive Optimism of Buddhism

RELIGIONS are many. They may be divided into two categories constructive and destructive. The destructive religions are either polytheistic, monotheistic or materialistic. Monotheistic religions are Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism ; polytheistic religions are Vaishnavism, Saivism. Materialistic religions are Confucianism, and Shintoism. Vedic religion at first was polytheistic with the worship of Indra, Varuna, Soma, Prajapati, &c. Puranic Hinduism had three principal gods making a Trinity, whose business was to create, preserve and destroy. The creator was Brahma, the preserver was Vishnu, and destroyer was Siva. Polytheistic religion acknowledged the existence of 3 3 0 millions of devatas. The religion of Jainas was founded by a contemporary of the Buddha Sakya Muni. The doctrine that Buddha taught was an analytical ethico-psychology based on the principles of evolution and causality. Buddhism did not deny the devatas of other religions but they were divested of their despotic power and brought under the operation of the law of cause and effect. A Creator who brought a world out of nothing into existence, and created human beings is rejected by the Blessed One. Annihilation of matter and spirit were declared to be unscientific. There is no permanency but change. From the minutest atom to the highest heaven every­ thing is becoming. It comes in to being, stays for a time and passes away, like the volume of water in the flowing stream. The human being from the state of the conscious germ when it is first conceived in the mother's womb is undergoing change every moment evolving from one stage into another. It is not the same, not another, inasmuch as there is neither annihilation nor an absolute permanency. There is no known beginning of matter or spirit. Every living being is spiritual, and immortal in the sense that there is no absolute death or annihilation. Christianity is materialistic inasmuch as it posits a known beginning, and ultimate annihilation, at least for those who had no belief in the divinity of Jesus. Islam teaches that only the believers are saved the unbelievers being doomed to destruction. 391

Whatever Christian ecclesiastics may say the earth life is one that cannot be called full of misery. It is here that all philanthropic projects are accomplished, it is here that meritorious work is done. It is here that human kindness and selfsacrifice are appreciated. It is here that man can transcend the gods and save suffering humanity. In all the mythologies it is the gods that come down to save man and to sacrifice themselves. Man in his ignorance not knowing his own potentialities follow the gods and sacrifice animals to get their good will and pray to them soliciting their support and protection. The constructive genius of the Aryans of India had brought to existence the most wonderful architectural beauties in the form of temples, toranas and dagobas and wall paintings showing their artistic and aesthetic genius, visible in the rock cut temples of Turkestan and India and in the Universities, libraries and colleges, the repositories of Aryan learning of two thousand years. Then India had only Buddhism as the national religion. But soon it fell into a state of decay, for the people for generations had become used to luxury, and the lessons of virile activity and strenuous effort had given place to inaction. The Indian Aryans had never been conquered people, and no foreign foe had dared to touch the sacred soil of Aryavarta. True, Alexander of Macedon came as far as the Punjab, but he could not cross the Sutlej and he found his soldiers were unwilling to march forward and he had to retrace his steps. Buddhism and Brahminism lived in friendly rivalry for nearly fifteen hundred years meeting no opposition from alien foes. In an unlucky hour Mahmud of Ghazni came. The people were un­ prepared to meet the robber bands of Arabia. Saivite kings had arisen now and again at intervals with icono­ clastic tendencies, who succeeded in injuring Buddhism temporarily. If one Sasanka bad been destructive to Buddhism a score of righteous kings became patrons of the Religion of the Tathagato. The best of kings were invariably followers of the Blessed One. The most learned and cultured had joined the Holy Order of the Sangha. In the time of the great king Siladitya the most learned Brahman of Middle India was Divakara, and he bad become a Yellow robed disciple of the Blessed One. Down to the Pala dynasty Middle India had Buddhism. The great Dipankara Srignana chief of the order of Buddhist monks in Bengal lived in the n t h century of the Christian era. By the end of the twelfth century Islam had con­ quered all North India. The Gangetic Valley no more echoed the reverberations of temple bells. Their music had ceased never more to be heard under Moslem rule. Aryan -civilization the joint product of the greatest of Brahman and Buddhist devotees had utterly ceased. The sun of Aryan wisdom had set and spiritual darkness entered with the sensuousness of Arabia. 392

The civilization of ancient India was of a spiritual character. India •was known as the Middle Country, and the outlying countries were known as border countries. The land of Rishis, and Munis, was the land of Kshatriyas and Brahmans. It was the land of the gods of whom Indra was chief. The power of spirituality was considered of such greatness that the very gods trembled when some spiritual minded human being began his ascetic penances to overcome his passions. The gods were passionate beings. They had their likes and dislikes, they loved to fight and destroy. They were powerful but not Holy. Therefore they were reverential to holy ascetics. For the protection of the holy land a special caste had come to existence. They held dominion over land, and they became the defenders of the Indian homes from the depredations of foreign foes. They were called Kshatriyas from the word Kshetra, a field. The chief of the Kshatriya was called Raja because he loved to delight the hearts of the people. The Brahman was full of Knowledge, and wisdom was personified in him. He was holy, ascetic in his habits, abstained from gaining wealth, and abstained from giving pain to man and animal. Compassion was his weapon and wisdom his armour. In India Brahmachariya was a special institution not found elsewhere, and the qualifications for Brahmachariya life were renunciation and physical and mental purity. They were not satisfied with the sense enjoyments. In the celestial regions of the gods a sublimated kind of sense gratification existed. They ate food but it was called amrita, they wore clothes, they had their desires, and they were fond of fighting the Asuras and their life was one of continual pleasure. Their death was sudden and when death approaching the destined god knew it by the signs which came as messengers of death. The signs were, the garments become soiled, perspiration sets in, flowers that they wore fade, and they feel uneasy when occupying their seat. Indra the chief had his fortifications to keep away the Asuras, he had his wife, his son, his celestial elephant, and his palace of Victory and he had his retinue of gods. The people of India had other gods whom they invoked when they were in danger. They were Soma, Varuna, Prajapati, & c. The Brahmanical lawgivers had laid down the laws of social communalism. The institution of caste was not the work of gods but of powerful Rishis who had obtained power by means of their spirituality. They were so powerful that the gods trembled in their seats. Having gained power they instituted rules for the maintenance of their power in their own descendants. The Brahmani­ cal lawgivers like Apastamba, Asvalayana, Gautama, Narada, laid down laws for their own advantage. Manu was not of the Brah­ manical caste. He was a kshatriya, and it is said that he was the first earthly king of India. The laws that he had promulgated were codified, and in his name the Manava Dharma Sastra appears to guide Aryan society. How far the original work had undergone 393

modification it is difficult to say. Evidently under Moslem rule, when India was groaning under the misrule of Islamic hordes who came to plunder from time to time, Aryan ,society could not have retained its social purity, as was possible under the righteous rule of Aryan kings. The most sacred land to the Aryan is the Middle Country of India watered by the Ganges and Jumna, and this most holy land had gone under Moslem rule. The sacred cities of Benares, Kanauj, Sravast, Mathura, Gaya, Buddhagaya, &c. had been sacked and burned to the ground. Universities like Taxila, Nalanda, Odantapuri, centres of classical learning like Benares had all been destroyed by the Moslems. To get a glimpse of ancient Aryan society when no alien barbarian soiled the homes of the Aryan people we have to go back to the records left by the holy Bhikkus before the birth of the Semitic gods of destruction. When one reads the Puranic stories about the valorous deeds of Siva, Vishnu, Brahma, Saturn, he finds how similar they are to the mythological stories of ancient Greece. It is only when people are given to the gratification of senses that such stories become public property. Society purified by a high ethical code cannot but blush when hear of the sexual victories of the he-gods and she-gods of mythology. Rome too had her days of sexual glory when her people cared nothing better than the enjoy­ ment of sense pleasures. India in the tenth century began to decline. By the twelfth century she had become physically azal on purifying morality which was given to the Aryan people by the Blessed One had been forgotten. The physical path had become too exalted and too difficult for the people to observe. Later generations neglected the moral observance and the psychical discipline • so necessary for human progress. Morality is the most solid foundation that is needed to build up a lasting society. The Lord Buddha again and again emphasised that the Aryan religion shall only last so long as the disciples would strictly follow the path of purifying morality. When morality disappears society degenerates. What do we see today in Europe? Society is too much absorbed in the enjoyment of sense pleasures, the gratification of the senses has become the be-all of life. Science has made wonderful progress in the physical plane. Luxuries in manifold forms have been intro­ duced by physical scientists. Morality is on the decline. Wealth and pleasure are what the people seek wherever they go. The one idea is how to increase the delights of the senses. Amusem*nts in various forms have helped to hasten the demoralization of Western society. The weaker races find that their existence is doomed. Every­ where in Europe capitalism is introducing class hatred. The poor have no place in society. Plutocracy has destroyed love. There is no sympathy between man and man. Animals slaughtered for mere amusem*nt. Millions of cattle are killed to give food for man. 394

Birds of beautiful plumage by the thousands are killed for their feathers to adorn the head dress of foolish women. Churches are to be found throughout Christendom by the hundred thousand, but they are used more as meeting grounds of the rich. Love, compassion, charity exist in very small measures, not sufficient to satisfy the yearning hearts of the millions who are struggling for existence. Destruction is the creed of Christendom. Germany and England are the two leading Protestant countries in the world, and today the two countries are engaged in a death struggle. Ger­ many hates England, and vice versa. Austria and Belgium are Roman Catholic countries and yet the former has formed an alliance with a Protestant country which is waging war with Belgium. France is anti-Clerical and republican, but she has formed an all iance with two great countries one of which is Greek Church and governed by an autocrat, and the other monarchical, the Triple Entente is mutually opposed in religion and politics and yet they are fighting in concert with a monarchical parties. During Buddha's life time the kings, princes, great Brahman philosophers, bankers, high and low without an exception paid homage to his incomparable greatness, in as much as they all found in His personality qualities supremely holy, transcending human and divine. Therefore the gods worshipped Him. He the supreme Lord having found Truth did not care for human appreciation, and when the Bhikkus assembled to hear the final words of their loved Teacher, He exhorted them not to be engaged in paying homage and worship to His memory and to his Relics, but that they should qualify themselves by stre­ nuous effort to become the heirs of a greater inheritance than the joys of heaven. Nirvana the crown of holiness was to be achieved not by worship and ritual and ceremonialism, but by personal effort, renunciation, and activity in following the principles of the Noble Path. Before the majestic figure of the All Compassionate, gods who were satisfied with the holocausts of bullocks, cows, sheep and goats pale into insignificance. To the follower of the path of Supreme Wisdom the gods appear foolish and muddle-headed when their actions are analysed. The sensual minded people fond of sense pleasures yearn to be born in the region of the gods, but the follower of Wisdom looks with loathsome disgust on the pleasures of the senses, whether human or divine. Religions that preach a heaven as the goal of existence were the creations of men who had reached the supreme heights of Truth. They had not tasted the sweets of Nirvanic ambrosia, which is only within the reach of those who had renounced the joys of the lower and the higher heavens. Similarly did the Lord Buddha reject the erroneous belief that man is destined to go through suffering according to the karma of the past. This belief destroyed human effort and made man the creature of foolish fate. Therefore the Buddha rejected it as unworthy of acceptance. It was a despicable doctrine that taught man to 395

depend on the past and on some imaginary Creator. Equally did the Buddha despise the materialistic doctrine that made man to hold to the nihilistic idea of incontinuity of cause and effect. The result of the threefold teachings may be seen in the people who accept them. Effort all in all. Effort is the basis of karma. Even the effort to think is karma. Good efforts produce good karma, bad efforts produce bad karma. Every thought is dependent on a prevous thought. We go to sleep in the night and mind is in sleep, but is still active in dreams. Man being immortal and spiritual no Creator is needed. Creation means a known beginning, but in Buddhism it is a fundamental doctrine that man has no known beginning. We admit gods but we decline to make autocrats of them, which has been the curse of humanity. In countries where monarchs are despotic and absolute power is divided between the monarch and the priesthood, the people have to obey and suffer. The Buddha combatted the supremacy of the muddleheaded gods, showed them that they too are under the law of cause and effect, that some day their habitations are-destroyed, and that they too shall have to change their positions. A permanent god with human attributes to sit on an eternal throne is an impossibility. In the Brahmanimantanika sutta of the Majjhima nikaya, Baka Brahma, sitting on the throne in the highest heaven gave vent to the thought " Here is permanency, here is the uncreated, beyond, there is none ". The Buddha having known what was going on in the mind of Brahma ascended to the heaven and appeared before Brahma. The god greeted him and said " Here is permanency, here is permanency, here is eternity, here is bliss, here there is no birth, no death, no decay, and there is no beyond ". The Buddha thereupon said " Brahma has gone into the net of Ignorance ". In the sutra, Mara the Buddhist Satan appears among the gods and pleads on behalf of Brahma and tells Buddha not to speak disparagingly of Brahma for he is the Creator, the Chief, the Father of all. The Buddha rebukes Mara, and begins the conversation with Brahma, who is tested by the Buddha by asking him to work a miracle and Brahma fails. When iUuminating wisdom came to Buddha He taught the way to the Brahmacharis to destroy ignorance and realize the highest emancipation of Nirvana where the gods and the devils have no power. When a nation is politically dependent on another nation the weaker nation loses its individuality. A subject race could not produce heroes, and truth is born from the sacrifice made by the truly great. A slavish race is prevented from speaking the truth, and the man who attempts to represent Truth is soon brought into his senses by persecution or by imprisonment in gaol. A nation that is politically not free, and is under the rule of another could not expect to produce heroes. Jesus was born of a subject race, and he had to be on his guard when speaking to the people. He was asked the question which had a political aspect, and the answer he gave was that of a 396

diplomatist. The priests were ever ready to implicate him as a political demagogue and a disturber of the people working to upset the government of the Roman oligarchy. N o truth can come out of the man who is not absolutely free to express his highest convictions. Absolute freedom is a needed factor when we are in search of Truth. Mohammad fought his way through opposition, defeated his opponents and asserted his supremacy, and his subsequent career was one of triumph. In the life of Buddha we see no obstacle in his Path. India was always tolerant. The religious devotee was always free to say what he has found to be truth. This freedom is the spiritual inheritance that India gives to the Brahmacharis. The religious exponent is in India a privileged person in the time of her own kings. This unique freedom India lost with the advent of Islamic hordes who invaded India in the ninth century. Since then India is religiously and politically subject to the conquering foe. India the land of religion where the gods came down to hold conversation with the holy devotees of Truth, India that gave birth to the great Teacher, Sakya Muni, India today is the hunting ground of the foreign missionary, who occupying a politically higher status than the people, is able to assert the superiority of his Arabian god. Morality is not the criterion of greatness in India today. When morality is made subservient to filthy lucre and high office then Truth disappears. Nihilism, blind faith in destiny, ceremonialism, outward display are what we see today in this land where once Truth reigned supreme. Today, it is the political religion that dominates the gods. There is an absence of a higher morality in the atmosphere of Indian religion. Many things that the ancient Aryan teachers condemned as evil and demoralizing are today held up as worthy of imitation. The holy teacher has no place in India. The religion of the Middle Path that makes man to follow wisdom, and practise love is relegated to the limbo of oblivion. In the ancient days the kings in India followed religion and listened to the teachers who were more than divine in their life. Self-help, self government were the bases of Buddhistic ethics and psychology. To a slavish race three religions are suited, viz. an all powerful creator who is the object of adoration of the weak of will that suffering is the law of previous action, and that nothing can make us reach a higher place of sublimated consciousness ; and that as we are deprived of freedom of will and action the best that we can do on this earth is to eat and drink and be merry, and after death annihilation. Thinker says that war is a biological necessity and that man who does not fight goes to the wall. A weak people forfeits the right to live. They live as helots. Their life is a burden. Heroes always fight and dominate. Those who die in the battle field are born in heaven according to the ancient Kshatriya Dharma of India. The weak lives here in a state of despair, and death is preferable to such a


life. Ignorance is so powerful a factor that the Indian mind has lost all ideas of how to get rid of their fetters. Ritualism and sensualism are the fetters that bind the man to slavery. A highly moral race can­ not be made to live as a dependent people to be dictated by another of less morality. The morality of a nation becomes the foundation of progressive advancement. Great nations have lived and died. During the time that they were active in pushing on their culture and influencing other people, we have seen to what extent moral force is employed. Certain nations spread their civilization at the expense of weaker races, whom they destroy by weakening their will. The highly moral race in extending their culture never departs from the path of compassion. It was for the sake of Mammon that the European races sailed in their ships. Portugal, Spain, Holland, Venice, France were the competing rivals that carried on mutual warfare to gain the upper hand in the Indian Ocean and Yellow Sea. Of culture they had none to speak. In the 18th and in the first five decades of the 19th century the Europeans had not much to give to Asia in the way of science and civilization. Sanitation, Hygiene, Electricity, Ethics, Science as opposed to theology were unknown to the freebooters who came to Asia to -plunder and destroy ancient civilizations. What evil did not these early navigators backed up by the Pope and King commit on the nations that lived peacefully in their own way in their native lands. These devils invoked god to massacre helpless peoples to obtain their possessions. They only destroyed, but were unable to give anything in return. For a century European culture that was presented to the ancient races of Asia was the very opposite of what they had learnt to observe. Instead of temperance and sobriety, they learnt their opposites. Instead of compassion and kindness to animals the westerners taught the Asiatics to slaughter animals for pleasure and for food. Before the Western civilization invaded Asia another wave of des­ truction came from Arabia under the flag of Islam. The Moslems too had no compassionate doctrine to give to the civilized races of India and China. They too plundered and destroyed and gave a doctrine that lacked the element of mercy. The Guruparampara traditions were lost and the new generations imbibing the habits of Western materialism lost faith in their own self. They became feeble minded, patriotism was never given the opportunity to manifest itself, and as a result paralysis of will had set in bringing degeneration of the many races that were brought on the ethical basis. What did they get in return for the many precious treasures that they abandoned under Western compulsion ? European science, European industries, European arts, ship building, engineer­ ing, building of bridges, railways, and experimental chemistry, and all the economic sciences that have helped to make the European races were not taught. They were taboo. Teachers who did not know anything of economic industries and science were sent as teachers to impart instruction to the youths of Asia.


For the last too years the Asiatics have had the opportunity to pass judgement on European culture. We have had the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and the British having dealings with the ancient races of Asia. Asia with the exception of Japan is today in a state of moral, physical, industrial, political and economic decay. India, the land of the gods, the land of the Brahmans, the land of the Buddhas, the land of the great righteous monarchs like Asoka, Siladitya, Vikramaditya, the land of Aryan culture, what is India today but a corpse ! Millions of starving people, illiterate, ignorant, living like dumb beasts, without high ideals, living in a state of moral inferiority, without any hope, victims of fatalism, full of fear, superstitious to an abnormal degree, receiving not a word of sympathy, this is the India that gave a bene­ ficent civilization built on ethical ideals. From the standpoint of Buddhist morality if we are to judge the effects of the civilization that has been in existence since the European advent, we can unhesitatingly say that it is an unmoral civilization without spiritual advancement. Now the civilization of Europe before the dawn of modern science is what is called monkish. It had nothing to offer to the yearning minds that were not satisfied with the dry bones of materialistic theology. This earth was to the Christian a place of sorrow and sin. It is the place where Satan reigns. Christianity has no science of economics, no psychology, no sublime ethic. The religion of Jesus was built of a post-mortem heaven. It had no past cosmic history, no cosmic background. The world was created by the fiat of a despotic deity for his pleasure, and when he failed to get pleasure he cursed man and he cursed the earth and promised never again to create ! But the evil that he has done can only be rectified by the offering of his own son, according to theological geology the world is only about 7,000 years old, and some time after it will be destroyed, and the inhabitants will be either sent to heaven or to an eternal hell to keep company with satanic majesty. For nearly twenty centuries Christian morality guided the destinies of European nations, and what do we find today ? Christianity has no influence on the masses or on the politicians. Science has taught certain secrets of nature, and the philosophers have found that a post mortem existence of the namby pamby kind is not what they would like to have. They examined, they investigated, they analysed, and they found that life if well spent is capable of producing noble deeds, and that the ignorant and the illiterate could be reformed to live better lives, that sanitation, hygiene, electricity could be brought into play for the all round progress of humanity. From the Buddhist point of view, European nations who are engaged in destroying the ancient civilizations have yet to learn the first principles of compas­ sionate wisdom. They have not given the Asiatics knowledge helpful for their economic progress. Although the Asiatics have associated with the European races for so many hundred years, what 399

economic science, what technical industries have the former learnt ? Their association have been for their own destruction morally, industrially and socially. They have lost their economic independence which they had maintained for many thousand years, and they lost their political independence without which a nation could not make progress. As slaves no social or economic progress is possible. With economic independence and the enjoyment of national freedom progress is easy. The four requisites necessary for human progress are clothes, nourishing food, seats and residences to live in comfort and in health, and medicines to cure human ills. These are necessaries absolutely essential for human advancement. If a community have to depend on another race to supply these requisites for their existence it is impossible to expect that the nation that is depending shall ever prosper. If the nation that is able to supply their own wants find themselves handicaped by the obstacles that are set forth by a superior race no progress is possible. Christian culture as represented by the three European races in Asia has been an absolute failure. The higher virtues which belong to the noble born are not manifested in the people that hail from Europe. The education that is given by the teachers who hail from Europe is not the kind that Europe is giving her children. An effete antiquated uneconomic unprogressive education is unsuited to the times. The theologian who presides in the school in Asia has no place in the schools of modern Europe. The discarded refuse of Europe is what Asia gets to obtain culture. Instead of science we are taught a religion that was rejected by the ancestors of modern Asiatics when they were in a high state of civili­ zation. This rejected Asiatic creed will it be accepted now by the degenerate sons of noble ancestors ? Before they accept it the cultured Europeans, it is hoped, will renounce it as being utterly unfit for human progress. The moribund ethics of Jesus were copied from the Samaritan and the Jew. The examples that Jesus held before his disciples for acceptance were neither Christian nor Jewish. A religion that kills individuality, that holds up prayer instead of action, that speaks of a heaven hereafter, making life here pessimistic, that breaks down social sympathies, that speaks of eternal damnation, that knows no redemption for the sinners—such a religion is unsuited for a civilized Aryan community. Hygiene, sanitation, medical science, architecture, laws of dietetics, textile manufacture, floriculture, aesthetic science were unknown to the Carpenter of Galilee. Devils, prophetic sayings about the coming end of the world, miracles, and the teachings suited to a nomadic community presided by rain doctors, such is Christianity as taught by the master exorcist of Nazareth. (MBJ. ,Vol. 23, May, 1915). 400


The Repenting God of Horeb

Open je the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth the truth may enter in.—Jsaih Chap. 26 2.

T H E Brahmanical theologians who wished to make Vishnu supreme made him an incarnating God. In the fourth Adhyaya of the famous poem, the Bhagavad Gita, Vishnu is represented as the eternal Ruler of the world. " Whenever there is decay of righteousness, O Bharata, and there is exaltation of unrighteousness then I myself come forth for the protection of the good, for the destruction of evil-doers, for the sake of firmly establishing righteousness, I am born from age to age." The Brahman theological writers by this theory of incarnating gods were able to annex any Aryan hero, who attempted to rule India in accordance with Brahmanical traditions, giving the Brahmans predominance and reducing the labouring classes to slavery. The priests and kings from time immemorial had always combined to keep power in their hands. They tolerated the capitalist class, but were ready to oppress the labouring class in the hope of keeping them permanently disabled. When the priest class gains power, laws enacted to put down the power of the princes. When the princes gain power they repeal the oppressive laws of the priesdy hierarchy. But Vishnu is always ready to help the victorious party. When the Brahmans gain power Vishnu incarnates to destroy the ene­ mies of righteousness which may mean either the rival of the royal party or the foes that threaten India. The first incarnation of Vishnu was in the form of a Fish. The second was in the form of a Tortoise or Turtle ; the third was in the form of a wild b o a r ; the fourth incarnation was in the form of a Man-lion ; the fifth was in the form of a Dwarfman ; the sixth incarnation was a half-caste Brahman by name of Parasurama, who, it is said, annihilated the Kshatriyas and restored the lost power of the Brahmans ; the seventh incarnation was a royal prince by the name of Ramachandra ; the eighth incarnation was * Pamphlet published in Calcutta in 1922.


Krishna, also a prince, who exhorted Prince Arjuna to kill all his relatives who opposed him ; the ninth incarnation was Buddha, the son of King Suddhodana of the royal line of Ikshuvaku, who, it is said, came down to delude the Danavas by making them to give up animal sacrifices as laid down in the Veda. If the Brahmanic writers are to be believed Vishnu did what the Jewish deity had done to deceive Saul and David. Theological writers have never been logical or consistent when they have their vested interests to conserve. In addition to the incarnating gods there are in the Indian Pantheon about 333 million gods. The Indian people suffer from a plethora of muddleheaded deities, and thev are always ready to annex any god that come by their way. To them an extra god is like adding a bucket of water to the ocean of gods. Gods and priests go together, both require food and the people have to feed them if they want to exist without incurring the wrath of both gods and priests. Poor people of India. The ancient Indians had gods to watch them in every portion of their career. They saw gods in the tree, in the wood, in the gate, in the parasol of the king, in the lake, in the pond, in the royal standard, in the bed chamber, in the garden, in the hills, in the mountains, in the river, in the ocean, in the wind, in the sun, in the moon, and so on and so forth. They wished to stay with the people and whatever they were offered in the shape of food which the people eat, the gods were pleased. Some were earth bound and blood burnt in the fire smelled sweet in their nostrils and was of sweet savour. Among the powerful gods of the so-called Vedic period Indra was chief and he was ever in conflict with the Asuras, and his allies in the battle field were Soma, Varuna, Prajapati ; and in ancient India when the kings went to battle they invoked Indra to aid them in defeating the enemy. T o fight and die in the battle field meant birth in heaven, as we see in the exhortation of Krishna to Arjuna. Says Krishna : " Further, looking to thine own duty thou shouldst not tremble ; for there is nothing more welcome to a Kshatriya than righteous war. Happy the Kshatriya who obtain such a fight, offered unsought as an open order to heaven. Slain thou will obtain heaven, victorious thou wilt enjoy the earth, therefore stand up, O thou son of Kunti resolute to fight." Bhagavad Gita II 31, 32. In the Jataka Book are found stories that were current in ancient India where Indra gave similar advice to the kings going to war, to the son who loses his life to protect his parents, the servant who dies for his master. They all go to heaven. This ancient Aryan military ethic was repeated by Muhammad when he began his military


career, inspring the nomadic tribes of Arabia to devastate countries and plunder the helpless tribes. In the case of the Hebrews Yahweh did not promise them a heaven but only a land flowing with milk and honey. There is no positive evidence in Indian literature showing any direct communication between India and Greece, before the invasion of Gandhara country by Alexander the Great. Herodotus (B. C. 484) who visited Persia, only heard of India. Megasthenes and Strabo have written about India, when the former was staying at Pataliputra in the court of Chandragupta grand-father of the great Asoka. Alexander himself did not come over to India proper. After having subjugated Porus he returned to Babylon and died there in his 32nd year through excessive drinking. He conquered West Asia, but he failed to control his own internal passions. He is the victorious hero who conquers his self and dominates his passions, says the Buddha. Military adventurers for a time dazzle the world holding the reins of the charger for a time and then disappear adding nothing to the world's happiness but misery for several generations. Alexander the great was the first and last European monarch that ventured to invade India, for a line of Indian monarchs ruled India giving no opportunity for a foreign foe to dominate in the soil of Aryavarta for nearly twelve hundred years since the Alexandrian invasion of Punjab, and the first foreign foe that came on a plundering expedition was the son of the slave king, Mahmud of Ghazni. The wealth of India was immense, and the tribes of west Asia imbued with the military spirit of Islam poured down on the rich land as a devastating flood and carried off the vast accumulated wealth of nearly 30 centuries', not once but according to the historian eighteen times. The plundering spirit of the nomadic Arabs was schooled thence forward for conquest. Centuries of progress were all destroyed in Central Asia and the countries between Punjab and Persia lay desolate, each invader ruthlessly' destroying the work of his prede­ cessor. Each military free-booter was inspired by the Islamic ethic of destruction of the unbeliever, and when the unbeliever ceased to exist, the spirit of conquest was summoned to invade the dominion whose ruler was also a follower of Islam. It is due to the archaeological researchers of Champollion, Layard and Rawlinson in Assyria and Babylon that we have to-day the history of the ancient civilization of these countries. Christianity and Islam had completely destroyed the archaic civilization of the Assyrian, Persian and Babylonian empires, and all history was to be obtained from the distorted text of the Old Testament prophets. The history of the world was to be found in the Mosaic record, said the theo­ logians, and any other work was not necessary. The folklore myths of ancient Babylon and Egypt which the Hebrews were able to


collect during their sojourn in the countries as captives became scienti­ fic historic records for the converted Christians of England, Rome, Germany. Pagan and heathen were the terms that the converts to Christianity used against the cultured people of non-Christian Rome, Egypt and Persia. Science, art, history, philosophy that could not be found in the Bible were of no account. Geology had not yet been discovered, and archaeology, astronomy, biology and modern science had not been born. Biblical chronology was enough to guide the destinies of the people of the world was the dictum of the western Christian bigots, and Europe lay under a pall. From the time of Constantine Christian dogmatics crushed the rational spirit of the people of the west and of the countries that came under the rule of the Church until the rise of the Islamic power. What was left undestroyed by the early Christian chruch was ruthlessly destroyed by the new conquerors. The discovery of the ocean route to India and of the new world gave the freebooters of Portugal and Spain an opportunity to extend the power of the Catholic church. Cortez and Pizarro destroyed the civilization of the ancient races that were ruling in Peru, and central America. The Pope divided the world between Portugal and Spain giving the west to Spain and the east to Portugal. The Portugal navigators came in their vessels to the east and destroyed the civilization of Ceylon and plundered the king's palace and destroyed the beautiful temples that had stood for nearly ten centuries, carrying away the ivory throne of the Ceylon king to be presented to the monarch of Portugal. From the fifteenth to the end of the eighteenth century the pirates and freebooters of Spain, Portugal, Holland and England traversed the seas and plundered the islanders of the Pacific, and later on they began plundering each other, and eventually the superior marine power and diplomacy of England triumphed over other countries. The crescent and the cross destroyed the ancient civilization of Egypt, Babylonia, Persia, Rome, Greece, Peru, Central America, Ceylon, Gandhara, Central Asia, Punjab, Kashmir, Java and all India, which began with Constantine and ended with the destruction of the Moslem power by the British in the eighteenth century. T o quote the words of the author of the " Secret Doctrine " : " Verily the fiendish spirits of fanaticism of early and mediaeval Christianity and of Islam, have from the first loved to dwell in dark­ ness and ignorance, and both have made " the sun like blood, the earth a tomb, the tomb a hell, and hell itself a murkier gloom." Vol.I,p.XLL The civilization of Greece had many things in common with India. The polytheism of Greece had its counterpart in India, the costumes worn by the women and men of Greece were very similar to the dress of the Indian people, and their philosophers thought out


systems of philosophy that have their parallels in India. Democritus Heracl*tes, Pythagoras, Diogenes, Socrates, Plato, Epicurus, were they living today, would certainly side with the thinkers and philo­ sophers of India, not with the muddle-headed theologians of the west. Religious persecution began with the Papel church. It was followed by the followers of Islam. It was unknown in ancient India, unknown in China, unknown in imperial Rome. The helots of the early church courted persecution in obedience to the command of Jesus in order to gain heaven, and the philosophic Romans who followed the ethics of the Stoics held the sect of Christians in supreme contempt on account of their superstitions. The superstition became the religion of the large number of helots in Rome, and the prelates gathered strength, the military was won over to their side and the church trimphed, and with her triumph came the persecutions of the so-called pagans and the temples were destroyed and Roman culture became a thing of the past. Darkness reigned over the lands under the control of the church of Rome. Then came the Reformation headed by Luther, the German monk, and the Bible became the guide of the Protestant form of Christianity, and the jealous deity of Horeb, at first a tribal god, was enthroned as the supreme God Lord of the World. The birth of modern science helped to destroy the power of the Christian church, and also helped to bring about a change in the material comforts of the people of Europe. The markets of Asia rich in spices and luxuries were brought within the reach of the people of Europe, and the love of gold, pearls, diamonds, gems, spices accentuated the spirit of piracy of the European races. With the help of gunpowder and guns the western races were able to dominate the eastern races, and the earth lay prostrate under the heel of the armed conqueror, who carried on warfare according to the ethics of the old Testament. The Christian thinks himself to be the chosen of God, and the example of the Hebrews who destroyed the tribes of Canaan is copied by the invader when he is dealing with the native races of conquered countries. Since the decipherment of the inscribed clay tablets discovered in Nippur Assyriology has come to ulurnine the dark places hitherto occupied by Biblical Jahwehistic science. Egyptology and Assyrio­ logy have both helped to open the eyes of European scholars who had no idea of the antiquity of other religions except that of the ten tribes of Israel. The theologians counted the years of the patriarchs of the Old Testament and made a chronology of the earth to suit their own stupidities. It was Bishop Ussher or some old fogey of a prelate who was so co*cksure of the time that Jehovah created the world that he was able to give the date, month, week and hour of the occurrence. Geology, and Darwinian evolutionism gave a shock to the pet theories of muddle-headed prelates, and the sledge hammer attacks of Huxley, TyndalL Herbert Spencer on 405

Biblical fortifications were destructive and formidable. The dis­ coveries of archaeological scholars in Nippur came like the last straw that broke the camel's back. The Horeb deity was only 6,000 years old while the kings of Egypt were twice older. The Bibilical legends of the creation, the deluge, the confusion of tongues at Babel are now supposed to be the mythological folklore of Babylonia and Egypt, which the captive Hebrews brought with them when they returned from their captivity in the time of Cyrus the Persian monarch. For nearly seventeen centuries the people of Europe from generation to generation were fed on pagan myths as the food of God. Western Asia gave birth to the tribe of Hebrews, and this nomadic people were able to conquer by their religious genius the whole of Europe by means of their collection of myths. Europe lives spiritually on the crumbs that fell from the children's table whose habitation was in the backwaters of Asia. For nearly twenty centuries India and the Far East heard little of the deity of Horeb. The Portuguese attempted to preach their Catholic religion to the people of Japan but they ignominiously failed. In China they were a drop in the ocean, and Chinese Catholics in Macao are not a very large number. In China proper a few hundred thousands may be found, in Annam there are a number of them, and in the Philippine islands several millions are found active and progressive, since the country went under the American flag. In Ceylon there are about two hundred thousand Sinhalese converts, but making not much progress except in holding festivals and building churches in memory of French and Italian saints. In Goa and in British India the Catholic church is stagnant. Protestant Christianity first came to the East through the Dutch. They were not very eager to make converts, and their legacy is to be seen in Ceylon among the Burghers, descendants of Dutch colonists. It was after the British had gained a foothold in India and Ceylon that British Christianity in its aggressive form began to be preached to the people of India, Ceylon and other Asiatic countries. The United States of America as well as the German Lutherans receiving the support of the British opened their missions in various parts of India and Ceylon. The American people began their missionary operations in Japan, China, Korea, and Siam direct without the intervention of British Christians. Millions of pounds and dollars are being spent yearly, and several thousand missionaries are engaged in the work of propaganda in order to win the people of Asia to the rejected creed of Canaan. But for the political power which the European wield, Asia would never care to listen to this creed which has no high ethic or a rational psychology. It is gold and gunpowder that are the main supports of the Christian citadel in Asia. It can never be the religion of the native people so long as it is preached by an alien race intoxicated with pride and power. Islam was propa­ gated by means of fire and sword, and millions through fear of death


were forced to accept it. Of course their descendants were different, to them it was their own. The difference between Islam and Christia­ nity is that the former preaches a democracy and unity of action, while Christianity is looked upon as the religion of the ruling power by the converts who look upon themselves as orphans willing to receive the crumbs that fall from the master's table. A native Church managed by the natives themselves with no white supervision and supported by the contributions of the converts themselves would help to make them more independent and individualistic. Then will come the inspiration for self-sacrificing work; but so long as that is not done Christianity will be an exotic foreign to the soil. The Moslems would never accept Christianity as superior to Islam. It was Islam that crushed Christianity and destroyed it in Asia Minor and Africa; but now that British have gained power over several Moslem countries it may be possible that in the future Christian missionary work in Persia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Arabia may. gain a foothold for Christian propaganda. In the meanwhile there is also the possibility that Christianity in England may undergo change. The people of England 1,300 years ago were considered by the Pope of the period as pagans clinging to savage customs. From pagan barbarism the English people slowly progressed, but after the Reformation and during the Elizabethan period they broke the shell of isolation, and British adventurers began, first as pirates and later on as explorers, to navigate the seas and increase their worldly possessions. The race that gave so many heroes could not be expected to follow the same creed that satisfied their barbarian ancestors. They have won the great world war, and their labouring classes have asserted their individuality, and now that the scientific spirit is dominating it is impossible to believe that they would not adopt the rationalistic methods of world culture. The tribal legends that satisfied a nomadic race embodied in the Hebrew Bible were good enough to give religious comfort to a less enlightened people than the present generation of Englishmen. In the period when there was no science to speak of it was easy to accept on mere belief any kind of faith; but now with the stupendous discoveries that science has hepled to make within the last twenty years, it would be stagnation to remain stationary in the realm of psychological science. The outlook has been magnificently broadened in the British consciousness, and now the larger spirit of enlightened toler­ ance is gaining ground, will not the people of England begin to think for themselves without seeking the help of muddle-headed theologians, who work because they are paid to uphold old dogmatics of an intolerant creed with no scientific foundation, lacking the ethics of compassion and good will to all. The Horeb deity and the Mosaic ethics and Pauline dogmatics have been the mainstay of European Christianity. Let us hope that like the great Emperor 407

Asoka, who changed his heart after having seen the brutality of war and accepted the Ethics of Righteousness as enunciated by the Blessed One, the British people will become missionaries of Righteous­ ness and humanitarianism. Now that America has legislated prohibit­ ing the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor in the States, England could not take a back seat in the arena of righteousness. The British consciousness so long has been led by the immoral class of Capitalists who loves gold more than human life and for the sake of self have legislated in the interests of self for the sale of the poisons of opium, cocaine and alcoholic drinks to the millions of helpless races in Asia and Africa, and hastening their death and creating millions upon millions of living degenerates. The psychological potentialities of the human mind have not been understood by the animistic metaphysicians of the West nor by the Semitic races of west Asia. T o them man is a mere tool in the hands of an anthropomorphic deity. And the history of the deity of Horeb is a psychological study whose evolution when properly understood will help the people of Christendom to reconsider their position as to the uselessness of sending highly paid men as missionaries to more ancient and more polite and cultured peoples of Aryan descent and influenced by the spirit of Aryan freedom. Savages live in fear, and the despotic autocrats wish to make other people fear them. The Aryan spirit is absolute freedom from the trammels of limitations. To them angry demons and deities were not objects of reverence and were to be set aside. The history of the savage deity of Horeb from the very beginning is an interesting study to the student of religion, and as there are nearly four hundred fifty millions of Buddhists and two hundred millions of Hindus who do not want to be guided by the ethics as enunciated by the Arabianized uncultured rain doctors, it is proposed to write here the biography of this deity. Along with this biography we have also to study the evolution of the Hebrew tribe as given in the books of the old Testament. The founder of the Hebrew tribe was Abram, a native of Ur in Chaldea. It is said that the deity called him out and suggested that he should settle in Canaan. He went accordingly to Canaan, and there built an altar to the god of Bethel. In the time of Abram it is evident that there was intercommunication between Egypt and Canaan. Something makes Abram to visit Egypt, and Pharaoh seeing the wife of Abram falls in love with her. He sends for Abram and inquires who she be, and the man instead of telling him that she is his wife, prevaricates and says that she is his sister. The deity annoyed at the interference of Pharaoh with Abram's wife, and in anger plagues the house of Pharaoh. Pharaoh sends for Abram and question him why he did not tell him that the woman was his wife, and the answer given by Abram is that she is his sister, the daughter of his father by another wife. To get rid of the trouble Pharaoh sends


Abram and his wife out of Egypt. On another occasion Sarah gave trouble to Abimelech, and Jehovah in anger closed the wombs of all the women at Abimelech's house. In their old age Abram and his wife were promised by the deity to give them a son. The son was born, and when the child was able to walk, the deity ordered Abram that he should sacrifice his son as a burnt offering. Abram without any sort of compunction assents and taking the son with him to a solitary place, had his son bound and laid him on the altar, and was preparing to slay him with the knife, when it is said that he heard the voice of the deity saying that he is satsfied with his faith and that he need not kill his son. Happily the poor boy was. saved from the barbarous hand of his father. It is evident that Abram was either a credulous fanatic or that he was a believer in the efficacy of human sacrifices to appease a deity. The same deity many centuries later, adopted the very method that he had condemmed, in sacrificing his only begotten son to save the world. If he is the creator, and has power to save the world, and if he is supreme and above all other gods to whom is the sacrifice intended ? Is it to please the world or to please the devil, or to please a higher god. T o have his only son killed in order to have his anger appeased is monstrously diabolical. A god who loves to receive the blood of his own son to appease his own anger for the sins committed by some one else some thousands of years ago, surely could not be expected to be considered by thoughtful people as being possessed of the higher and sublimer virtues of love and forgiveness. Even the sacrifice of his own son to appease his own anger has not made him a whit more forgiving. The eternal hell still continues to exist, the larger number of humanity still continues to go in the path leading to hell, and the brimstone and fire continue to burn, and the loving deity still cherishes the anger which was provoked in his breast by the foolishness of an individual living in primitive savagery in utter nakedness without any knowledge of what was good and evil. Eternal love and eternal hatred are contradictions. A god could not live in an eternal heaven engendering in his mind eternal hatred. The conflict between good and evil surely some day must end. It could not exist for ever and ever. The mind of man is changing with electronic rapidity. He is not always bad, he does good also, and the energy that he generated in doing good is not lost. The law of cause and effect is immutable and eternal. Gods, may come and go, but this law stands immutable maikng man to progress showing him the way to further advancement by the activity of his own reasoning powers accentuated by self-sacrificing devotion to duty. Every savage race has its own totem deity. And the deity that is presented to Asiatic Aryans by the converted westerns could never win the respect of the thoughtful, cultured races, whose ancestors had existed long before the introduction of the savage concept o f an angry god having power to torture people to endless suffering.


The deity that gave Moses the two tables of stone with the ten com­ mandments engraved by his own hand, had it is true to modify this clause later on. He found that the old ethic was not rational, and had it altered to express a more humane idea in stating that the son shall not suffer for the sins of the father, nor the father for the sins of his son. He was given to anger, he was destructive, and therefore he repented of the evil that he had done. Whenever the deity was provoked during the sojourn of the Hebrews in the wilderness, Moses would remonstrate with him and show how foolish and injurious would it be for his own reputation to carry out such a threat. The deity listened and confessed of the evil idea and expressed his regret. Moses was not a sneaking, snivelling hypocrite of the modern type of muddle-headed panjandrums, who foolishly believe that the deity can be appeased by long winded utterly degrading prayers. The deity of the wilderness was amenable to reason, and Moses was a kind of adviser to the deity when he was provoked to anger. Why should the Aryan nations and the Aryanized races of Asia be inflicted with this tribal story of a race of cut throats, who were advised to spoil the Egyptians of their gold and silver, who refrained from following the advice given to them by this angry deity ? What high ethic could the Aryan people of Asia learn from this mythical story of a tribal god, which knew of no other people, except the Hebrew tribe that was in bondage ? The characters of the old testament beginning with Adam and Eve when analysed exhibit no high ethic in their life. Then we come to analyse the representatives of the twelve tribes, whose ethics are those of the savage tribes represented in their totems. Moses discovered the deity in the backside of a desert in Horeb, who appointed him to be his agent to bring the Hebrews out of Egypt to colonise the desert country, with Horeb as the centre of worship. The deity of Horeb appears to have been only a local god who never arrogated to himself as the creator of the world. The only achieve­ ment to which he laid any claim when rebuking the stiffnecked Hebrews was that he had brought them out of the house of bondage. The God of the book of Genesis was unknown to Moses and to the stiffnecked idolaters who were accustomed to worship the golden calf. The creator god of the first chapter of Genesis was a borrowing from the Chaldean cosmogony. There is the spirit of God resting in the waters, and the God that speaketh, and the god that creates. The first chapter gives the version of a god utterly different from the agricultural god who created man from the dust of the ground to till the ground. The idea of an agricultural god creating man out of the dust of the ground is a borrowing from Egyptian mythology, whose picture is given is chapter II of Genesis. Imagine the hugeness of the garden of Eden watered by a river and only one man to dress it ! The third chapter gives a Chaldean myth describing the fight of the dragon with the god Marduk. The deity instead of destroying 410

the dtagon or the serpent curses man, curses the woman and curses the earth too ! The diabolism of cursing the earth which gives fruits, grains, corn, water, and a place to live in for thousands of millions of human and subhuman beings for thousand million years, has no parallel in the history of religion. And all this for what ? Because a man created by an unknown deity,out the dust of ground, listened to a woman made out of his own rib, ate a fruit of some imaginary tree, the whole earth is cursed, and countless millions of people are doomed to suffer in an eternal hell. The stiffnecked Heb­ rews never had heard this version of the story when they were wander­ ing in the wilderness. Moses had no idea of this version. T o him there was only the deity of Sinai and Horeb. The first six chapters of Genesis give variant readings of the creator myth. First of the spirit floating on the waters ; second the speaking god ; third, the creating god who maketh an androgynous creature ; fourth, an agricultural god who maketh man to till the ground ; fifth, the god that is engaged in conflict with the dragon ; the god that curseth Cain ; and had sent him to a country where there were people. The god of the Babel myth was a borrowing also from Chaldea. The writer of the Babel myth contradicts himself in the preceding chapter in stating thet people had begun to speak already different languages. The tall towers of Babel intended for purposes of astronomical observation, appeared to him a mystery and in his ignorance transmitted the story to the nomadic Hebrews that the people in the country had attempted to build a tower to reach heaven, and that god in anger and fear lest the people might climb up to heaven, had caused the confusion of tongues ! Pre-Jewish religions make mention of creators creating the world, of the purity and sinlessness of the primitive inhabitants, and their subsequent decline and fall, and gods in anger destroying the world and human beings by means of a flood. Egypt was the refuge of the Hebrew tribes. They were looked down with abomination by the Egyptians because of their cattle keeping profession, and they lived segregated from the Egyptians in the land of Goshen. They were totemistic in their" religion, each tribe having a separate totem. They knew that their ancestors had come from the wilderness in Arabia, hence they were known to the Egyptians as Hebrews. The account given that they were made to make bricks without straw is contradicted by their own statement when they were made to wander in the wilderness, that they were better off in Egypt, and blamed Moses several times for having brought them from Egypt where they had their flesh and fish. In the wilderness when " the man Moses " went up to the mountain to confer with the deity, the Hebrews got together and induced Aaron to make a motten calf and they began to worship it as the god that brought them out of Egypt. It is evident that the people had no idea of the Horeb deity when they left Egypt. Evidently they trusted Moses who showed himself as a


magician, and able to do things like a god. The Horeb deity also assured Moses that he would make him a god in the eyes of Pharaoh. Whatever it may be the Hebrews showed no reverence to the Horeb deity. The authentic story of the emigration of the Hebrew tribe from Egypt is buried in obscurity. It is not our purpose to go into the depths of the forgotten history, we are concerned only with the examination of the Biblical version as given in the Old Testament. There is no evidence in the Exodus version wherein it is possible to discover anything genuine about the past history of the doings of the Hebrew tribe, during their long sojourn in the land of the Pharaohs. Hebrew tradition begins with the accidental discovery of the Horeb deity in the backside of the desert by the cattle keeper. Moses, son-inlaw of the Midian priest. Ex. 3 . 1 . The Christian world has accepted as genuine the ten commandments given to the Hebrews by the deity. There is the Exodus version which is different from the Deuteronomic version on a very vital point. The Exodus version speaks of the deity as the creator of the heavens and the earth, which is omitted in the Deuteronomic version. The Exodus version says that the commandments were given by the deity at Sinai, while the latter says that it was given at Horeb. Deut. ch. 5. The Exodus version says : For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh ; wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it. Ex. 20. 11. The Deuteronomic version makes no mention of the creation, and only says but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God. These wotds the Lord spake and he wrote them in two tables of stone and delivered them unto me. Deut. 5, 4 - 2 2 . The sabbath day was instituted on the eve of their departure from Egypt. Ex. 12.16. The ethical evolution of the deity from the jealous god to a more reasonable deity is mentioned in Deut, 2 4 . 1 6 which ;>ays, The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers ; every man shall be put to death for his own sin. And yet this important modification is strangely ignored by the Christians, who still cling to the barbaric version which showed the deity in the form of a monster. Perhaps the modified form was an interpolation at a later period of progress. The deity had his habitation at Bethel. Jacob was satisfied in having a stone altar built for the deity. To Moses the latter said : and if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone : for if*thou lift up thy tool upon it thou hast polluted it. Ex. 20.25. The deity had to give a new commandment to the people as they were used to worship idols. 412

Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, but thou shait utterly overthrow them and quite break down their images. Ex. 22.24. He who was satisfied with a stone altar now desires to have an ark of sh*ttim wood : two cubits and a half shall be the lenth thereof. Ex. 25. 10. It is a matter of wonder how Moses had managed to provide the paraphernalia for the tabernacle as desired by the Lord in the wilderness. That it was not a pleasant task for Moses to lead the stiffnecked child­ ren of Israel through the wilderness is shown in the following : who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish which we did eat freely ; the cucumbers, and the melons and the leaks and the onions and the garlic but now our soul is dried away ; there is nothing at all beside this manna before our eyes. Num. 1 1 . 5 . Moses unable to satisfy the people remonstrates with the deity : Have I conceived all this people, have I begotten them that thou shouldst say unto me, Carry them in thy bosom, fiv.11.12. The emigrants dissatisfied with the management of Moses complain: And wherefore hath the Lord brought us unto this land, to fall by the sword that our wives and our children should be a prey ? Were it not better for us to return into E g y p t ; and they said one to another, let us make a captain and let us return into Egypt. Num. 14. 3. The angry deity thereupon said unto Moses, How long will this people provoke me, and how long will be it be ere they believe me, for all the signs which I have showed among them. I will smite them with pestilence, and disinherit them and will make of thee a greater nation than they. Moses in reply says : The Egyptians shall hear it, and they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land, for they have heard that thou art Lord among his people, Now if thou shalt kill all this people then the nations which have heard the fame of thee will speak, saying, because the Lord was not able to bring this people into the land., he hath slain them in the wilderness. Thereupon the Lord said : I have pardoned according to thy word. But they have tempted me ten times, and they shall not see the land which I swore unto their fathers. Num. 14. 1 5 , 1 6 , 20, 23. Having sworn, now he is going to disavow the promise I The Hebrews again rebelled against the deity, and he in anger sent fiery serpents, and many people died. It was here that the totem pole was hoisted to prevent the catastrophe. Num. 2 1 , 6. At the rebellion of Korah the deity destroyed 250 men, and again by plague 14,700. Num. 16. 35, 49. It is often said that the children of Isreal were a monotheistic people, but their repeated back slidings show on the contrary they were decidedly polytheistic. At sh*ttim they began to commit whor*dom with the daughters of Moab, and they joined unto Baalpeor. And the 413

Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people and hang them before the Lord against the sun, and Moses said unto the judges of Israel, slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor, and those died in the plague were 24000. Num. 25. And the Lord's anger was kindled against Isreal and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generatiomthat had done evil in the sight of the Lord was consumed. Num. 3 2 , 1 3 ; John, 5. The Lord feared that the people will forsake him, and he said unto Moses, Behold thou shalt sleep with thy fathers ; and this people will rise up and go a whoring after the gods of strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them. Then my anger shall be kindled against them, and I will forsake them, and I will hide my face from them. Deuf, 51.16. And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord and served Baalim ; and they forsook the Lord and served Baal and Ashtoreth. Judges- 2, 1 1 . The deity before he met Moses once had a wrestling contest with Jacob. The man who swindled his own brother and cheated his own father was not going to let the deity off easily. The deity said, Let me go for the day breaketh, and Jacob answered, I will not let thee go except thou bless me. The deity yielded and blessed Jacob, called him Israel. Gen. 3 2 . Jacob returning from Padan-aram meets the deity, who forgetting all about the wrestling contest, says, Thy name shall not be called any more Jacob but Israel shall be thy name. And Jacob set up a pillar and called the place Bethel. Gen. 35. 10. The deity was a kind of peri­ patetic god wandering from place to place in the Euphrates valley. Chaldea, Padam-aram, Syria, Canaan, Egypt, and the backside of the Horeb desert were the places that he favoured most. That the Creator of the sun, moon, stars and the earth, and all living beings, that he should forget the whole creation, and select a native of Chaldea and promise him all kind of things, and climb down from his exalted position and devote his divine energy on a Semitic tribe and engage in battle with the petty gods of the Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, Jebusites, Hittites, to uphold his dignity, seemeth a foolish adventure. Although the deity promised the Hebrews to bring them out of Egypt into a land flowing with milk and honey yet, failed to keep his promise. The generation that came out of Egypt died in the wilder­ ness during the forty years of wandering. It was a new generation that came into the land of Canaan, and they knew not the deity. They went whoring after the strange gods forsaking Jahweh. Judges 414

2. 14- They took the daughters of the strangers of the people unto their sons, and gave the daughters to the sons of the strangers. Judges 3 . 5 . In anger the deity sold the people to the king of Meso­ potamia for eight years ; they were sold to the king of Moab for 18 years ; to the king of Canaan for 2 0 years ; again they were sold to the Midianites for seven years. Judges, chap. 3 and 6. Again the children of Israel went a whoring after Baal-im and they remembered not the Lord their God. Judges 8.33. Again the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord and served Baal-im, Ashtoreth and the gods of Syria, Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the Lord and served not him. Ibid 10.6. In words of remonstrance the deity said, Did not I deliver you from the Egyptians and from the Amorites, from the children of Ammon and from the Philistines, yet have forsaken me and served other gods, wherefore I will deliver you no more. The children of Israel in variably followed other gods, not Jahweh. With the solitary exception of David the son of Jesse, who was half Moabite, there was not one among the kinds of Israel who followed the Horeb deity. Solomon, half Hittite, followed other gods. The people of Israel after the death of Solomon became divided. The majority of the people followed Rehoboam, and set up a rival place of worship at Bethel, and installed the golden calf, saying, Behold thy gods Israel, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt. The minority followed Jahweh, whose seat of worship was in Zion in Jerusalem. I Kings 12. Cannan was full of tribal gods. Jahweh the deity of Judah was one of them. Each tribe had its own god. The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth ; the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima, and the Avites made Nibhaz, the Separites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Annamelech, the gods of Sepharvaim. Unto this day they do after former manners : they fear not the Lord. II Kings 1 7 . The totem serpent, which was being worshipped since the time of the first batch of Hebrews, was destroyed in the time of Hezekiah. The prophets who pleaded the case of Jahweh were ignored by the people who followed not the Horeb deity. II. Kings 1 7 . The deity expres­ sed his deep abhorrence at the backsliding of the Hebrews, but they did not care to listen to him. Burning with anger the deity said., Because they have forsaken me and have burned incense unto other gods, that they might provoke me to anger, therefore my wrath shall be poured out upon this place, and shall not be quenched. IlChr. 34.25. The Creator who destroyed the world, now swears at a tribe ! How are the mighty fallen. Having failed to guide the house of Israel who followed the golden calf, the deity concentrated his energy in the hope of keeping the house of Judah loyal to him. In this too the


deity failed. Then the net was laid to have the Judah tribe sold into captivity, and the deity formed an alliance with the King of Babylon. The deity laments : The house of Judah and the house of Israel have dealt treacherously against me. The children gather wood and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead the dough to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they provoke me to anger. Jer. 7 . 1 8 . The threats of the deity produced no fear in the minds of the people of Judah. For according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have ye set up altars to that shameful thing, even altars to burn incense unto Baal. Each city had its own god. Jer. 1 1 . 1 3 . The deity pours forth his wrath upon Jerusalem. Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants of this land with drunken­ ness, and I will dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together, saith the Lord. I will not pity, nor spare, now have mercy, but destroy them. I have seen thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the lewdness of thy whor*doms and thine abominations on the hills and in the fields. (Jer. 1 3 . 1 3 , 1 4 , 27.) Thus saith the Lord, such as for death to death ; and such as are for the sword to the sword, and such as are for the famine to the famine, and such as are for the captivity to the captivity, and I will appoint over them four kinds saith the Lord : the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth to devour and destroy. Thou hast forsaken me, saith the Lord, thou art gone backward, therefore will I stretch out my hand against thee and destroy thee ,: I am weary with repenting. I will destroy, thou art gone backward, therefore will I stretch out my hand against my people, since they return not from their ways. Jer. 1 5 . 2, 3, 6, 7. If the nation against whom I have pronounced turn from their evil I will repent of the evil that I thought to do unto them. Jer 18. 8 ; 19. The deity is decided to do the very last act of treachery : I will give all Judah into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall carry them captive into Babylon and slay them with the sword. Jer. 20, 4. It is gruesome reading, the twentyfifth chapter of Jeremiah. Amend your ways, obey the voice of the Lord your God, and the Lord will repent him of the evil that he hath pronounced against you. In anger the deity directs Jeremiah to pronounce the curse. There is the opposite school of prophets who in the name of Jahweh also prophesies. The deity is angry because of the opposite party. Jeremiah is for Jehovah, and tells the house of Judah to submit to the yoke of the king of Babylon. The deity declares : And it shall come to pass that the nation and kingdom which will not serve Nebucha­ dnezzar, the king of Babylon, that nation will I punish with the sword, and with the famine and with the pestilence, until I have consumed 416

them by his hand. Therefore hearken not ye to your prophets, nor to your divines which speak unto you, saying, Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon : For they prophesy a lie unto you. Jer 27. 8. Poor people, whom are they to trust ? Jeremiah or Hananiah ! Hananiah is the rival of Jeremiah. The deity is angry with Hana­ niah because he said that the captivity will last only two years. Jahweh by terrorizing the people want them to follow him. The deity in anger killed Hananiah. Jer. 28. 16. The deity having failed to convince the house of Judah of the coming calamity has recourse to strategem. He tells Jeremiah to invite the Rechabites to the house, of God and make them drink wine in the room of the Lord. Pots of wine were placed in the room and the Rechabites were told to drink wine. They said, they will not drink wine in accordance with the advice given to them by their father. The deity failed in the ruse. He brings the good example of the Rechabites because they listened to their father, and laments that the house of Judah does not hearken unto him. Jer 35. The King of Babylon came, captured the city of Jerusalem, and took away several thousands of Herbrews as captives to Babylon. This was in the year 589 B.C. The remnants of Judah remained in Jerusalem. • To them the deity exhorts : Be not afraid of the king of Babylon. I will show mercies unto you. But if ye say, we will not dwell in this land, neither obey the voice of the Lord, but we will go into the land of Egypt, where we Shall see no war, nor hear the sound of the trumpet, and there we will dwell and now therefore hear, Ye remnant of J u ­ dah, if ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there, none of them shall remain or escape from the evils that I will bring upon them. Jer 42. 12-19. The remnant of Judah declined to hear the voice of the deity and they came into the land of Egypt, and were welcomed by Pharaoh. The fury of the deity is unquenchable ; he pursued the remnant of Judah to Egypt, and threatened them with extinction. Jer 44. 1 2 . Hear the words of the deity : Behold I will watch over them for evil and not for their good ; and all the men of Judah that are in Egypt shall be consumed by the swords and by the famine, untill there be an end of them. Jer 45. 27. In order to destroy the remnants of Judah sojourning in Egypt the deity went and joined the King of Babylon and introduced him to invade Egypt. Jer 46. 27. Having lost the remnant of Judah the next step that the deity did take was to destroy the poor Moabites. In his fury he threatened them with destruction. Moab shall be destroyed from being a people 417 X6

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because he hath magnified himself against the Lord. Jer 48. 4 2 . Having taken steps for their destruction he next turned his attention against the Ammonites then against Damascus, then against Edom, then against Elam, and lastly against Babylon. Babylon that helped the deity to destroy Judah and Egypt was the object of his Funk. T o destroy Babylon he went and joined the Medes. Jer 5 1 . 1 1 . His unquenchable fury was directed against Babylon and this is how he cursed Babjdon : It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in : but wild beasts of the desert shall be there, and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. Isaiah 13, 20, The destructive work begun by the deity when he was living alone in the backside of the Horeb desert came to an end with the overthrow of Babylon. This according to Biblical chronology happened in the year 595 B.C. The promises that he made to Abram, to Isaac, to Jacob and to Moses all came to nothing. T H E GOD OF MONOTHIESM

All monotheistic religions have been built on the foundations of animism. The founders of monotheistic religions have been invariably bloodthirsty, despotic, and cruel. Curiously Aryan religion never tolerated despotic gods. For a long time the Brahamans of India preached the idea of a creator whom they called Brahma. But with the growth of knowledge they were able to perceive the utter uselessness of a deity who himself was not sure of his own origin. It is said that Brahma wished to know who created him and Brahma along with Vishnu and Siva went to Narayana and asked the latter who created them. Narayana said that he was the origin of all the three gods. They came away satisfied and ever afterwards lived in amity and peace. This version of the story is found in the Prapanchasara Tantra. In the Puranas there is another version of the creator story. It is said that in the council of the gods the subject was discussed as to the origin of the universe. All were silent except Brahma and Vishnu. Each of them said that he is able to discover the origin, and the gods thereupon expressed their desire that both should proceed on the adventurous journey and report the result to their investi­ gations. Vishnu went one way, and Brahma went another way in order to find the beginning of the universe. Vishnu went some distance and seeing that the operation was very tiresome returned and said that it was impossible to find the beginning. Brahma was determined to get at the root, and he went way up, and Coming to one of the stages in the upper regions found the heavenly cow grazing. Feeling tired Brahma sat and asked the heavenly cow whether it was possible to proceed further, and the cow answered that the end is here, and beyond this the journey could not be made. Brahma being satisfied that he had reached the end, came back to the council of gods and reported that he had seen the end. The gods 418

were sceptical, and asked Brahma whether he could produce a wit­ ness. Brahma answered in the affirmative and produced the heavenly cow. The gods asked the cow whether what Brahma said was true. The cow wagged her tail. The gods understood it to mean that what Brahma said was not true. The gods thereupon gave the verdict that Brahma having told a lie that he should be deprived of his high office which he has so long held. From that day the gods ceased to honour Brahma as Creator. Monotheistic religoins have thrived in places where philosophy was taboo. The most ancient of races are the Chinese people. Their ancient teachers set aside the question of a creator as of no earthly benefit. They kenw that the human being requires an immediate progenitor, and that without an ancestor it was impossible for man to come into being. They instead of bothering their head about an imaginary creator, decided that it is proper that they should worship their ancestors. They are an ancient and practical people and in their language there is no word or ideograph to connote the idea of a creator. It originated with the nomadic tribes of west Asia and was accepted by unclutured races. The idea thrives luxuraintly among such races as are given to bestialism and alcholism. Cruelty and muddle-headedness go hand in hand with the creator idea. The ancient Brahmans belved that Brahma created them and that the came from the mouth of the deity. They therefore said that they alone were supreme, and the rest of the people are low. The creator idea is also responsible to make man a fatalist, who beluves that nothing happens unless it has been preordained by the creator, and that man's efforts to improve by his own exertions is condemned as useless. Monotheistic peoples have always deteriorated when they are not inspired by fanaticism. It is an impossibility that man can remain a monotheist. The Hebrews in theory were monotheists, but their career under the direct guidance of Jahweh has falsified the theory. The Catholic Christians have a number of saints and Virgin Mary to appeal to. Their devotion to an exclusive deity is contaminated by their desire to pray to the saints and Mary. Moslems are supposed to be strict monotheists, and yet they have their Kaaba and their saints and the holy well at Mecca. The idea of monotheism was foreign to the Arabs and it was enforced by Mohammad at the point of the sword. After thirteen centuries of the promulgation of the idea do we find the people any better than what they were before. The ancient Egyptians had a god called Khnu-mu, who was supposed to have made man out of clay. This myth the authors of the book of Genesis had it incorporated in their book. The ancient Greeks had a belief that Zeus was the chief of the Gods. The Romans believed in Jupiter. The ancient Persians believed on Ahuramazda, 419

the god of light engaged in a conflict with the god of darkness called Ahriman. There have been many an attempt made by various nations in their triumph to attribute their victories to the respective patron gods. When the Babylonians were wielding power they attributed their victories to their favourite god. With the decline of power of each nation the god also declines. An eternal Creator is a psychological impossibility. The earth is undergoing climatic changes and geological upheavals. New lands spring up, old lands disappear. At one time there were on the earth land animals of gigantic dimensions in the shape of lizards, birds, such as the dinosaur, megatherium, pterodactyl, and these have disappeared for ever. New species of animals are coming into existence, showing that the law of evolution is immutable and that there is no divine purpose behind. If there had been a creator, say a million years ago, why should he have allowed the latter gods to assume power ? If the creator was omnipotent why should there be a conflict between him and another being. If he is engaged in a never ending conflict could he be called omnipotent ? If an all powerful creator does exist why should there be all this suffering, which is never ending ? Why should an all powerful creator bring into existince day after day cripple and the blind deaf, and the idiots? Why should he kill the child in the womb why should he send cyclones and destroy men, women, children, innocent animals, brining ruin in the trial ? Some metaphysicians in anicient India compared the creator to a despotic monarch, who does what he wills. Unrighteous despotism exists in savage society, but why should an all aloving God follow the fiendish example of a cruel despot. The creator it is said is all-mercyfuly all loving, and yet what an amount of savagery do we see in the world to-day, nation fightingagainst nation, using every kind of diabolical means to extirpate each other ? An all-powerful, all-loving creator, who does not allow a hair to fall whithout his knowledge, could easily prevent the brutal wars that are taking place . among the so-called civilized nations. Is there to be no end to this , misery and suffering and is the creator to reamaind a victim of his passions for ever, sending millions of peolpe to an eternal hell, thereby , showing that his hatered too is eternal. How could such a one be : called god of love? The blind man needs another to guide him, and the economic waste may be averted by the creator in at least guiding • him without the necessity of having another's assistance. The despicable idea destroy love in the heart of man. Despotism and creulty are the corollaries of the creator idea Preceptions and cogni­ tions are the instruments that the unenlightened metaphysical mind employ in in the solution of psychological problems, a little child has no idea of the value of a gold coin, it only perceives the yellow colour; the ordinary man has the cognition to know its face value, but has not the knowledge to analyse and find out whether it is a counterfeit coin or not ; but the scientist analyses and throughly understands 420

its value and purity. Science was not known to the people of the west in the medieval peroid when Europe was enveloped in darkness. With the dawn of knowledge men began to think. Luther found that the Roman church was a danger to society, and he reblelled against it and many joined his standard. The Catholic clergy in the medieval period as a body remained enveloped in ecclesiastical darkness. They were satisfied with their lot. Power and luxurious living made them to create instruments of torture. The inquisition was the result. Bruno was burnt at the stake because he enunciated a principle which the muddle-headed clergy thought was dangerous. Galilio was tortured and was forced to recant what he had procalimed, which to-day is accepted as a scientific truth. In the religious world the prelates dislike the growth of wisdom, and in the political world the effort is made to keep all power in the hands of an oligarchy. The rights of the people are destroyed. They are treated as if they were animals. Their lands are forcibly taken away. Knowledge is withheld. They are disarmed, and for generations they are made to suffer, until a cataclysm sweeps away the whole lot who keep the people in dark­ ness. Military leaders are not moralists, neither could we expect tolerance and wisdom from ecclesiastical prelates whose very life depends on the observance of rituals and psalm singing and praying to imaginary deities. The oligarchy of ruling bureaucrats and the hierarchy of prelates combine together to keep the people in slavery, and the creator idea is the linch pin in the wheel of unprogress. In certain countries religion and politics are jumbled together, and the leaders of both combine to keep the massess in ignorance and social slavery. This is well described in the following passage : " Oligarchy has been called Liberty ; and exclusive priesthood has been christened a National Church ; Sovereignty has been the title of something that has had no dominion, while absolute power has been wielded by those who profess themselves the servants of the People. In the selfish strife of factions two great existences have been blotted out of the history of England—the Monarch and the Multitude ; as the power of the Crown has diminished, the privileges of the People have disappeared ; till at length the sceptre has become a pageant and subject has degenerated again into a serf."Sybil. The creator god is a symbol of opposites. When he created the butterfly, which did he create first the worm or the butterfly ? without the worm the chrysalis could not be, and without the chrysalis their could not be the butterfly.Was the egg created first or the bird. Again think of the duck-billed platypus, a native mammal of Australia whose young are born from eggs. Think of the little beautiful moths that are born only for a day, and the next day they cease to exist. What a waste of psychic energy on the part of the creator. Think of the countless millions of poisonous mosquitoes that are springing up daily in marshy pools, are these all the work of an 421

intelligent all loving, all-powerful creator ? The all-loving god who showeth love to all creatures is not satisfied unless he is given the blood of a cow or a goat. Look at the incongruity of the creator in making the ferocious blood-thirsty tiger to prey upon the most innocent of all quadrupeds, the deer, and the cow. Ferocity and cowardice are twins. The savagery of the Israelites is inconceivable as we see from the doings mentioned in the books of Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and Joshua. The Horeb deity is a veritable demon, for is it not mentioned that the Lord's anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years until all the generation that had done evils in the sight of the Lord, was consumed. Num. 32,13. Downright bestial*ty ( 1 . Samuel 14. 32) was visible throughout their career of lust which findeth expression in the words " thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, the unclean and the clean may eat thereof". Deut. 1 2 . 1 5 14. 26 Abominable indecency is expressed in Deutoronomy chapter 25, verse 1 1 . The curses bestowed upon the people are given in chap. 28 from verse 16 to verse 68. Even the creators undergo change in character. When Adam was tempted by Eve, and when the secret came out that the originator of the trouble was Satan, the deity cursed him that he should creep in his belly but after a time we find that a reconciliation had taken place between the deity and the Satan, for don't we find Satan in the council of the G o d in heaven. The Lord greets Satan, Whence comest thou ? and like the Chinaman, Satan says, Oh I have been travelling here and there, going to and fro in the earth, and walking up and down in it. The deity not being sure of the firmness of the faith of the Chaldean J o b , inquires, Hast thou considered my servant J o b that there is none like unto him in the earth, a perfect and upright man Satan finds the opportunity to entice the deity, and he says " Y o u help J o b and naturally he likes you, but put forth thine hand, and he will curse. The Lord is caught in the trap, and he allows Satan to harm the unoffending man. The whole story is given in the first chapter of J o b chapters 1 and 2. The omniscient all powerful deity surely could have found out without the help of Satan whether J o b was firm in his faith or not. The story of the conflict of Satan and God shows that God is on the side of Satan. Instead of saving people from the hand of the devil, JEHOVAH makes an alliance with him to give over to Satan all those who do not obey the deity of Horeb. The heaven is emptied and the kingdom of Satan expands annually because of the increasing number of people that disbelieves the Horebian deity. The army of Satan is more powerful, and his kingdom is more extensive than that of the 422

deity of Canaan. Although the only begotted son of G o d was sacrificed to save the world, yet the world is not saved, the number o f people going to hell increases. The death of the only begotten son has had no beneficial effect on the world. God loved the world and yet he is unable to destroy his handiwork-Satan. Oh, how long will this Horeb myth continue to fool the European people ? He was grieved that Israel would forsake him after the death of Moses. Deut 3 1 . 1 7 . Again when Israel wanted to elect a king and expressed their desire to Samuel, the latter heard the words of God as follow : Samuel, hearken unto the voice of the people : for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me that I should not reign over them. The whole chapter should be read to understand the humour that is in there. (I. Samuel 8). In spite of the protest of the deity the people did elect a king, who was appointed by God, and the king happened to be a driver of asses. After some time the deity repented for having set up Saul king over Israel. I. Samuel 1 5 . 1 1 . The deity had at his command spirits of evil, who were summoned to tempt people. I. Samuel 1 6 . He is a composite deity with the dual nature of both good and evil. After the deposition of Saul, a youngman who was tending sheep was made king. He desired to build a house for the dwelling of the deity. The deity declined saying, that I have not dwelt in any house since the time that I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt even to this day. II. Sam. 7. When Solomon suggested about building a house for the deity he said that he had been dwelling all the time in thick darkness. I Kings. 1 2 . Bloodshed, ignorance and sensuality are the predominating ethics that prevent human progress on the paths of enlightenment and humanity. But for the monstrous grasping desire exhibited by certain races to covet other's property this earth cou'd be made a paradise. Truth comes only to him that stands on the firm foundation of moral conduct and peace of mind. Power and pridein the possession of man makes him a demon. Since the appearance of the cross and the crescent the greater part of the world had been deluged with the blood of human victims. Politics, Trade and inhuman religion founded on the ethics of immorality form the trinity of the political freebooter. The smaller races are not allowed to develop on the lines of natural evolution that suit them best. Everywhere the ethics of bestialism and alcoholism are at work. The plutocracy in western countries have dominated the proletariat, and the conflict between labour and capital is going to bring about a social upheavel in western countries where the ethics of Jahweh have flourished. The methods adopted by the western races have been founded when Europe was in a semi-barbaric stage. Aryan Asia can learn nothing from the ethics of Semitic barbarism. Science is helping the western people 4=23

to organize themselves for mutual destruction, and the capitalist class is exploiting the smaller races for their own selfish greed. The eighteenth century plutocracy robbed the poor people of their land making them vagabonds in their lands. They have failed to uplift their own poor. Could we expect that they will help the alien races to progress in the path of determination ? So long as the western races accept the west Asian Semitic ethics formulated by the deity discovered in the backside of the barren desert of Horeb as the criterion of progress there is no hope for the world. About this deity Revd. Dr. C. F. Burney, Oriel Professor of the interpretation of Holy Scriptures in the University of Oxford, writes in his lectures on Israel's Settlement in Canaan, in a footnote on page 5 5. " There is weighty evidence which points to the primitive connexion of Yahweh with the Moon-god ; and since it can be now shown conclusively that Yahweh or Yahu was originally an Amorite deity, it seems to follow that the deity must have been known and worshipped in Canaan prior to the coming of Israel, though not under the high ethical conception with which He was invested through the Theophany made to Moses at Sinai. Israel's subsequent religious history may then be pictured, not as a struggle of Yahweh worship with the worship of a different deity or deities (the Canaanite Baals) but as a struggle between the high ethical conception of Yahweh introduced by Moses, and the lower and more naturalistic conception of the same deity already prevalent in Canaan. If, then, Yahweh was pictured in Canaan as the Moon-god, and Ashera is the Arabian Atirat who is known to have been the consort of this deity, the view is plausible that the goddess was regarded in Canaan as the consort of Yahweh. This explains the setting up of her image or symbol beside the altar of Yahweh, and also the keen antagonism with which such a proceeding was regarded by the prophets as the exponents of the purer form of Yahweh worship ". The Yahweh worshippers of ancient Canaan were given to bestialism is seen in the behaviour of the worshippers of the deity after they had smote the Philistines : And the people flew upon the spoil and took sheep and oxen and calves and slew them on the ground ; and the people did eat them with the blood. 1 . 1 4 . 32 ; Deut 14, 36. Like people like god. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation : and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon the altar ; the fat thereof and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone ; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards. And the priest shall burn it upon the altar. This is the food of the offering unto the Lord. Leviticus 3. 8-11. 424

George A. Barton in the article on bestial*ty in the Encyclopaedia ot Religion and Ethics, says : Apparently among all primitive peoples bestitality is in some degree exhibited. The peculiar conditions of Arabia and North Africa, the primitive Semitic and Hamitic homes . . . made the development of a high civilization impossible. The constant influx of large numbers of immigrants from these desert conditions into the various Semetic countries through the whole course of history tended to keep alive within them all primitive bestial elements. As the Semites moved into agricultural lands and began to cultivate the vine, their excessive drinking led naturally to some drunkenness. A classic instance of this is embodied in the traditions of Noah's drunkenness . . . apparently, however, drunkenness among the ancients was never so flagrant a vice as it is in modern Anglo-Saxon countries ". Alcoholism, bestialism are the two great gifts to the world by Semitic and the Anglo-Saxon races. Of the ancient Persians Herodotus wrote : As soon as they hear of any luxury they instantly make it their own : and hence among other novelties they have learnt unnatural lust from the Greeks. Herodotus, Vol. II, p. 22 J.



The Ancient Story of Genesis as known to the Primitive Aryans of India

In the Agganna sutta of the Digha Nikaya, the Blessed One, the Buddha Sakya Muni, related the ancient story of the genesis of the world to the two young Brahmans, Vasettha and Bharadvaja, who left their homes to join the Holy Brotherhood of the Bhikkhu Sangha. " It is an interesting story making all human beings equal, and that man's glory consists in the observance of ethical laws in accordance with Truth. Caste has no place in the ideal Democracy of Truth. The Blessed one is the best and most illustrious exponent of the sublime idea. The Sakyans, the most haughty of the Kshatriyas of ancient India, who claimed descent from Ikhsuvaku, the first of kings of the Solar Dynasty, in the Agganna Sutta, are represented as being under the government of king Pasenadi of Kosala. They are shown in the sutta, as paying honour and homage to the king. If there is any truth in the caste theory the king of Kosala should demand respect from the Blessed One. But the king is guided by the higher ideal of Truth, and there­ fore the Blessed One who is a Sakyaputra, receives homage and worship from the king, in as much as he knows that the Samana Gautama the Tathagata is above him in wisdom and in the purity of His character. Another important point shown in the sutta is that the ancient Aryans had a primitive tradition that the earth was first inhabited by the radiant beings who came from the Abhassara Brahmaloka. They were not created by the Brahma of the Brahmanical tradition. The Brahma tradition was invented by the Brahmans to uphold their claim to superiority over the Kshatriyas and the other two castes. The Buddha in relating the ancient stroy demolished the Brahmanical dogma of the superiority of one caste over another. 427

The Kshatriyas claimed descent from the Sun god, and laughed at the tradition of the Brahmans. They claimed superiority over the Brahmans in as much as they ruled over all other castes. They rejected the claim of the Brahmans, who posited a creater, whom the Brahmans called the Father of the Brahmans, from whose mouth they issued ! The Blessed One told the young Brahmans that in making Brahma's mouth the womb of the Brahmans, they defamed the God. Besides it is not true to say that they came from the mouth of Brahma, while the living Brahman women are seen giving birth to babes. By proclaiming an untruth the Brahmans were simply committing a demeritorious act. The Aryan ethics enunciated by the Blessed One are : That a good man should not destroy life. Destruction is the work of the savage and the pagan. The dishonest life should be avoided ; the adulterous life is bad ; unlawful sensuality is forbidden taking intoxicants is bad ; falsehood, slandering others, harsh and unpleasant language, unprofitable conversation are to be avoided ; covetousness, hatred, illwill and erroneous and non-scientific views should be abandoned. The noble Aryan should avoid these unsocial immoral ethics. The Blessed One pointed out to the two young Brahmans that there are bad men as well as good men among the Kshatriyas. Similarly there are bad and good among the Brahmans ; and also among the Vaishyas and Sudras. The Kshatriya, if he is willing may become good, as also the Sudra. Truth and Righteousness demand that the noble life of virtue should be respected. The establishment of a spiritualized Democracy based on Truth and Righteousness was what the Blessed One aimed at. The whole of the Vinaya Pitaka contain rules to guide the Brotherhood of Democracy. Every one was admitted within its portals, excepting the soldier, the epileptic, the leper, &c. In as much as the king was gainst the admission of the soldier into the Bhikkhu Sangha, the Buddha did uphold the king's authority. The soldier has to bring his order of release from the army, when seeking admission into the Sangha. The leper, the man suffering from asthma and epilepsy and other incurable diseases were not admitted into the Bhikkhu Sangha in accordance with the wishes of the people. The Bhikkhus were expected to be examples of virtue, and they were to preach the Good Law to the people, and visit them in their homes. The Buddha was asked by Jivaka, the Physician, not to ordain incurables and the Blessed One laid down the rule that those suffering fromincurable diseases should not be ordained. The Bhikkhu Sangha was a spiritual army, and they were expected to travel nine months in the year from country to country, village to village preaching and exhorting the people. Those that were suffering from incurable diseases could not carry out the rules of an active strenuous life. 428

N o distinction of caste was made in the Order. But physical health was a necessity to lead the vigorous life. The following is a free translation of the Agganna sutta (second portion) showing the genesis story according to the primitive tradition of ancient Aryans :— There comes a time after a very long period when the world goes into dissolution. At the time when the process of disintegration is taking place the life wave ceases, and living beings transmigrate and are born in the Abhassara Brahmaloka, the heaven of the radiant Gods. Those who are born there have no material body, they eat no solid food, in joy they live, and their spiritual bodies are radiant, emitting rays of glory, and they require no other light. They travel through space. In happiness they live for a long period. There comes a time after a very long long period, when this world begins to re-evolve again. Slowly the world begins to re-integrate, and cosmic activity commences. When this world is fit to be re-peopled, the beings of the Radiant world cease to exist there and are born here. And the incarnated beings are mind born, selfevolved ; they live a life of joyousness. Their spiritual bodies are effulgent; perfect in symmetry, beautiful to look at. In this state of blessedness they exist for a long long period. The earth is yet in a liquid form, water preponderates. Darkness impenetrable along exists. The sun and moon remain hidden. They ate not visible. The spiritual beings have no idea of the starry space. The stars are not visible. There is no Night and no Day, and time hath not. They know not of the day and of the night, and of the seasons and of years. The beautifully shaped beings live in joyous innocence. Differentiations of sex they know not. Apperceptions of sex have no place in their consciousness. This is Man and this is Woman they knoweth not. This knowledge hath not yet come to them. Under the common designation of living being (satta) these glorified spiritual beings exist. In this condition of no-sex they live for very longperiod. Slowly and gradually the watery form that covers the earth disappear, leaving a surface of milky cream, in colour like unto gold.



And from this creamy surface of the earth there began to rise a per­ fume of divine sweetness. The creamy surface gave the taste of divine ambrosia. It was like unto sweet honey comb bereft of larva. Inhaling the sweet perfume, illuminated by the glory of their own spiritual effulgent bodies, they traversed the skies, and there arose in them a curious desire to know what this creamy honey like substance was. And they to satisfy the desire took a little of the creamy earth at the tips of their fingers, and applied it to their tongues. And instantaneously the tongue felt the sweet taste of the fragrant earth, and desire arose in them. In this tasting of the sweet earth there arose a low desire in man. When they began to eat the sweet earth the divine effulgence of their bodies disappeared. When the effulgence of their bodies vanished they felt darkness all round, and fear came over them. And they all willed and cried " let there be light" ; and they saw the light of the sun. And when the light of the sun disappeared, they were afraid, and they cried again and said " let there be light", and they saw the light of the moon. Both these lights appeared synchronously. And they saw the stars and the constellations, and now they cam? to know of the Day and of the Night. They came to know of the changes in the seasons and of the year. . For a very long period man continued to eat the sweet creamy earth, and the development of the earth continued on. Some human beings began to lose the beautiful complexion of their bodies ; and the differentiation of colour arose. And those that did not lose their complexion began to despise those that had lost their colour. And thereupon appeared in man Pride. And when pride appeared in man the sweet fragrance of the earth was lost. v

, And when they witnessed that the earth had lost the sweetness, they assembled in one place, and they began to express their grief in uttering the words " Oh we have lost the sweetness, Oh we have lost the sweetness". And man found that he had no more sweet earth to eat, and he then found a kind of fungi springing up from the earth. t


' And when the fungi appeared on the earth, the watery nature of the surface of the earth had entirely disappeared. And the earth was dry ground, and for a long time man lived, eating the fungi which sprouted from the ground. And there was a second disappearance of colour, and the beauty o f their complexion vanished. And those that had lost their colour were despised by those whose colour was not lost. With the continued increase of pride in man there disappeared also the self-evolving eatable fungi. And man found in the place of the fungi, a kind of rice that grew on dry ground, and they began to eat this rice which was sweet scented. With increased desire and pride and eating the rice of the hill paddy, there came signs of femininity, and masculinity. And there came in both a desire and they continued gazing at each other in an unusual manner, and the woman began to look at the man, and the man began to look at the woman ; And this mutual gazing brought forth in the heart of man and woman passion. And this passion grew, and the desire came in them to have sexual intercourse, and the desire was fulfilled. And this intercourse was held not in private, and when others saw the act, they threw at them earth mud, handful of ashes, and cowdung, and said how can a human being commit such an act on another human being ? And as time went on they forgot the unrighteousness of the act, and to commit the act they began to build houses. And there arose in some the feeling of laziness, and thought why should I bring rice twice daily. It is only giving me trouble. So saying he brought enough rice to last the whole day. To the man who had the store of rice another man came, and said, friend let us go to bring rice, and the man who had the rice said I have enough, and I do not want to go again. And the other man thought why should I not follow this man's example, so saying he also stored up for the day. Whereby man came to know the value of storing up. With the storing up there was a further deterioration in the sweetness of the rice.



Then man began to hold assemblies and began saying, we have departed from righteousness. They began to talk of the fall from their angelic condition ; and now they said we must not be reckless but we must now economise. And they began to say : this is my share, this is my share. And one man keeping his own share in safety, went and took by stealth another man's share. And the other men caught him and said thou hast done an im­ proper act, and they exhorted him and said do no such thing again. And he assented, and again went and did the same thing. Then some of them advised him, some beat him with their fists. And when men began to steel more and more they began to punish the culprit. And with the increase of sinfulness and evil deeds they assembled again and said : Let us come together and elect a man, who will do the work' of a judge, who will punish us when we do wrong, and rebuke us when we need it. And they all went to a man who was most beautiful, good to look at, powerful, and said, Excellent being, lead us righteously and we shall give thee a share of our rice ; and he assented. And the men came together and elected the man in public assembly, and he was called " the great Elect". Section II—Aryadbarma


of Sakyamuni Gautama Buddba, 1 9 1 7


Evolution from the Standpoint of Buddhism

BUDDHISM is the oldest of historic religions. Brahmanism is an aristocratic cult for the twice born with rituals and ceremonies requiring a specialized priesthood to worship the different gods of the Brahmanic pantheon. The two lower castes are not recognized by the Brahmanical priesthood. Zoroastrianism is also a specialized cult admitting only the born Zoroastrian. It is like Judaism seeks no •converts. Brahmanism too is not seeking converts, and the Vedanta whose chief exponent was Sankaracharya admitted no low caste within its pale. Vedanta in America is a kind of hybrid which is unrecognized by the orthodox pandits of India. Jainism is too ascetic t o become a universal religion ; Confucianism and Taoism both products of China are not made for universal consumption, and Shintoism is only for the native of Japan. The three universal religions are Buddhism, Christianism and Islamism. The elements of universalism are found in the Dhamma promulgated by the Sakya Prince Siddhartha, who 2 5 1 4 years ago became the all-enlightened Buddha, ' the Teacher of gods and m e n ' as He is known to the Buddhists. The golden mean avoiding the extremes of asceticism and sensualism was the ethic that the Buddha showed to the people of India without distinction of creed and sex and colour and race. The western world came to know of Buddhism after the British had established themselves in India and Ceylon. The missionaries who had gone to Ceylon to preach the religion of Jesus were the first to study popular Buddhism, and the first scientific exposition was given to Europe by Eugene Burnouf, the French Oriental scholar. Max Muller, Sir Edwin Arnold, Rhys Davids, presented Buddhism in the ethical form. They understood only the theory of Buddhism, not the practical application of its moral code in the Buddhist countries of Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Japan, &c. Buddhism is the religion of the masses in Ceylon, Japan, Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, Arakan, Chittagong, Sikkhim, Bhutan, and Nepal. India •ceased to be Buddhist since the conquest of India by the Moslem 433

invaders 800 years ago. The colleges, universities, libraries, great temples of exquisite beauty and the stupas 200 feet high were all destroyed by the vandals who were enemies of aesthetic art. After a suspense of seven centuries the Buddhists of Ceylon and Burma have started an organization called the Maha Bodhi Society which is doing good work since 1891 and there is every hope that Buddhism will again return to its birthplace to ameliorate the conditions of the teeming millions who are sunk in the mire of ingorance and slavery. Brahmanism ignores the low born, but the Buddha in His great mercy admitted them all into the sacred Order of monks known as the Sangha. The holy monks wearing the yellow robe crossing the mountains and seas went to distant lands and converted the people to the Good Law of universal love and created a Greater India, with Buddhagaya and Benares as the centres of the great Faith. The teachings of the Buddha are very little known in the west, and now that science is making great strides it is proper that the Americans should know of the attitude that the Buddhist takes regarding the Darwinian exposition of the origin of species. Buddhists are taught not to believe dogmas and unscientific beliefs, and that belief that does not rest on the basis of the immutable law of cause and effect is rejected as unscientific. In the Digha Nikaya, Suttapitaka, in the discourse called Agganna sutta, the Buddha enunciated the views of the ancient Aryans on the Evolution of Species in opposition to Brahmanical view which posited a creator in the person of the Creator Brahma. The Brahman view is that Brahma created the Brahmans from his mouth, the Kshattriyas from his arms, the Vaishyas from his knee, and the Sudras from his feet. The Buddhist view is that the universe goes through a universal destruction after each mahakalpa, which has twenty minor kaplas, and the duration of a kalpa is expressed in a story of the rock which is a league in width and a league in length, and an angelic being once in a hundred years comes down and sweeps the rock with a silken garment, and the time that is taken to wear away the rock is the period of a kalpa. The number of solar systems (cakkavala) is beyond calculation, the number of habitable worlds is (ananta) endless and the number of loka dhatu is also beyond computation, and the meaning of loka dhatu is either elements which g o to make up the future solar systems. In a sutta it is said that one billion world systems are in spiritual touch with this world of 434

ours, and it is possible to transmit our spiritual thoughts to them if we are pure in mind and body. Physical eyes have not the power to see spiritual beings, and the Rishis of ancient India by a psychical process discovered the way by thought illumination to extend the vision to distant spheres. This process of sublimating the sense organs is practised by the adepts who for a number of years learn the science of Iddhi. Countless millions of years ago the earth became habitable for men and animals, and sentient living beings came to this earth from another world. Man was at the beginning of the world sexless, and after long periods differentiation of sex took place. The earliest buman beings before the sex differentiation took place had spiritual bodies, and by their own glory they illumined the earth. When they had shown desire to eat the food that was produced from the earth and had eaten it their spiritual nature disappeared and became materia­ lized. Darwinian evolution is more acceptable to Buddhists than the Genesis theory of the mud man created by a deity who had agricultural tendencies. The necessity of a creator is not felt in as much as the cosmic process continues from eternity and man had for untold ages a human ancestry. Each one had a human father, and the latter had a father and he had a father, ad infinitum, and from kalpa to kalpa man can trace a human ancestry. For a hundred years one may go on counting the evolutions and devolutions of the cosmic universe but the beginnings could never be reached. In the Light of Asia by Edwin Arnold we read :— " Our Lord attained Abhidjna—insight vast Ranging beyond this sphere to spheres unnamed, System of system, countless worlds and suns ". Book the Sixth. Biology became a recognized science in the west only in the second •or third decade of the nineteenth century, while the Buddha taught the biological view of life 2,500 years ago showrng how the conscious­ ness associates itself with the germ cell in the mother's womb, and how evolution takes place week after week of the dying man ceases -only to be reborn by the force of karma in another life in the germ •cell brought into existence by sexual contact of the parents. The rebirth of consciousness is explained in the Abhidharma books, which -are still sealed to western scholars. The Buddhist teachings on mystic 435

psychology are of profound, interest, but nihilism, sensualism and materialism are stumbling blocks to a proper understanding of the subject. The mystic psychology of Buddhism deals with the supercosmic. It explains the never ending evolution of the human mind life after life. The gods are not eternal. They are bom and after millions of years they die and are reborn again, and the process goes on from kalpa to kalpa. Why are congenital idiots, the feeble minded, deaf, dumb, insane born ? Theology says that the present human being was created for the first time and after death he either goes to an eternal heaven or an eternal hell, and this monstruously unjust interpretation of human evolution keeps millions upon millions in a state of animality. Man by his previous good karma reaps the reward here on this earth, and those who suffer reap the fruits of the evil that they had sown in the past. We reap here what we had sown, and what we sow here we shall reap in the next life or in after lives* Karma, Rebirth and Nirvana are the fundamentals that the Buddha enunciated for the welfare and happiness of intelligent people who are not bound by the fetters of rituals, asceticisms, soul theories and rdhilistic doubts. Every thought when associated with the good is a potential karma-seed which gives good fruit in an after life, and every thought associated with lust, stupidity or anger becomes a potential karma for evil in after life, and sometimes in this life. Death bed conversion is a Buddhistic doctrine incorporated into the dogmatic theology of other religions. A murderer can be transformed into a saint if he sincerely repents and avoids doing evil as we see in the story of the robber Angulimala. Karma done under the influence o f wisdom belongs to the supercosmic realm, and karma done under the influence of nescience belongs to the cosmic realm. The angels fell, and the son of god has to come down to die for the sins of others—are explained in Buddhist psychology. Satan according to theological dogmatics is to suffer eternally, but according to Buddhist psychology one day he too will be saved. Both heavens and hells are not permanent, only Nirvana is permanent, and the vision of Nirvanic happiness can be first realized here in perfect consciousness, provided the aspirant can give up low desires and attune his mind in the sublime states of perfect charity, perfect love and perfect wisdom, love of solitude, renunciation and self abnegation. Selflessness is the panacea to realize the happiness of Nirvana. The atom is changing, the universe is changing, the human body is changing with lightning rapidity, consequently there is nothing to call mine in the cosmic


plane. I, you, me are expressions in the cosmic plane, in the supercosmic plane these expressions have no meaning. Compassion is needed to acquire supernal wisdom to realize Nirvana. The westerns can gain celestial happiness but never the supreme happiness o f Nirvana because they do not cultivate the divine quality of mercy to animals. According to the teachings of the Blessed One there is the conditioned and the unconditioned. The later belongs to the plane of asankhata, beyond calculation, and Nirvana belongs to the unborn and uncreated, and to the category of the uncreated belongs akasa, other space, and at each maha kalpic destruction every thing material is reduced to cosmic dust. The heavens up to the abhassara world are destroyed, and after a long period extending to a minor kalpa, the reconstruction of the solar system-begins in slow degrees. There is only one in the universe who is able to solve the cosmic problem, and such a one is called an omniscient Buddha, and the Buddha Gautama whom the Buddhists accept as the Teacher of gods and men, became Buddha because of His absolute selfsacrifice for the good of Humanity for many million incarnations extending to four maha kalpas and He found out that man suffers because of his ignorance of the Four sublime Truths, which show the existence of suffering, pain, misery, grief, lamentation, despair in the cosmic process. Enlightenment alone can bring happiness which is eternal. The gods too are ignorant, because of their ignorance they repent and show vengeance and they have their desires to receive worship from man. Ignorance and foolish desires are the causes that produce suffering in the mind of man. Why does the consciousness of man come into being ? Why should there be old age, disease and dissolu­ tion of the body on this earth ? The creation theory does not solve the problem of human misery. We have to remove the causes of human misery, and no God had explained the method. The Prince of Kapilavastu by His great renunciation and absolute selfsacrifice found the cause and the destruction thereof. The rebirth of the human consciousness is explained fully in the mystic manual called theVisuddhimagga. This earth is fulbof half-insane people, who bring all the misery into existence. The twelve causes which produce death, disease, &c. are given in the Pali books, and their solution is also shown. Mystic transcedental illumination is necessary to destroy, the ignorance which envelopes the human mind. Religions are puppet shows to satisfy the ignorant mind. The earth is several thousand million years old, and it is not a satisfactory explanation to


say that the human entity as an individuality had only one existence on this earth. Where is the justice in the doctrine when we see so many millions of insane, ignorant, feebleminded, deaf, dumb, crippled, blind, suffering from incurable diseases on this earth, and the semisavage half-animal people of Africa ? Are they all to go after death to an eternal hell-fire ? The enlightened mind revolts at this monstrous injustice. The scientific doctrine of Cause and Effect is immutable and its corollary the doctrine of Karma and vipaka, explains the deficiencies of theological dogmatics, invested by unscientific men of the past. Fundamentalism and Evolutionism as enunciated by Darwin are both insufficient to satisfy human aspirations. Ceremonial religion and rituals are only for the muddle-headed. We are not isolated on this earth, but are companions of angelic beings who have their habitations in starry realms. Analyse and you will see that the Creator gods of man-made religions had their habita­ tions on the back part of some mountain in some arid region, and the promulgators of religions were not philosophers or scientifically trained. Truth can be fearlessly declared in countries politically independent, and a subject race can produce no truth-declarer because of the prison that awaits him. The Buddha enunciated the truth of human freedom to a people politically free, when India was the beacon light of the then civilized world. Those truths are today hidden from the public gaze, and all religions today are in the possession of moral degenerates who love money more than Truth and Righteousness. Without mercy to all living beings there can come no wisdom to the human mind. We pray for our daily bread, and to whom can the cattle and the innocent animals who do no harm to man pray ? The gods are helpless to help the helpless. (MBJ Vol. 34, Apr.-Moy,




Buddhism, Science and Christianity

Every new discovery in the domain of Science helps for us to appreciate the sublime teachings of the Buddha Gautama. What is greatly to be deplored is the attitude of certain European Oriental Scholars who condemn Buddhism without serious study. The Semitic religions have neither psychology nor a scientific back ground. Judaism was an exclusive religion intended only for the Hebrews. It is a materialistic monotheism with Jehovah as the architect of a limited world. Christianity is a political camouflage. Its three aspects are politics, trade and imperial expansion. It's weapons are the Bible, barrels of whisky and bullets. It is a religion of ethical contradictions. The old war god of the Jews is yoked withthe camouflaged god of love. Whose characteristics are that of a veritable autocrat sending countless millions of people to an eternal hell of fire and brim stone. He enriches the Kingdom of his enemy the Satan by increasing the population of hell by thousand fold. Jesus is camouflaged as the prince of peace, whilst his actions show him to be a personality with an irritable temper. His very disciples forsook him at the critical moment when he prayed for help. He died praying to his g o d confessing his ignominious failure. He never intended except to be the king of kings. His denunciations of the Pharisees, Scribes, high priests, lawyers, sadducees show him to be an impatient political visionary. He sopke of the coming destruction of the world which was to take place during the life time of his contemporaries. His prophetic vision was inaccurate. He later on contradicted by his actions and speech the ethics of the socalled sermon on the mount. He said that he did not come except to save the lost sheep of the house of Israel. He declared that he did not come to judge and yet later on elected himself judge to the quick and the dead on the last judge­ ment day. The god of love that he preached was the god who was to send the people to an eternal hell of fire. The parables that 439

he used to illustrate his teachings were all based on hatred, and destructive fury. He was an exorcist by profession, and showed that, he was devoid of compassion by his cruel behaviour in sending 2000 hogs to be drowned in the sea. His vision being blurred he cursed the fig tree because it did not produce fruits, although it was not the season. His conception of the universe was that of a bush doctor. He had no spiritual perspective of an after life. He thought that heaven had doors which could be opened and closed. The material­ istic conception of heaven is indicated by his exuberant verbosity in appointing Peter as the door keeper of heaven whose key was •entrusted to him. The narrowness of his spiritual vision is manifest by the hatred that he showed soon after he had blessed Peter. That his temper was very violent is shown by his turbulent behaviour at the temple, which aroused the passions of the mob. He was rude towards his mother, not once, but thrice. Perhaps he was angry with his mother becuase she could not tell him whose son he was. He did not teach a very high morality, and violated the elementary principles of morality. He was unclean in his habit. His companions were socially and morally low. He spoke of a heaven which was to last for ever, and yet he said that heavens and earth may pass away. The ethics of Christianity have not helped the nations of Europe to sublimate their ideas which effect the progress of humanity. Europe grovelled in darkness until the light of physical science began to dawn. The penal laws of England down to the period of the Reforms in 1832 are an indication of the barbaric perspective of human fife. Morality was ignored. The aristocrats treated the proletariat class as if the latter had no human rights. For stealing a chicken the thief was hanged. The low state of morality among the plutocrats in England in the eighteenth century is an indication of the want of vitality in Christianity to civilize a nation. The boasted progress that is to be seen in Europe is due to the discoveries in the realm of physical science. The science of psychology has made no tangible impression as yet in the European Consciousness. Alcoholism and brutality are the dominating virtues bequethed as a Christian legacy to the nations of Europe. 440

Bucaneering piracy in high seas, a consummating gadalism which sees nothing aesthetic in what they destroy had been the characteristics of the adventurers that sailed to distant lands in search of gold. They were grounded in ethics of destruction according to the barbarous mosaic law of Semitic Jurisprudence. With what savage fury the Jews destroyed the tribes that inhabited the Jordan valleys we learn from the books of Joshua and the Judges. With revolting diabolism Jehovah dictated the institutes of destruction. The old testament is a record of savage immorality suited only to a low type of human society. The God of Horeb is a monstrosity lacking the symmetrical features of a divine figure. The command of Moses not to make an image of the jealous Jehovah has a touch of humour. The figure o f Jehovah could not be represented since certain portions of the divine anatomy are wanting to make it symmetrical in shape. Jehovah could only be represented by his back parts. He did not desire t o show his face, he was willing to show his backparts exclusively. Jehovah's features are also given in the Revelations as seen by John who was a victim of psychic hallucination as was the case with Paul, who thought he saw Jesus when he fell down in a fit on his way to Damascus. The whole story of the conversion of Paul is a concoction of a later age. The ecclesisatical myth makers of the early Christian Church were like the modern Theosophists who create their Mahatmas to suit the imagination of the deluded. There are certain temperaments which take delight in the experiences of psychic delusion. The veteran liar who denied Jesus thrice had the audacious impudence to exact all the money which poor Ananias had in his saving bank. Peter is responsible for the death of both Ananias and Saphira. That was a story manufactured with a view to elccesiastical gain. It is a case of criminal intimidation. The ethics of Juridical psychologies cannot but condemn the method adopted by the veteran liar who denied his master thrice. Paul served him right in the rebuke administered to Peter in the epistle to Galatians by exposing his hypocrisy. Paul had no direct authority from Jesus and yet he founded a church which was opposed to the principles of Jesus who did not want that his disciples should preach his doctrine to the Gentiles. 441

The British people today take a pride in calling themselves Aryans. There is a spiritualized Aryanism and an anthropological Aryanism. The Brahmans by enunciating a system of Griha Sutras called those people only Aryans who lived in the territory known as Bharatvarsha. Those who did not conform to the sacred laws were treated as Mlechhas. Buddhism is a spiritualized Aryanism. The ethics of the Bible are opposed to the sublime principles of the Aryan Doctrine promulgated by the Aryan Teacher. We condemn Christianity as a system utterly unsuited to the gentle spirit of the Aryan race.

(MBJ Vol. 32 April1924)


47. A n Appreciation of Christianity* T H E wonderful activity of the Christian clergy I appreciate. T w o thousand five hundred years ago the great Aryan Saviour, the Lord Buddha began his mission to save the world from sorrow, old age, decay and death. His band of disciples were ordained in this wise : G o ye O Bhikkhus and wander forth for the welfare of the many, for the profit and welfare of gods and men. Preach the Doctrine glorious, sweet in the beginning, sweet in the middle, sweet in the end, both in letter and spirit. For 200 years the Aryan Bhikkhus confined their labours to India only, and in the 236th year of the parinirvana of the Holy One the Bhikkhus crossed over the frontiers and went to distant lands to preach the Good Law, and 2234 years ago the son of the great Buddhist Emperor Asoka, and his daughter the princes Sanghamitta came over to my country, Ceylon, and established Buddhism, planting also the Branch of the sacred Bo-Tree which was brought from Buddhagaya. The Tree and the Good Law are still flourishing in the beautiful island, and I have come to this land of a noble people to tell them of the sweet things which the Aryan Saviour taught to the noble Aryan people of India, 2500 years ago. For 1500 years Asia did not hear of the teachings of the Prophet of Nazareth, and for the first time the Roman form of Christianity was forcibly established in certain parts of West India and Ceylon by the Portuguese. 158 years later a reformed Protestant Christi­ anity was established in Ceylon by the Dutch, and in 1818 the British established denominational Christianity which now exists. There are three missionary religions ; Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. The two latter belong to the Semitic family, while Buddhism belongs to the Aryan family. It is called the Arya Dhamma. For * Lecture delivered in the Temple 3rd October, 1927 at the City in London.


nearly 100 years the British Christian Societies have been working in the island, especially in teaching Sinhalese youths, and the harvest had been great. The Buddhist temple schools were closed by order of Government in 1870, and Buddhist children for the first time were removed from their spiritual elders and entrusted to alien hostile teachers. The Sinhalese being loyal to discipline when it emanates from the rulers, allowed the long established order to be broken after a continuity of 2177 years. The moral foundations were shaken, and the results have been disastrous. Activity is the cosmic law, and our Lord Buddha made it the princi­ pal teaching of His religion. Love, self-sacrifice for the welfare of others, compassion for the weak, love for all, and analytical investi­ gation of truth, the evils of nihilistic beliefs, the unending re-evolu­ tions of the cosmic process, the freedom from passions, and unswerv­ ing faith in the powers of righteousness were emphasised. For 49 years, that is from His 29th year to the 80th year, the gentle, Prince Siddhartha led the holy life, six years of which were spent in supreme self-sacrifice of both body and mind. The surpemely holy life is of unending charm, and to the Christian who loves Jesus for his sacrifice during the period of his three years activity, to know something of the sublime teachings of the Buddha will be to strengthen his faith in the wondrous power of love and selfabnegation. From my infancy I was brought up in an atmosphere of religion. My earliest teachers were Roman Catholic fathers, and then I had two years training in a church missionary boarding school, where I was daily fed with in Biblical stories, and Adam, Abel, Noah, Shem Ham and Japhet, Abran, Isaac, Jacob, Laban, Samuel, David, Absolam, Jonathan, Elisha, Elijah, Isaiah, Hezekaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Shadrech, Meshack, Abednego and other Hebrews for some time became my- daily companions. Then I had five years, training in a Church of England school, and I remember when I was asked by Revd. Warden Miller to become a Christian, I told him that I didn't like the Old Testament, but that I liked the New. For more than a quarter of a century the Bible accompanies me wherever I go. I compare the stories of the Buddhist books with the stories of the 444

Bible. I compare the teachings of Jesus with the teachings of the Buddha, his parables with the Buddhist parables, his ethical and psychological teachings with the ethics and psychology of Buddhism. Thereby I have been greatly benefitted in the intuitional acceptance of Truth. Sometimes I identify myself with Christian teachings so much so that I desire to make an effort to reform Christianity just as Paul did, who had not seen Jesus physically, but had the boldness to challenge and crush Cephas, the personal discipline of Jesus. I am in sympathy with Bishop Core, and I would suggest to ignore the stories of the O. T. as divine scriptures. As folklore stories of a nomadic people we •should treat the Old Testament. The pure teachings of the gentle Nazarene we have to sift from the later theological accretions, and then we can make Jesus a central figure in the universal church of truth. Science is progressive, while theology belongs to a decadent age. Buddhism is progressive because it did not touch on theologi­ cal dogmatics, neither was it agnostic. It taught a discipline and enunciated generalized cosmic truths. The ethics of the sermon on the Mount is of universal application, the miracles we could easily ignore because Jesus himself repudiated them as we see in his answer to the man who prided'himself in having worked them. " I never knew you depart from me ye that work iniquity." The witness of the prophets is not needed to show the •divinity of Jesus, for the law and the prophets prophesied until John. Missionaries who work to forcibly convert children in Buddhist lands ought to learn the words of condemnation of Jesus as given in Matthew oh. 18, v. 1-6. Matthew chap. 1 5 , v. 11-20 are in harmony with Budddhist ethics. Matthew ch. v. 18-21 have a verisimilitude. The •command that Jesus gave to his disciples in Mark ch. 6, v. 7 - 9 , harmonises with the discipline of the Lord Buddha. The civilized races of Asia trace their simple ethical economics to the influence of the Buddha's gentle teachings. The scientific sensualism which i now spreading must be combatted by a higher science, not by theogical dogmatics. To save Christianity we have to put new wine into new botdes ; and when we change our immoral passions we become new, and then we can assimilate new truths. Modern science is the friend of the active worker. We must be active in changing s


our old nature, and Buddhists would be glad to work with Christian teachers. I am the first Buddhist missionary to England and our Maha Bodhi Society intends to erect the first Temple in London shordy. Come and see is the motto of the Lord Buddha. Self reliance, activity in doing good, renunciation of sensual passions and freedom from dogmas are the essential principles of Buddhism. (MBJ Vol. 35, Dec. 1927)


48. Buddhism and Christianity T H E Religion of the Lord Buddha is now on its trial. Materialistic and other opposing forces are at work to undermine the noble teachings of the Tathagato. The religions that are against Buddhism are many. When the Lord began His great work of human and divine redemption in India, Europe and American had not the civilization that they now represent. Greece and Rome were the two countries that had a civili­ zation in that early period of the world's history. Roman and Grecian civilization originally was Oriental. The religions they professed were not Semitic. They had a similarity wth the religions of the Aryan population of India. Jupiter, Zeus and other gods had their counter­ parts in the Indian patheon. The dress that the Greeks and the Romans wore were quite Indian. The flowing robes of the men and the dress of the women in both countries had their prototypes of India. Their customs were similar. The Imperialism which was visible in later times among the Romans had its origin in India. The great Buddhist Emperor Asoka represented the Indian type of imperialism while Alexander represented Hellas. Asoka accomplished the extension o f his empire by means of righteousness. In his edicts the good Emperor speaks of a polity based on righteousness. In his edicts he used the word Dhamma which meant the law of Righteousness, that supreme Law higher than the worship of gods. Five hundred years before the birth of Jesus, Indian civilization had penetrated into the western countries as far as Greece. Greece and Rome had communication also with China. In the countries of Central Asia East and West had a common meeting ground. The philosophy of the great Grecian thinkers when compared with the philosophy of contemporary Indian thinkers show a common basis. At the uni­ versity of Taxila students of the Ionian and Aryan schools met and exchanged ideas. Christianity was not recognised by the great thinkers of either Rome or Greece. When Christ died there were only eleven disciples, and they were all of humble birth. Contemporary historians of Rome and( Asia Minor knew nothing of the religion of Christ. The great event in the life of Christ was his going up to heaven and his resurrection. 447

Both these phenomenal occurrences had they happened at the time in Palestine surely ought to have become widely known. Where was Paul at the time when Jesus was crucified ? The man who made such virulent attacks on the body of Christians where was he at the time of the alleged crucifixtion ? We hesitate to believe that so soon after the crucifixtion Paul had become the omnipotent missionary, travelling all over the countries in Asia Minor, Rome and other places, in making proselytes to Christianity. In the declining days of the Roman empire Christianity became the religion of the helots. To the Romans like Marcus Aurelius Christianity was a superstition. There was nothing especially sublime in the teachings of Christ. His parables show him to be a man of limited knowledge. He could not have been a student of agriculture. N o sower in Asia would go sowing seeds on barren and rocky ground. In Asiatic countries the farmer first prepares the ground by ploughing, before he sows the seed. What precautions the sowers take when sowing the seed. It is evident Jesus had not seen cultivators working in a rice field. His parable of the sower is one instance of his ignorance. Similarly no experienced agriculturist would follow the example of Jesus who advised the men to allow the tares and the wheat to grow together. His reason was lest while ye gather up the tares ye root up also the wheat with them. The wise farmer as soon as he sees the wild tares growing he would have them rooted out lest his crop should be lessened by the growth of the tares. The parable of the householder " it is not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own " is opposed to all justice. The householder engages a number of men early morning to pay each a penny for the day's work ; at the third hour he goes out and engages another batch and says that whatsoever is right I will give you. At the sixth hour and the ninth hour he went out and engaged another batch ; at the eleventh hour he went again and engaged the last batch. When the time came to pay their hire how does the householder pay them ? The man who worked for the whole day got a penny, and who came at the eleventh hour was also paid a penny. When the men of the first batch murmured what does the householder of' divine socialism' say ; ' is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own ?' Matt. 20. Analyse the parable of the king who pardoneth a servant who had owned him ten thousand talents. First the king commanded that the wife and children and all that the man had, to be sold, and-when the servant fell down and worshipped him the lord was moved with compassion and loosed him. So far good, but when the same servant treated his fellow servant unkindly and put him into prison till he would pay his debt, the latter's friends went to the king and complained about the injustice of the man. What does the king do ? Instead of exhorting the man and showing him the way how best to treat the 448

debtor, he does the very thing what the servant had done to his fellow servant, making the tormentors to punish the man. Jesus by this parable shows that the heavenly Father shall punish those who do not forgive their brethren. Immoral man becomes the example of the heavenly Father. Jesus was not a friend of the rich. He ordered a certain man who wished to be perfect to sell all that he had and to follow him. The inconceivable is that Jesus should say that a rich man shall hardly enter the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 1 9 . How different is Buddhism. The Lord Buddha had some of the wealthiest in the land as His disci­ ples, and they gave away all that they had and followed the Lord. The Blessed one taught the householders as to the manner that wealth should be distributed. He never expected impossible things from His disciples, and his ethics were within the range of human possibilities. Unworkable ethics we find in several places in the teachings of the Nazarene Carpenter. The parable of the husbandmen wherein they get together and beat the servants of the owner of the winepress, each time the owner sent his men should be analysed. When at last the owner sent his own son expecting that he will be treated with reverence, the men got together put him out of vineyard, and slew him. Applying this parable Jesus shows that the kingdom of God shall be taken from the Jews and given to aliens. What we see in the parable is the utter foolishness of the owner, and his want of prudence in sending his son alone to meet the husbandmen. It is evident that Jesus at first had no idea of salvation of any other people except the Jews. The parable in Matthew, chap. 22, is of the king who wished his subjects to come to his son's wedding, and although asked, they would not attend. Again he sent more of his messengers to the people and they would not come. But they did more, they got toge­ ther and killed the king's servants ; and the king when he heard thereof, he was wroth and sent forth his armies and destroyed the men and burnt their city. The king again sent his men to the highways to get men for his son's marriage. The king came and found a man who had not a wedding garment. The king thereupon ordered his servants to get the man bound hand and foot and cast him into outer darkness. All that we see in this parable is that the king acted foolishly and that such as is given about the son's marriage could never have happened. It is inconceivable that a king's order to attend his son's marriage sould be unanswered by the people. When Jesus told the parable of the ten virgins, five of whom were foolish, what did he mean to convey ? Surely a Saviour comes to lead the foolish in the path of enlightenment. If the foolish are to be abandoned where is the necessity of a saviour. A compassionate saviour what other work has he except to save the ignorant. In the 449 17—

Bhagavat Gita Krishna says that he appears to save the righteous and to destroy the wicked. We say that the righteous need no saviour inasmuch as they can save themselves. If he came to destroy, the appellation of saviour is inapplicable to such a destroyer. The work of destruction belongs to the devil. No saviour should become the co-adjutor of the devil by giving him aid to increase his power. When a disappointed saviour threatens to send people to hell he only shows his weakness, and that he lacks patience and forgiveness. Jesus by the parable of the talents recognised usury. In that he showed his Jewish nature. The man who received five talents by trading added five more, and when the lord came the servant delivered unto him ten talents, and he was glad and praised the servant. The man who received one talent not being a speculator and afraid of being charged as a usurer, hid the talent, and when the master came delivered the talent to him with these remarkable words : " Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed, and I was afraid, and hid thy talent in the earth; lo, there thou hast that is thine. The answer of the master of usury is noteworth—' Thou oughtest therefore to have been the result if the man had lost the talent altogether ? Jesus applying the parable makes a monstrous prouncement in the following words ' for unto every man that that shall be given, and he shall have abundance, but from him that had not shall be taken away even that which he hath ' Matt, 25, 29, we are reminded here of the rich man destined to hell because of his wealth. There the man is punished because of his abundance here it is because of his poverty. What a merciless doctrine is that of Jesus that maketh men to go to an eternal hell because they have failed to believe that he is the son of the Arabian god, Jehovah. Neither he nor his god could be called merciful. No loving god would send countless millions to an eternal hell, even if he had the power. (MB/ Vol. 24, April 1915)



Christianity in Europe

I N the extreme west of the continent of Asia, beyond the Ural moun­ tains, the Christian nations today are engaged in a bloody war. France, England, Germany, Belgium, Russia, Austria, Servia, Turkey and Japan are the belligerents. They are fighting for worldly power. France, Belgium and Austria follow Christ according to the teachings of the Pope of Rome. Germany and England are opposed to the Catholic Church. They follow the Protestant form of Christianity. Russia follows Christ according to the teachings of the Greek Church. Christianity is an Oriental Semitic monotheism. Christ was an Asiatic Jew. He was the son of a Galilean Carpenter, and an un­ lettered man. The only claim he made to establish his personality was as the son of God. The Jews condemned him according to their laws as a blasphemer. His own brethren did not believe in him (John 7, 5). The people said :— "Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph whose father and mother we know, how is it then that he saith I came down from heaven. "— John 6, 42. "How knoweth this man letters having never learned ? "—John 7 , 1 5 . The highest ethical teaching that Jesus proclaimed was "If thou wilt be perfect sell all and give it to the poor. "—Matt 19, 2 1 . Jesus was a visionary who believed that the end of the world was going to be in his own lifetime, and therefore went about preach­ ing to the poor that the Kingdom of heaven is at hand. He said '^verily all these things shall come on this generation."—23. 36, He recommended usury.—Matt 25, 27. He did not wish to die—Matt 26, 39. He denounced in very strong language the Jews Pharisees, calling them vipers, &c.—Matt 12, 34. 451

He was an exorcist. He taught no philosophy. He followed the profession of an African rain-doctor.—Matt 10, i . He courted persecution. In one place he advocated fasting, in another place he taught that fasting was not essential. He preached the doctrine of the Sword and Discord—Matt 1 2 , 16. The parable of the sower which he used to illustrate his teachings shows him to be ignorant of the elements of agriculture. A mustard plant according to Jesus was a pretty large tree, for he talked of the birds of the air coming to roost.—Matt 1 3 , 32. Perhaps he never saw a mustard plant. Jesus was an egoist. He inquired of his own disciples what they thought of him—Matt 1 6 , 1 3 . Christianity has been a complete failure in Europe. During the middle ages the Papal domination kept the people in Ignorance. Darkness prevailed in Europe for nearly 18 centuries. Widi the birth of Modern Science theology received a blow, and materialistic theories gained ground. With the progress of scientific thought there came into being discoverers and inventors of new laws and deadly weapons. The contradictory teachings of Jehovah and Jesus were taught in schools and colleges along with physical science. Between theology and science there can be no reconciliation, no compromise. Theology is opposed to modern science. The former teaches a special creation, the latter an evolution. Science teaches the gradual evolution of man from lower types. Theology teaches that Jehovah created man from the dust of the ground. But for modern science Europe today would have remained stagnant as she had been for 19 centuries. Science helped to discover the laws of hygiene, sanitation, electricity. In ethics Europe made no progress. The Mosaic code laid down by an avenging G o d became the founda­ tion of European morality. Toleration of religious principles was inhabited. A despotic god was placed at the head of "creation". Here is the picture. "Understand therefore this day that the Lord thy God is he which goeth over before thee; as a consuming fire, he shall destroy them and he shall bring them down before thy face : so shalt thou drive them out and destroy them quickly."—Deut 9, 3 . "And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire, and he shall hew down the graven images of their gods."—Deut 1 2 , 3. "If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter or the wife of they bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying let us go and serve other gods, thou shalt not consent unto him, but thou shalt surely kill him. " — Deut 1 3 , 6, 8, 9. 452

"Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city -with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein with the edge of the sword."—Deut : 1 3 , I J . A despotic law of intolerance was inculcated bringing death upon man and woman for not worshipping Jehovah. According to the Judaic law it was death to worship any other god, as we see in Deut : *7, 5Jehovah was a kind of war lord, leading the Jews to fight against other races. 'For the Lord Your God is he that goeth with you, to fight for you against your enemies to save.' "And when the Lord thy G o d hath delivered it into thine hands, thou shalt smite every male thereof with the edge of the sword." "But of the cities of these people, thou shalt save nothing alive that breatheth."—Deut : 20, 3, 1 3 , 16, "See how that I, even I am he, and there is no god with me; I kill, and I make alive; I wound and I heal; neither is there any that can deliver out my hand."—Deut 32, 39, 42. "And it shall be when ye have taken the city, that ye shall set the city on fire according to the commandment of the Lord shall ye do." Joshua 8, 8. The word humanity was blotted out from the lexicon of the fighting Jehovah. 'He is the Lord God that fighteth for you.' Joshua 23, 10. Nevertheless he was a little terror stricken when he was confronted with the 'chariots of iron' Judges 1, 19. Jehovah out of the millions of people selected Abraham as his special favourite. Abraham did not lead an exemplary life. He was not truthful. He told a lie to Pharaoh and again to Abimelech to save his own skin, and the poor kings had to suffer for having taken Sarah to their harems. Abimelech would never have admitted Sarah within the portals of his palace had he not been told by Abraham that she was his sister. Abraham used the language of diplomacy when he said 'she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother and she became my wife. Jehovah was full of solicitude for the welfare of Sarah and in anger, 'he closed up the wombs the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife—Genesis 20, 18. Strange that the European nations have faith in a despotic deity whose barbaric nature is exhibited all through the Old Testament. Jehovah is a repenting god ; and on each memorable ocasion we find him repenting of his folly. Soon after the creation Jehovah 453

repented that he had made man. The question is what was Jehovah doing before he created the Earth, Heavens, Sun, Moon and Stars. Who created Water ? When the sprit of God was born it moved on the face of the waters. After the completion of each day's work Jehovah expresses his delight in the utterance of the solemn words : ' God saw that it was good '. After he had created man and woman in his own image on the sixth day he was glad and said ' beheld it was very good '. Genesis i, 3 1 . In the first chapter of Genesis G o d is represented as having made, beasts before man. In the second chapter first man, then the beasts, and later on woman. At the creation although God blessed Adam yet we find that Jehovah could not protect the first man from falling into evil. When he had failed to protect a single individual, how could we believe that he has power to protect a world. The first family showed disobedience, the first children showed a riotous spirit. Creation was an utter failure. Jehovah is an avenging god. The spirit of compassion is foreign to him, as we see in the following passages :— " And I the Lord have said I will surely do it unto all this evil congregation that are gathered together against me, in this wilderness they shall be consumed and there they shall die"—Numbers 14, 35. " There is the wrath gone out from the Lord, the plauge is begun— now they that died in the plague were fourteen thousand and seven hundred."—Numbers 17—46, 49. " An the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people and hang them before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel."—Numbers 25, 4. " Now therefore kill every male among the little ones and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him. But all women children that have not known a man by lying with him keep alive for yourselves. "—Number 3 1 , 1 7 . " Then ye shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you and destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their molten images and quite pluck down all their high places."—Numbers 34, 52. What was Jehovah doing before he created the world ? Before he created the heavens and the earth where did he live ? It is said in Genesis, chap. 1, verse 2, that the 'Spirit of God moved upon the face of waters.' What difference is there between spirit and God ? Is the Spirit separate from God ? Where was God before he created the earth and the heaven ? Did he create the waters also. If he did where on did his Spirit move. In the first chapter of Genesis, God 454

is said to have created man in his own image, and ' God saw every­ thing that he had made, and beheld it was very g o o d ' , mark the words ' it was very good An omniscient, omnipotent god having made the important pronouncement, left the earth it seems for some time, and in his absence the serpent came and upset the well laid scheme of Jehovah. Satan succeeded in converting the woman to his views, and muddle-headed Adam fell a victim to the agruments of his wife. They were both naked. But it was only after they ate the fruit, they found out that they were so. God returns to the scene of his first love and what does he find ? The creation over which he was delighted had become a cause of vexation. Satan had won his two children to his side. What was god doing when Satan was conversing with Eve ? Where was he ? Had he taken the pre­ caution to keep Satan off the grounds, and set the cherubim with the flaming sword to drive Satan away, how much better it would have been. It is like the man closing the doors of his stable after the horse had been stolen ? To understand the cruel nature of Jehovah it is good to read the twenty-sixth chapter of Leviticus. Here are a few passages : " And I will walk among you and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. I am the Lord your God which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen ; and I have broken the bonds of your yoke, and made you go up­ right. But if ye will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments, and shall despise my statutes, or if your soul abhor my judgements so that ye will not do all my commandments but ye break my covenant: I will do all this unto you I will even appoint over you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes..., and I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies, they that hate you shall reign over you And if ye walk contrary unto me I will bring seven times more plagues. I will send wild beasts among you which shall rob you of your children and destroy your cattle and I will bring a sword upon you ; and I, even I, will chastise seven times and ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat." The Lord God of the Israelites, in a moment futy, ' smote all the first born in the land of Egypt, from the first born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the first born of cattle. ' Exodus 1 2 , 29. He made the Israelities to spoil the Egyptians by robbing them of their jewels. In the outlook, a weekly journal published in New York, of October 2 8 , 1 9 1 4 , there appears two poems, one under the title o f ' A Chant of Hate against England ' by Ernst Lissauer, which is pro-Germanic, the other entitled ' The Day ' by Henry Chappell, which is pro-British. 455

The fierce spirit of hatred exhibited in these two poems are beyond description. They show the diabolical spirit of the religion that Europe wish to spread in Buddhist lands. Here are a few of the verses— " Come, hear the word, repeat the word, Throughout the Fatherland make it heard. We will never forego our hate, We have all but a single hate. We love as one, we hate as one We have one foe and one alone— ENGLAND The pro-British poem runs thus : " You boasted the Day, and you tasted the day And now the Day has come ; Blasphemer, braggart, and coward all Little you reck of the numbing ball, The blasting shell, or the ' white arm's fall As they speed poor humans home. You spied for the Day, you lied for the Day And woke the Day's red spleen. Monster, who asked God's aid divine

Not all the waters of all the Rhine Can wash thy foul hands clean.

But after the Day there's a price to pay

Listen, and hear what He has to say : " Vengeance is mine, I will repay What can you say to God ? " The two Semitic religions that had their origin in Arabia and Palestine are responsible for the retardation of progress of the larger Humanity of Asia. Islam is responsible for the destruction of the 456

Aryan civilization of India. All that was beautiful in aesthetic architecture, built by the devotees of Aryan spirituality, went down with a crash, under the sledge hammer attack of Semitic monotheism. The two thousand years of Aryan culture was utterly destroyed by the Moslem vandals. Today we see two great nations, representatives of British and Germanic culture, tearing each others throats and both swearing at each other wrecking vengeance. Christianity has been an utter failure. To pronouncement made by Jesus that he hath not come to send peace on earth but a sword has come true. Since the day that he was born what cruelties had not been perpetuated in his name. His birth had been heralded by the slaughter of innocent babes by a decree of Herod. Jehovah, in order to save the Hebres in captivity under Pharaoh, set an example to despots, by slaughtering the Egyptian first born. Shelley compares Jehovah to an arch fiend. What atrocities the Christian nations have committed in the name of God and Jesus. But for the advancement of Europe in ethical and scientific ideas since the fifth decade of the last century, Europe would today be in medieval ignorance. Every progressive idea was refused a welcome by the ecclesiastical hierarchy at Rome. Slavery was held a necessity, and the fiendish brutes of European slave dealers embarked in vessels from the ports of Europe, to hunt African savages to be sold for slavery in the markets of the New World. The first British vessel that made the voyage to Africa to hunt helpless human beings received the blessings of the Christian clergy, and was christened Jesus ! The bucaneering pirates of Christendom with the patronage of Christian Sovereigns, sailed to unknown lands in search of gold. Wherever these fiendish brutes landed, they brought desolation and death to thousands of happy homes. Spain, Portugal, England and Holland since the sixteenth century, in the name of God and his son Jesus Christ had reduced half of Asia to a state of imbecility. Today the Kaiser is accused of bringing destruction to smaller independent states in Europe, and British statesmen are playing the role of saviours of smaller nations. In a telegram dated London, December 1 5 , we read the following :— Earl Halsbury a former Lord Chief Justice of England, in a speech at Westminster said the eighth commandment had a universal application. He protested against the plasphemous cant of any man who, thinking himself appointed by God seizes another's property. Any Emperor wanting to possess a world empire by seizing countries smaller than his own was a dirty thief, and ought to be hanged. He trusted the war would result in a general agreement that peoples established in their own countries shall not be disturbed, unless interference is fully justified.' Italics are ours. But who is to judge ? 457

Germany, a great power thinks she has a right to interfere with Belgium. England declared that she had a right to interfere with the Native Government of Burma. What is therefore now most needed is a kind of Hague Convention to safeguard the political and the national interests of not only the smaller states in Europe but also of Asia and Africa. Why should not the different nations of Europe co-operate with one another to help the progress of the world ? Why should only one nation enjoy the best fruits of human labour ? Socialism in Europe is individualistic. European socialists enunciate the individualistic view. They wish to see an end of capitalism, the establishment of the reign of Democratic Law, and the end of bureaucratic oligarchy. Wealth and power are the two weapons that can be used to tyrannise over an ignorant illiterate proletariat. A co-operative common wealth working for the welfare of the many and for the happiness of the many is the kind of institution that civilized humanity needs. Tremendous have been the efforts made by European nations within the last forty years in material civilization. What are the advantageous derived therefrom. A couple of millions of half civilized Asiatics have been made proselytes by the expenditure of millions of rupees. But the holocaust of the war before final peace is restored would perhaps be more than the number of Asiatics converted to Christianity. The ethical consciousness of modern Europe, it seems, has been blunted by the unrighteous use of murderous weapons whereby the independance of helpless races in Africa, Asia and Australia have been destroyed. (MBJ Vol. 23 Jan. daughter of the Indian emperor, and sister to the Arhat Mahinda. It is unique in religious history that a son and a dughter of a reigning emperor should be chosen for the conversion of a people. The Sinhalese people, as a whole, have for 2,214 years remained loyal to the saintly apostles of Buddhism and to the noble teaching that gave them an individuality so full of vitalising power that they have been able so far to withstand the sledge-hammer attacks levelled at their faith by persistent propagandists of other religions since the year 1505 of Christ. The first colony of Sinhalese, although in faith Sivite, yet has the tolerant principle prominent in them : for the first lord of the land built of the sectarians different temples for their respective worships. The royal aposde first preached an appropriate sermon showing the supremacy of the Tathagata (the " Great Teacher," i.e., Buddha) as the divine authority, who taught the doctrine of peace and immor­ tality ; and the foundation of the faith were by his strenuous advocacy so well laid that for fully 1,899 y teaching held supreme sway. The first paralysing blow it received was from the parricide Rajasinha. who reigned in Ceylon about the year of Christ 1552. Having killed his father, he embraced the Sivite faith, and " after that," so we are told in chapter 13 of the Mahavansa, " he began to destroy the religion of the conqueror by slaying its priests and burning its sacred books and breaking down its temples ; and thus did he bar the way that leadeth to heaven." e a r s

t m s


During the long period of Buddhist sway temporary outbreaks of this nature occasionally suspended for the time being the religiou's Continuity and prosperity of the people. But it was a common saying with the ancients that " Lanka remaineth not under the rule of kings that are followers of false creeds." An Anti-Buddhistic Invasion In the year 237 B.C. the Tamil invader, Elala, usurped the Sinhalese throne. But for several years anterior to that event there had been a supension of religious activities in the northern part of the island. The Tamils, fiercely antagonistic to Buddhism, committed acts of vandalism in the sacred city of Anuradhapura, and—for a time— there was none to deter them. At this cirsis there arose a wonderful prince, whose father was then reigning in Southern Ceylon. H e was in his prevoius birth a young Bikkhu (Buddhist monk), who, when dying, was solicited by the queen to be re-bom in her womb. Particulars of this phenomenal birth are given in the Mahavansa, chap. 22. This young prince, Gamini Abhaya, after he had reached maturity, made war upon the usurper, Elala. After a series of pitched battles, the Sinhalese prince defeated Elala in single combat and slew him on the battlefield. Then began the building of magnificient temples, dagobas (monuments), by the conqueror, who, reducing Lanka (Ceylon) under one rule, became king. From the worldrenowned ruins of these dagobas at Anuradhapura an idea of their original splendour may be obtained. The war that Gamini Abhaya waged with Elala was so a religious character and he made it known by a solemn proclamation that " this enterprise of mine is not for the pur­ pose of acquring the pomp and advantages of royalty. This undertak­ ing has always had for its object the re-establishment of the religion of the supreme Buddha. By the truth of this declaration may the arms and equipments of my army in the hour of battle flash, as if emitting the rays of the sun " (Mahavansa, chap. 25). It is said that one day when, after his victorious conquest the king was reflecting with dismay on the recollection of inumerable lives sacrificed in the attain­ ment of his end, eight holy saints (termed Arahats) came to him miraculously and administered spiritual comfort. And the king said, " Lords ! what peace of mind can there be left to me, when I have been the means of destroying great armies ?" And the saints answered " Supreme of men, ! Form the commission of that act there will be no impediment in the road to salvation. Herein no more than two human beings have been sacrificed ; the rest are heretics and sinners, who are on a par with wild beasts. And as thou wilt cause the religion of Buddha to shine forth in great splendour, on that account, O ruler of men, subdue thy mental affliction !" (Mahavansa, chap, 25). Thus was the king consoled, It was always a custom with the Sinhalese kings when engaged in wars to take with them the " sons 488

of Buddha," evidently to show that the wars were conducted in a spirit of religion. T o these rules nothing appeared more supreme than this religion, which was called the " religion of the conqueror," and was thus completely identified with the racial individuaHty of the people.

T h e Zenith of B u d d h i s m Impelled by the supreme force of the truth of the Dhamma (as Buddhism is termed in the Pali tongue), the youthful race of Ceylon, in the vigour of renewed vitality, engaged under the new king, in making themselves serviceable to their country and religion—a religion that suggested disinterested activity in the performance of benevolent deeds for the good of man and beast. Under King Gamini Abhaya, who had driven out the Tamil usurper, and as if by the waving of a magic wand, temples, tanks, parks, gardens, public baths, restinghouses for man and beast, hospitals—also for man and beast—free almoneries, schools, colleges for Bhikkhus and nuns, gymnasiums, and public halls were erected throughout the land. Free from foreign influences, untainted by alien customs, with the word of Buddha as their guiding light, the Sinhalese people lived a joyously cheerful life in those bygone times. Biographical sketches of men and women, descriptions of gorgeous processions circumambulating the city of Anuradhapura, are given in the Mahavansa and the Saddhammalankara records. There was dazzling magnificence within the sacred city, which contained nine-storeyed houses ; and the streets were crowded day and night by throngs of pilgrims and also traders from all parts of the then known world. The atmosphere was saturated with the fragrance of sweet-smelling flowers and delicate perfumes. Eleph­ ants, superbly caparisoned and with gilded howdahs on their backs, and chariots drawn by prancing steeds, paraded the wide ways of the city. The glittering spears, burnished helmets, and coats of iron of the cavalrymen, and foot soldiers armed with bows an arrows, were seen in the thorough-fares ; and the air reverberated with joyous shouts of" sadhu ! sadhu ! "("Hail! hail ! "). Such was the glorious period of Buddhism in Ceylon in the days when the foreigner was not in the land. Afterwards he was to come with his licensed opium dens, arrack taverns, whisky saloons, and butcher stalls for slaughtering animals. Under the Buddhist sovereignty there was no shedding of blood, and the killing of cattle was prohibited. But fish and game could be obtained and eaten., except on the " poya " days, which fell four times a month, coming with the changes of the moon. On these " poya " days the whole city presented a marvellous spectacle. The garb of religion was seen everywhere, and the whole population observed these holy days with fraternal rejoicings. The king himself wore the white robe of the ordinary Upasaka (novice) and ate the same food with the rest, thus exhibiting the spirit of brotherhood so much


emphasised in the Buddhist doctrine as requisite. On all festive days the king, " ever mindful of the welfare of the people " provided, at the four gates of the city, " numerous bath attendants, barbers, dressers, clothing, garlands of fragrant flowers, and savoury provisions", for the free use of his subjects. The dogs and other beasts were fed, and even rice for the ravens was provided. In the Mahavansa mention is made of several kings who gave bulls for the carrying of cripples ;. while lands were provided for the halt and the blind and the " well-born women who were widows ", and " hospitals for the treatment o f pestilential diseases, and dispensaries were also built" (Mahavansa, chap, 4 1 ) . These and many other things for the " welfare of the people of the land " the kings of old did for the acquisition of that" enviable body of glory that will endure for ever. " In the eleventh century after Christ the Sinhalese had a regular navy, a fleet of sailing vessels which was used forfighting purposes, and all the country round about the coast seemed "like one great workshop busied with the constant building of ships ". In those days the Sinhalese were famous for their knowledge of things that went to make a nation great. Their fleet that went forth to conquer Lower Burma—a most memorable expedition and achievement of bygone days—had a well-fitted hospital ship, and there were " physicians and nurses also. " Whatever the Sinhalese accomplished in their days of glory was done by the impelling force of the religion of Buddha, whose fundamental principles, to this day subscribed to by nearly five hundred millions of people in Asia (most of them in the Chinese Empire), may be summed up in these words : " Avoid all evil ; accomplish all that is good ; purify the heart". In its primitive purity, however, it is generally acknowledged that this religion is only to be found in the Southern Church of Buddhism, which is identified with Ceylon.

Definition of B u d d h i s m A more comprehensive definition of this wonderful Eastern doctrine is that it is a transcendentalism enunciating a refined code of evolutionary ethics and a metaphysical psychology. The promulgator of this religion is known as the Buddha Bhaghava, the Tathagata, the Sakya Muni. T o quote Sir Edwin Arnold's description in his great poem, " T h e Light of A s i a " " He is the Saviour of the world, Lord Buddha—Prince Siddhartha styled on earth— In earth and heaven and hells incomparable, All-honoured, wisest, best, most pitiful ; The Teacher of Nirvana and the law. " 490

In the Dhamma or Dharma (/'.

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